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Thread: 'X-Woman' Coexisted With Neanderthals, Modern Humans

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    Senior Member celticviking's Avatar
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    'X-Woman' Coexisted With Neanderthals, Modern Humans

    An unknown type of human, nicknamed "X-Woman," coexisted with Neanderthals and our own species between 30,000 to 50,000 years ago, according to a new study that suggests at least four, and possibly more, different forms of humans existed in Asia after Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa.

    The as-of-yet-unnamed new human species, documented in the journal Nature, represents the first time that a hominid has been described not from the structure of its fossilized bones, but from the sequence of its DNA.

    Researchers focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), genes passed down from mothers to their children -- hence the X-Woman nickname.

    Her mtDNA shows that X-Woman shared a common ancestor with Neanderthals and modern humans one million years ago, so X-Woman and her species likely migrated out of Africa 500,000 years before the ancestors of Neanderthals left Africa.

    Modern humans are thought to have made the journey much more recently, at just 50,000 years ago.

    "So whoever carried this mtDNA out of Africa was a creature that was not on our radar screen before," co-author Svante Paabo told Discovery News.

    Paabo, who is director of the Department of Genetics at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, and his colleagues made the discovery after extracting and sequencing mtDNA from a single pinky finger bone. The bone, probably from a child, was found at Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains of southern Siberia.

    The genetic sequence was then compared with those for 54 present-day modern humans, a Late Pleistocene early modern human from Russia, six complete Neanderthal mtDNAs, one bonobo and one chimpanzee. None of them matched with the new sequence, but they revealed that the individual was a human that carried twice as many genetic differences as Neanderthals do with our species.

    Since Neanderthals and modern humans were also living less than around 62 miles away in Siberia at the time, Paabo said, "At least three different forms of humans may have coexisted 30,000 to 40,000 years ago," making human history "a lot more complex and interesting" than previously thought for this period.

    Yet another human species, the recently identified Homo floresiensis, aka "Hobbit human," lived just 17,000 years ago in Indonesia.

    Based on archaeological finds from Denisova Cave, the researchers suspect X-Woman and her species, along with the Neanderthals and modern humans, hunted large game, such as woolly mammoths and woolly rhinos.

    Conditions were often cold then in Siberia, as they are now, so everyone probably wore heavy, protective clothing. Ornaments dating to the period, such as bracelets, were also found in the cave.

    Because the different humans appear to have lived within close proximity of each other, this "increases the potential for interaction," including inbreeding, Paabo said during a press conference yesterday in London with colleague Johannes Krause.

    The apparently peaceful coexistence may not have lasted long, however, since only our species survived into modern times. As a result, Paabo said the extinction of the other human groups may have been "early genocide" or due to environmental factors or competition for resources.

    In a separate commentary also appearing in this issue of Nature, Terence Brown, a professor of life sciences at the University of Manchester, wrote, "The relationship between the Denisova sample and Neanderthals and modern humans will become clearer when nuclear DNA is obtained."

    Paabo, Krause and their colleagues are already planning such work, which they believe could take months.

    Brown concluded, "The demonstration that a bone fragment can provide evidence for an unknown hominin will surely prompt more studies of this kind and, possibly, increase the crowd of ancestors that early modern humans met when they travelled into Eurasia."

    http://news.discovery.com/human/x-wo...-ancestor.html

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    Senior Member Schopenhauer's Avatar
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    The "Out of Africa" theory of human evolution has its detractors.
    Omnia risus et omnis pulvis et omnia nihil - HPL

    "Oh, you should never, never doubt what nobody is sure about." - Willy Wonka

    “niemand bleibt hier” - Maria Orsic

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    Quote Originally Posted by Schopenhauer View Post
    The "Out of Africa" theory of human evolution has its detractors.
    What matters to me is where our identifiable culture comes from. I don't care where my progeny spawned before they were "real" humans. I simply don't care where some monkeys lived.
    "So, yes, we are better than others. Our worldviews are better than those of others. This does not need to be universally true, it is enough when it is true for us." - velvet

    "Our blood unity is of infinitely more worth than religious particularities;" - Chlodovech

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    Senior Member Schopenhauer's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by şeudiskaz View Post
    What matters to me is where our identifiable culture comes from. I don't care where my progeny spawned before they were "real" humans. I simply don't care where some monkeys lived.
    Our culture is an expression of our blood. We are not the evolutionary end result of pygmies.
    Omnia risus et omnis pulvis et omnia nihil - HPL

    "Oh, you should never, never doubt what nobody is sure about." - Willy Wonka

    “niemand bleibt hier” - Maria Orsic

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    Quote Originally Posted by Schopenhauer View Post
    Our culture is an expression of our blood. We are not the evolutionary end result of pygmies.

    I've seen no scientific evidence to suggest that our slightly different genetic makeup is solely (or largely) responsible for our cultural ideals. Blood is important to me, certainly - but before we had the discernible Germanic culture we were not who we are now. We were an entirely different phase of being. Who we are as a people, and where our "blood" starts is where our culture starts. The divergence between would-be pygmy, and would-be Germanic came thousands of years before either had a culture that would be discernible as either pygmy, or Germanic.

    Unless of course you have sound scientific evidence to show otherwise.
    "So, yes, we are better than others. Our worldviews are better than those of others. This does not need to be universally true, it is enough when it is true for us." - velvet

    "Our blood unity is of infinitely more worth than religious particularities;" - Chlodovech

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    Senior Member Thorolf's Avatar
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    I don't understand how they can think every human species migrated out of Africa. Maybe one or two migrated outward, this could be plausible. Though for every new one to have done the same sounds ridiculous.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Thorolf View Post
    I don't understand how they can think every human species migrated out of Africa. Maybe one or two migrated outward, this could be plausible. Though for every new one to have done the same sounds ridiculous.
    I think one branch of humans came out from Africa, and we evolved (slightly) from there.
    "So, yes, we are better than others. Our worldviews are better than those of others. This does not need to be universally true, it is enough when it is true for us." - velvet

    "Our blood unity is of infinitely more worth than religious particularities;" - Chlodovech

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    Eala Freia Fresena
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    The 'evidence' for out of Africa fits into a shoebox. A few bone scraps and thats it. It is the old mistake of finding some old bones and then make the errenous conclusion that because this is the oldest ones found so far it is the origin of something.

    The non-existence of evidence is not the evidence of non-existing.

    They repeat this erroneous conclusion at nauseam until it becomes 'accepted' by the community. not because it is right, because the people are just tired to spend their time fighting the pc-press.

    They are suspiciously silent whether the root-race, the guys and girls who 'moved out of Africa' have been negroes. The out-of-Africa idiots never say it clearly but always circumvent that answer. I would like them to clearly say whether the original humans have been negroes or not. But their dance on the eggs makes it very clear to any keen observers that there is something very foul in the state of Denmark. that is the knock-out question for their theory because the implication when they answer it and are very deep and so in contrast to reality that they don't venture there.

    If the root-race were negroes then why did they not develope like everybody else? Why is it then that 'whites' are white and asian are asians, very different from negroes.

    When the root-race was neither white nor asian nor negro how then did they develope into their specific races? With admixture to different hominids? Then races a really hybrids of hominid specieses. The question then would be with what did Negroes mix?

    If Negroes were the rootrace how did everybody else develope but negroes obviously did not? Why is it that the traits and appearance differ so much? Given the movability assumed before would make it more likely that the developement would have spread evenly. (If you believe in natural evolution and the survival of the fittest it is clear that white and asian are much better at that than negroes)

    So they never answer the question to the rootrace clearly. They found bones of 'modern' men but also the early guys and girls who moved have been erectus or an undisclosed hominid, only named 'modern' without giving it clear descriptions. which means it could be all and everything. When they say they don't know too much about that hominid how then do they determine that he/she moved out of Africa?

    Was it that there already have been different races but the asian and white races moved out? How else do they explain the homogenity between asians and in between white people?
    There is a lot of nonsense with that theory.
    weel nich will dieken dej mot wieken

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    I'm pretty sure that they've also tracked migrating human settlement using mtDNA.
    "So, yes, we are better than others. Our worldviews are better than those of others. This does not need to be universally true, it is enough when it is true for us." - velvet

    "Our blood unity is of infinitely more worth than religious particularities;" - Chlodovech

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    Quote Originally Posted by şeudiskaz View Post
    What matters to me is where our identifiable culture comes from. I don't care where my progeny spawned before they were "real" humans. I simply don't care where some monkeys lived.
    I would like to know more. also. I still remember as a little kid being under the impression that the Neandertals were followed by the Cro-Magnons, and that ALL modern humans were descended from the Cro-Magnon.

    Now, with so much new info swimming around, I am very confused about who are ancestors to who and whatnot

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