Variation at 16 STR loci in Rwandans (Hutu) and implications on profile frequency estimation in Bantu-speakers

Sergio Tofanelli, Ilaria Boschi, Stefania Bertoneri, Valentina Coia, Luca Taglioli, Marcello Giovanni Franceschi, Giovanni Destro-Bisol, Vincenzo Pascali, Giorgio Paoli

A1 Department of Ethology, Ecology and Evolution, Anthropology Unit, University of Pisa, Via S. Maria 55, 56126, Pisa, Italy
A2 Forensic Haematology Laboratory, Institute of Legal Medicine, Sacro Cuore Catholic University (UCSC), Largo F. Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy
A3 Department of Animal and Human Biology, University of Rome "La Sapienza", P.le A. Moro, Rome, Italy



A data set of 16 autosomal STRs (the 13 CODIS loci plus HumCD4, HumFES, HumF13A1) was obtained in a sample of 52 unrelated Hutus from Rwanda. Genotypes at all loci met Hardy-Weinberg expectations with the exception of HumCSF1PO. No significant evidence of association across alleles at independent loci was obtained. Statistical parameters demonstrated the forensic usefulness of the analysed systems (combined PE=0.9999996, combined PD=1:2.2721018). Pairwise comparisons showed that the Hutu gene pool differs substantially from that of other Bantu-speaking populations suggesting the use of ethnic-specific population databases in forensic casework analysis. The introduction of a non-negligible bias was confirmed by calculating the differences between multiple-locus profile frequencies of western and eastern Bantoids using local and non-local reference databases.