J Hum Evol. 1997 May;32(5):449-68.

A multivariate analysis of Pleistocene hominids: testing hypothesis of European origins.

Turbon D, Perez-Perez A, Stringer CB.

Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.

Multivariate analysis of intra- and inter-group variability in Middle and Upper Pleistocene human remains, based on facial traits, show close affinities between Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic samples, which are clearly distinct from Lower Palaeolithic and Neanderthal samples. The between-group differences observed were significant, although no sexual differentiation was considered. This allowed the classification of the fossil remains by discriminant analysis. A modern metrical pattern can be recognized for the Upper Palaeolithic sample, falling within the variability of anatomically modern humans. The samples from Skhul and Qafzeh, although exhibiting some plesiomorphous traits, also show modern-like metrical traits. The analysis strongly support a monophyletic origin for modern humans.