Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 May 12;95(10):5836-40. Links

Locomotion and body proportions of the Saint-Cesaire 1 Chatelperronian Neandertal.

Trinkaus E, Ruff CB, Churchill SE, Vandermeersch B.

Department of Anthropology, Campus Box 1114, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.

The initial Upper Paleolithic (Chatelperronian) of western Europe was associated with late European Neandertals, best known through the Saint-Cesaire 1 partial skeleton. Biomechanical cross-sectional analysis of the Saint-Cesaire 1 femoral diaphysis at the subtrochanteric and midshaft levels, given the plasticity of mammalian diaphyseal cortical bone, provides insights into the habitual levels and patterns of loading on the lower limbs from body mass, proportions, and locomotion. The overall robustnesses of the femoral diaphyses of European Neandertals and early modern humans are similar once contrasts in body proportions are incorporated into the body size scaling. Saint-Cesaire 1 matches these samples only if it is provided with Neandertal-like hyperarctic body proportions. And the rounded proximal femoral diaphysis of Saint-Cesaire 1 is similar to those of earlier Neandertals, likely also reflecting similar cold-adapted broad pelvic regions. However, although morphologically similar to those of archaic Homo, the Saint-Cesaire 1 femoral midshaft exhibits the anteroposterior reinforcement characteristic of early modern humans. Consequently, Saint-Cesaire 1 appears as a morphological Neandertal with hyperarctic body proportions who nonetheless had shifted locomotor patterns to more closely resemble those of other Upper Paleolithic humans.