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Thread: Early Farmers from Across Europe Directly Descended from Neolithic Aegeans

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    Early Farmers from Across Europe Directly Descended from Neolithic Aegeans

    Anatolian and Greek origins of the European Neolithic populations.

    http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2016/06/01/1523951113

    Farming and sedentism first appeared in southwestern Asia during the early Holocene and later spread to neighboring regions, including Europe, along multiple dispersal routes. Conspicuous uncertainties remain about the relative roles of migration, cultural diffusion, and admixture with local foragers in the early Neolithization of Europe. Here we present paleogenomic data for five Neolithic individuals from northern Greece and northwestern Turkey spanning the time and region of the earliest spread of farming into Europe. We use a novel approach to recalibrate raw reads and call genotypes from ancient DNA and observe striking genetic similarity both among Aegean early farmers and with those from across Europe. Our study demonstrates a direct genetic link between Mediterranean and Central European early farmers and those of Greece and Anatolia, extending the European Neolithic migratory chain all the way back to southwestern Asia.

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    Confirming recent genetic findings that the peopling of Europe on the male line atleast happened primarily through Neolithic farmer migration west, not Iberian ice age refugee east.

    Catterick, what's your take on the Anatolian hypothesis? It seems to me to have become more plausible since these findings about the Neolithic came out.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Englisc View Post
    Catterick, what's your take on the Anatolian hypothesis? It seems to me to have become more plausible since these findings about the Neolithic came out.
    By now its 100% proven fact.

    Coon described Neolithic Europeans, who he called Danubian type, as small Mediterraneans. Later, Angel lumped Coon's Danubian in with his Cappadocian as his own Iranian-Mediterranean (intermediate between eastern Desert Mediterraneans and Coon's Irano-Afghan) the usual type of Neolithic Asia Minor represented by Catal Hoyuk.

    Coon states that there were coarser, more sexually dimorphic Megalithic or Galley Hill people in conjunction. These people are part of the Atlanto-Mediterraneans, Protomediterraneans or Eurafricans (these are overlapping/equivalent terms). The redated Combe Capelle (for example) would represent this racial stock as would Galley Hill itself.

    So, the osteological evidence as well as things like pottery (also described by Coon) predicted the genetic proof of a race of Atlanto-Mediterranean and mixed Iranian/Mediterranean food producing people emerging from Anatolia.

    Recent craniometric studies by Pinhasi reaffirmed the older anthro lit that central and eastern European people of the Neolithic resembled Anatolians closely, while further east white people were more diverse. This might only be explained by one or more migrations out of Asia Minor into Europe.

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    Seems most researchers agree that the neolithic populations and early farmers were darker than modern europeans, though how much darker isn't known. However, it appears the blue eye mutations occured in northern europe sometime around the late neolithic. I wonder if the genes for tallness and lighter skin may have been introduced in waves from the steppes?
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    Quote Originally Posted by hornedhelm View Post
    Seems most researchers agree that the neolithic populations and early farmers were darker than modern europeans, though how much darker isn't known. However, it appears the blue eye mutations occured in northern europe sometime around the late neolithic. I wonder if the genes for tallness and lighter skin may have been introduced in waves from the steppes?
    To imagine the pigmentation of the ancient Danubians and Cappadocians think of modern populations around the Mediterranean such as Greece and Turkey. Supposedly depigmentation came from the steppes with the Corded folk. Again like with his Cappadocians and Danubians, Coon regarded the Corded type as Mediterraneans whilst affirming they have particular Nordic affinities.

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    The cluster graph shows all Neolithic Europeans, early metal age Hungarians and Anatolians, and the living Sardinians are a cluster well apart from either European or Caucasus HGs from the UP and Mesolithic. The later Hungarians of the Bronze Age cluster instead with modern central Europeans showing more race mixture with Mesolithic survivors had occurred by that time.


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    Quote Originally Posted by Catterick View Post
    The cluster graph shows all Neolithic Europeans, early metal age Hungarians and Anatolians, and the living Sardinians are a cluster well apart from either European or Caucasus HGs from the UP and Mesolithic. The later Hungarians of the Bronze Age cluster instead with modern central Europeans showing more race mixture with Mesolithic survivors had occurred by that time.

    So modern Sardinians are almost a genetic relic of the Neolithic farmers. Looking at Google images, seems to me they have fairly typical southern European pigmentation.

    http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo/sar...-festival.html

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    No: Sardinians are within Neolithic farmers. Even the Basques are displaced away towards WHG just as the Cypriots and Levantines are towards CHG. In fact, the Basques are about as close to Neolithic Swedes as Balts are to Swedish Mesolithics.


    People like Coon and Eickstedt emphasised the Iberian and North African affinities of the Sardinians, but there is also a coarser Berid type among them with a broader face and nose. There must have been independant gracilisation in action on Sardinia and around the Mediterranean.

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