Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1999 Jan 29;354(1379):131-8; discussion 138-9.


The molecular genetics of European ancestry.

Sykes B.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, UK.

In an earlier paper we proposed, on the basis of mitochondrial control region variation, that the bulk of modern European mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) diversity had its roots in the European Upper Palaeolithic. Refining the mtDNA phylogeny and enlarging the sample size both within Europe and the Middle East still support this interpretation and indicate three separate phases of colonization: (i) the Early Upper Palaeolithic about 50,000 BP; (ii) the Late Upper Palaeolithic 11,000-14,000 BP; and (iii) the Neolithic from 8500 BP.