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Thread: Ancient Roman Dishes

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    You are not wrong, who deem / That my days have been a dream Johannes de León's Avatar
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    Cool Ancient Roman Dishes

    The following recipes are taken from an old Roman cookbook

    MARCUS GAVIUS APICIUS: DE RE COQUINARIA

    First I have to introduce you to some native Roman ingredients, such as:




    • Caroenum: Boiled must (you have to boil the new wine or grape juice until it is only half the amount you started with).
    • Defritum: Either thick fig syrup, or must that's boiled until you have only a third of the amount with which you started.
    • Liebstoeckl: Lovage. In Latin it is called 'levisticum officinale'. It's an umbelliferous plant with yellowish flowers. Its dried roots are used as spice. It seems to be a kind of celery.
    • Liquamen: a salty fish sauce. Most of the time you can replace it by salt.
    • Passum: Very sweet wine sauce, made by boiling the must (new wine or grape juice) to thicken it. (maybe add honey? - just my guess)
    • Poleiminze: A kind of mint that's growing in inundated areas. Just replace it by ordinary mint.
    • Saturei: Savory. In Latin it's called 'satureia hortensis'. It's a violet or white flowered kind of labiate plants which grows mainly in Southern Europe. It's used as a spice plant, especially for bean dishes; in Germany it is called the 'bean herb'.
    • Silphium: Its other names are 'Laser' or 'ferula asa foetida'. I've noticed that it's also called 'hing' in the Indian cuisine. It is an onion and garlic substitute and should be used rather sparingly because of its very strong taste and smell.
    And here are some useful conversions, taken from the FAQ maintained by mara@kauri.vuw.ac.nz (great job!)



    5ml = 1 tsp
    15ml = 1 tblsp
    28.3g = 1 ounce ( ==> 100g = 3.5 ounces )
    454g = 1 pound ( ==> 1kg = 2.2 pound )
    250ml = 1 cup
    1 l = 4 cups
    180 deg C = 350 deg F
    220 deg C = 425 deg F
    And now let's come to the meals. All of those are calculated for 4 servings! Unfortunately the exact cooking temperatures and times haven't been handed down in all cases. You have to rely on your gut feeling. But I hope you enjoy all of it nonetheless!

    ISICIA OMENTATA (a kind of Roman Burgers)



    (Apic. 2, 1, 7)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    500g minced meat
    1 french roll, soaked in white wine
    1/2 tsp freshly ground pepper
    50ml Liquamen (can be replaced by 1/2 tsp salt + a little white wine)
    some stone-pine kernels and green peppercorns
    a little Caroenum
    Baking foil

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Mix minced meat with the soaked french roll. Ground spices and mix into
    the meat. Form small burgers and put pine kernels and peppercorns into
    them. Put them into baking foil and grill them together with Caroenum.

    PEPONES ET MELONES (Water and Honey Melons)

    (Apic. 3, 7)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    1/2 honey melon \ both peeled, diced
    1/2 water melon / and stoned
    500ml Passum
    a little bit of honey (or Passum)
    1 tblsp minced parsley
    1/2 tsp freshly ground pepper
    a little bit of Liquamen, or a dash of salt
    Poleiminze, Silphium, vinegar, if wanted

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Cook diced melons in a pan together with spices and herbs until done.
    Sometimes Silphium is added.

    PATINA DE PISCICULIS (Soufflee of Small Fishes)

    (Apic. 4, 2, 30)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    500g boiled fillet of small fishes or whole sardelles
    150g dried raisins (sultanas)
    1/2 tsp freshly ground pepper
    1 tblsp Liebstoeckl
    1 tblsp oregano
    2 small diced onions
    200ml oil
    50ml Liquamen, or 1/2 tsp salt
    some cornstarch

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Mix raisins, pepper, Liebstoeckl, oregano, onion, wine, Liquamen and oil
    together and put in a casserole. Cook until done. Then put small boiled
    fish fillets or boiled small whole fishes into it. Thicken with a bit of
    cornstarch and serve.

    PATINA DE PIRIS (Pear Soufflee)

    (Apic. 4, 2, 35)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    1kg pears (peeled and without core)
    6 eggs
    4 tblsp honey
    100ml Passum
    a little bit oil
    50ml Liquamen, or 1/4 tsp salt
    1/2 tsp ground cumin
    ground pepper to taste

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Mesh cooked and peeled pears (without core) together with pepper,cumin,
    honey, Passum, Liquamen and a bit of oil. Add eggs and put into a
    casserole. Cook approximately 30 minutes on small to moderate heat.
    Serve with a bitt of pepper sprinkled on the soufflee.

    MINUTAL MARINUM (Seafood Fricassee)

    (Apic. 4, 3, 1)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    500g fish fillet (e.g. salmon)
    250ml white wine
    500ml beef broth
    3 leek branches (I hope branch is the correct expression...)
    100ml oil
    Liquamen or salt, coriander, pepper, Liebstoeckl, Oregano to taste
    a little bit of starch or flour to thicken the sauce

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Put the fish in a pan, add Liquamen, oil, wine and broth. Chop leek
    branches and coriander. Chop fillets into a kind of fish goulash.bszRC
    Cook approximately 30 minutes on small to moderate heat. When well done
    ground coriander, Liebstoeckl and oregano and add to the fish fricassee.
    Boil again shortly. Then thicken sauce with starch, sprinkle pepper on
    the fricasse and serve.

    GUSTUM DE PRAECOQUIS (Starter with Apricots)

    (Apic. 4, 5, 4)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    1kg firm ripe apricots or nectarines
    200ml white wine
    250ml Passum
    1 peppermint tea bag (portion for one cup)
    pepper, Liquamen or salt, cornstarch, a little vinegar and honey
    -------------
    Wash, cut and stone apricots. Put them with a little cold water in a pan.
    Ground pepper and dried mint (that's where the tea bag comes handy...),
    add Liquamen, honey, Passum, wine and vinegar. Pour into the pan with a
    little oil. Cook approximately 20 minutes on small to moderate heat.
    After it boiled add a bit of cornstarch to thicken the sauce, sprinkle
    with pepper and serve.

    FABACIAE VIRIDES ET BAIANAE (Green and Baian Beans)

    (Apic. 5, 6, 1)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    )500g soybeans with pod, or green beans
    50ml Liquamen, or 1/2 tsp salt with 50ml wine
    1-2 tblsp oil
    1 tblsp minced coriander leaves (or 1/2 tblsp ground coriander seed)
    1 tsp cumin seeds
    1/2 minced branch of leek

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Cook beans with Liquamen, oil, leek and spices. Serve.

    PULLUM FRONTONIANUM (Chicken a la Fronto)

    (Apic. 6, 9, 13)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    1 fresh chicken (approx. 1-1.5kg)
    100ml oil
    200ml Liquamen, or 200ml wine + 2 tsp salt
    1 branch of leek
    fresh dill, Saturei, coriander, pepper to taste
    a little bit of Defritum

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Start to fry chicken and season with a mixture of Liquamen and oil,
    together with bunches of dill, leek, Saturei and fresh coriander. Then
    cook approximately 1 hour with 220 deg C in the oven. When the chicken
    is done, moisten a plate with Defritum, put chicken on it, sprinkle
    pepper on it, and serve.

    PULLUS FUSILIS (Chicken With Liquid Filling)

    (Apic. 6, 9, 15)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    1 fresh chicken (approx. 1-1.5kg)
    300g minced meat (half beef, half pork)
    100g groats (of oat)
    2 eggs
    250ml white wine
    1 tblsp oil
    1 tblsp Liebstoeckl
    1/4 tsp ground ginger
    1/4 tsp ground pepper
    1 tsp green peppercorns
    50g stone-pine kernels
    Liquamen or salt to taste

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Ground pepper, Liebstoeckl, ginger, minced meat and cooked groats. Add
    eggs and mix until you have a smooth mass. Season with Liquamen, add oil,
    whole peppercorns and stone-pine kernels. Fill this dough into the
    chicken. Cook approximately 1 hour with 220 deg C in the oven.

    DULCIA DOMESTICA (Housemade Dessert)

    (Apic. 7, 13, 1)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    200g fresh or dried dates
    50g coarsely ground nuts or stone-pine kernels
    a little bit salt
    honey, or red wine with honey (to stew)

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Take the stones out of the dates and fill them with nuts or stone-pine
    kernels. Sprinkle a bit of salt on the filled dates and stew them in
    honey or honey-sweetened red wine. The dates have to be cooked in on
    low heat until their paring starts to come off (approximately 5-10
    minutes).

    Note:
    -----
    You may also fill some dates with ground pepper. (I wonder how this
    might taste - but that's a suggestion made in the original recipe.)

    ALITER DULCIA (Another Kind of Dessert)

    (Apic. 7, 13, 5)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    250g coarsely ground nuts
    100g coarsely ground stone-pine kernels
    3-4 tblsp honey
    1 tsp minced rue
    50ml Passum
    50ml milk
    2 eggs
    honey to drip on afterwards
    a small amound of ground pepper

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Mesh pepper, pine kernels, honey, rue and Passum with milk and eggs, and
    boil the dough. Serve topped with honey and sprinkle with pepper.

    TIROPATINAM (A Kind of Soufflee)

    (Apic. 7, 13, 7)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    500ml milk
    6 eggs
    3 tblsp honey
    a little bit of ground pepper

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Sweeten milk with honey, add eggs and mix together until smooth. Cook
    on low heat until stiff, sprinkle pepper on it and serve.

    OVA SFONGIA EX LACTE (Pancakes with Milk)

    (Apic. 7, 13, 8)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    8 eggs
    600ml milk
    100ml oil
    a little bit honey
    a little bit ground pepper

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Mix eggs, milk and oil until you have a pancake dough. Fry in a pan
    and serve topped with honey and a little pepper.

    IN OVIS APALIS (Boiled Eggs)

    (Apic. 7, 19, 3)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    8 hard boiled eggs (not too well done - boil ca. 4 minutes)
    50g stone-pine kernels
    honey, pepper, vinegar, Liebstoeckl, Liquamen (or salt) to taste

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Dressing for boiled eggs: Mix together pepper, Liebstoeckl, soaked pine
    kernels. Add honey and vinegar and season with Liquamen. Serve together
    with the eggs.

    VITELLINA FRICTA (Fried Veal)

    (Apic. 8, 5, 1)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    800g - 1kg veal
    300g dried raisins (sultanas)
    1 tblsp honey
    2 tblsp vinegar
    200ml wine
    100ml oil
    100ml Defritum
    100ml Liquamen (or 1tsp salt)
    pepper, celery seeds, Liebstoeckl, cumin, oregano, dried onion to taste

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Fry veal in olive oil until well done. Mix raisins, wine, vinegar,
    honey, oil, Liquamen and spices together in an extra pan, shortly boil
    the sauce. Pour over the veal, then leave the meat for 10 minutes in
    the sauce and cook on low heat. Serve.

    IN VITULINAM ELIXAM (Boiled Veal)

    (Apic. 8, 5, 3)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    800g - 1kg veal
    pepper, Liebstoeckl, cumin, celery seeds to taste
    2 tblsp honey
    2 tblsp vinegar
    100ml oil
    100ml Liquamen (or 100ml white wine + 1 tsp salt)
    a little bit of cornstarch

    Instructions:
    -------------

    Cook the veal for about 1 1/2 hour until well done. Mix together honey,
    vinegar, oil, ligamen and spices in an extra pan. Boil the sauce only
    shortly and thicken it with cornstarch. Then pour sauce over the veal
    and let boil on low heat for another 10 minutes. Serve.

    ALITER BAEDINAM SIVE AGNINAM EXCALDATAM (Steamed Lamb)

    (Apic. 8, 6, 2)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    10 lamb cutlets
    1 l white wine
    100ml oil
    2 big onions, diced
    2 tblsp ground coriander
    1 tsp ground pepper
    1 tblsp Liebstoeckl
    1 tsp ground cumin
    200ml Liquamen (or 2 tsp salt)

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Put cutlets into pot, together with diced onion and spices. Add Liquamen,
    oil and wine. Cook 45-60 minutes. Pour sauce into a pan and thicken it
    with starch. Serve cutlets together with the sauce.

    IN MITULIS (Sea Mussels)


    (Apic. 9, 9)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    1kg fresh sea mussels
    100ml Liquamen
    1 branch of leek, finely minced
    1 tsp cumin
    200ml Passum
    1 tblsp minced Saturei
    500ml white wine
    ca. 500ml water

    Instructions:
    -------------
    First water mussels, and clean them. Mix together Liquamen, wine,
    water, Passum and spices. Boil the broth for about 20 minutes, then add
    mussels. Boil additional 10 minutes. Serve.


    SARDA ITA FIT (Tuna)


    (Apic. 9, 10, 2)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    500g cooked tuna fillet
    1/2 tsp ground pepper
    1/2 tsp Liebstoeckl
    1/2 tsp thyme
    1/2 tsp oregano
    1/2 tsp rue
    150g dates (without stones)
    1 tblsp honey
    4 hard boiled eggs (in quarters)
    50ml white wine
    2 tblsp wine vinegar
    50ml Defritum
    2-3 tblsp green olive oil

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Cook tuna fillet. Mesh fillet together with dates, honey, wine, vinegar,
    Defritum and oil. Put mass into a bowl and garnish with egg quarters.
    Serve.


    SCILLAS (Big Shrimps)


    (Apic. exc. 17)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    500g cooked and prepared big shrimps
    1 tsp green pepper
    1 tblsp Liebstoeckl
    1/2 tsp ground celery seeds
    2-3 tblsp vinegar
    100ml Liquamen (or 1/2 tsp salt)
    4-5 hacked hard-boiled egg yolks

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Cook shrimps. Then ground pepper, celery seeds and Liebstoeckl. Pour
    vinegar, Liquamen and egg yolks over it and mix thoroughly. Pour the
    mixture over the shrimpsand serve.


    MUSTACEI (= Must Rolls)


    (Cato: de agricultura, 121)

    Ingredients:
    ------------
    500g wheat flour
    300ml grape juice (or young wine)
    2 tblsp anise seeds
    2 tblsp cumin seeds
    100g lard
    50g grated cheese (sheep's cheese would be best)
    ca. 20 bay leaves

    Instructions:
    -------------
    Pour some must over the flour, add anise and cumin seeds, the lard and
    cheese. Work it together until you have a reasonable dough. Form
    rolls, then put one bay leaf under each of them.

    Bake 30-35 minutes at 180 deg C.

    Note:
    -----
    It's better to make the must rolls with yeast dough, because then they
    can be kept longer, and they are not so hard. To make the yeast dough,
    add 40g yeast to the flour + grape juice, leave it a while until you
    continue like above.


    [ source ]

    .

  2. #2
    Senior Member WarMaiden's Avatar
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    Thumbs Up Re: Ancient Roman Dishes

    Wonderful thread, do you mind if i repost some of it on the WAU website?


    Hails~

  3. #3
    You are not wrong, who deem / That my days have been a dream Johannes de León's Avatar
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    Post Re: Ancient Roman Dishes

    Quote Originally Posted by WarMaiden
    Wonderful thread, do you mind if i repost some of it on the WAU website?


    Hails~
    No problem on that, the text is not mine anyway.

    Cheers.
    .

  4. #4
    Senior Member WarMaiden's Avatar
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    Post Re: Ancient Roman Dishes

    Quote Originally Posted by Johannes de León
    No problem on that, the text is not mine anyway.

    Cheers.
    LOL, thanks~

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