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Thread: DNA Reveals Origins of First European Farmers

  1. #1
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    DNA Reveals Origins of First European Farmers

    DNA Reveals Origins of First European Farmers

    ScienceDaily (Nov. 10, 2010) — A team of international researchers led by ancient DNA experts from the University of Adelaide has resolved the longstanding issue of the origins of the people who introduced farming to Europe some 8000 years ago.

    A detailed genetic study of one of the first farming communities in Europe, from central Germany, reveals marked similarities with populations living in the Ancient Near East (modern-day Turkey, Iraq and other countries) rather than those from Europe.

    Project leader Professor Alan Cooper, Director of the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD) at the University of Adelaide, says: "This overturns current thinking, which accepts that the first European farming populations were constructed largely from existing populations of hunter-gatherers, who had either rapidly learned to farm or interbred with the invaders."

    The results of the study have been published today in the online peer-reviewed science journal PLoS Biology.

    "We have finally resolved the question of who the first farmers in Europe were -- invaders with revolutionary new ideas, rather than populations of Stone Age hunter-gatherers who already existed in the area," says lead author Dr Wolfgang Haak, Senior Research Associate with ACAD at the University of Adelaide.

    "We've been able to apply new, high-precision ancient DNA methods to create a detailed genetic picture of this ancient farming population, and reveal that it was radically different to the nomadic populations already present in Europe.

    "We have also been able to use genetic signatures to identify a potential route from the Near East and Anatolia, where farming evolved around 11,000 years ago, via south-eastern Europe and the Carpathian Basin (today's Hungary) into Central Europe," Dr Haak says.

    The project involved researchers from the University of Mainz and State Heritage Museum in Halle, Germany, the Russian Academy of Sciences and members of the National Geographic Society's Genographic Project, of which Professor Cooper is a Principal Investigator and Dr Haak is a Senior Research Associate.

    The ancient DNA used in this study comes from a complete graveyard of Early Neolithic farmers unearthed at the town of Derenburg in Saxony-Anhalt, central Germany.

    "This work was only possible due to the close collaboration of archaeologists excavating the skeletons, to ensure that no modern human DNA contaminated the remains, and nicely illustrates the potential when archaeology and genetics are combined," says Professor Kurt Werner Alt from the collaborating Institute of Anthropology in Mainz, Germany.

    Genetic matrilineal distances between 55 modern Western Eurasian populations and Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture (LBK) samples. Mapped genetic distances are illustrated between 55 modern Western Eurasian populations and the total of 42 Neolithic LBK samples (A) or the single graveyard of Derenburg (B). Black dots denote the location of modern-day populations used in the analysis. The coloring indicates the degree of similarity of the modern local population(s) with the Neolithic sample set: short distances (greatest similarity) are marked by dark green and long distances (greatest dissimilarity) by orange, with fainter colors in between the extremes.
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    Well it sounds like an attempt to replace the idea of native european peoples with a theory of native turks.

    I don't know what to make of this

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    They say there is a difference between the hunter/gatherer and the farmers and that is the kicker, also between the farmers and modern european.

    From cultural elements like the mound graves one knows that the modern european came from the Caucasus via 'Russia' to Western Europe.

    It seems there is a persistent line of people in Skandinavia from about 7 - 8000 years. At least they have similar cultural things left behind.

    Language wise we can reconstruct our culture through root words. If rootwords in Sanskrit are similar to western european then that obviously belonged to the culture.

    I am no expert in that (I think there are some here) but the culture of the proto-germanic people had been a herder society, as words like plough are not in all germanic language branches.

    What happened to those farmers is not clear, if they are not related to us, they are either killed of or driven away.
    weel nich will dieken dej mot wieken

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    This is extremely interesting, we have always known that farming came from the middle east but how it spread has largely been unknown.

    However, just as much like the beneficial lactose-tolerance genetic influence spread (which originated in Proto-Indo-Europeans) given in the book "The 10,000 year explosion"- I would expect the vast majority of the Anatolian genetic influence to be negligible in modern day Europeans.

    This is because...
    The small group of Anatolian farmers came into Europe and farmed giving them the initial advantage over native Europeans. However, I would assume that their genetic advantage overall would have been negligible as the native Europeans SOON caught back up in farming methods- then diluted out the Anatolian genes making the Anatolian influence negligible.

    I wonder if there is any relation between this group and the Etruscans- which is an extinct language ISOLATE spoken by people with Anatolian genetics in Italy.

    Since Etruscan is a language Isolate that means the language has been isolated for an extremely long period of time- this very well might fit this initial group of Anatolian farmers perfectly!

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    A detailed genetic study of one of the first farming communities in Europe, from central Germany, reveals marked similarities with populations living in the Ancient Near East (modern-day Turkey, Iraq and other countries) rather than those from Europe.
    So...I'm guessing this will be used as a good justification for the ethnic genocide of the native European peoples

    Keep hauling in the third-worlders!

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    All institutions of higher learning are in the direct employ of the government and there is nothing "independent" about them.
    They say "University of..." in order to make their indoctrinating lies come across as more legitimate, even educational.

    In my opinion they are lying about this. They know most people out there haven't the education or training to prove if this finding is correct or not.
    The suckers of the world will say "Well, if a university conducted the research then I guess that it good enough for me."

    ...has resolved the longstanding issue of the origins of the people who introduced farming to Europe.
    BS

    I am willing to bet that if I approached the funders (govt.)as an independent and qualified researcher who wished to corroborate these findings, using the same materials provided for the "team of international researchers led by ancient DNA experts..." that I would be denied the opportunity.

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    I just tried to understand the maps. The left one shows the relationsship between people from the neolitic linear pottery culture and today's people.

    Some samples (A) are obviously from different graves and remains and (B) is just from a certain graveyard, called Derenburg.

    Jewpedia about linear pottery culture:

    The Linear Pottery culture is a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic, flourishing ca. 5500–4500 BC. The heaviest concentrations are on the middle Danube, the upper and middle Elbe, and the upper and middle Rhine. The culture represents a major impulse if not the advent of agriculture into this part of the world.
    That is what Dieneke writes about the Derenburg graveyard:
    Out of 25 different haplotypes present in 42 LBK samples, 11 are found at high frequency in nearly all present-day populations under study, a further ten have limited geographic distribution, and the remaining four haplotypes are unique to Neolithic LBK populations (Table S4).
    (A) shows the maternal line.

    The biggest similiarity is in Turkey and in Belgium.

    there is obviously no connection in northern Spain, northern Skandinavia and some pockets in what is today Poland.

    That means contrary to what they write in the text there is a connection between those farmers and modern people. At least in the maternal line

    (B) shows the degree of relationsship between the Derenburg samples and modern day people. It seems the Derenburg people are different from the other LBK samples, at least they don't show the same relationship.

    It might be that A only shows the maternal relationship and B is showing what? both genders or the male gender in contrast to A?

    Obviously we don't have a connection with the Derenburg people. That means somehow they died out

    We have connection of the other LBK people in the maternal line.

    That obviously means the women of the LBK line survived somehow the onslaught of the new arrivals, our ancestors.

    I guess you guess what that means

    Dieneke also says something different then the charts: there is a relationsship between modern people and Derenburg. Interpreting the charts it doesn't seem to extend or it is not as close as Dieneke's explanation gives.

    It seems that the males got slaughtered and the women went to the victors as most likely has been the common practice since times immemorable.

    But it is just a theory, like to see some input from others.
    weel nich will dieken dej mot wieken

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    On second thoughts:

    the 11 from the Derenburg graveyard might be our ancestors.

    The rest might be from the ones they replaced
    weel nich will dieken dej mot wieken

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    look were the caucasus is:



    it is pretty much were the farmers came from (give or take a few hundreds mile.

    We also know that the Hetites have been caucasian (white) people.

    The 11 people from the Derenburg graveyard might have been from there too
    Seems they took the route via Greece, Bulgary and Balkan to Europe
    don't know where the other ones came from.
    Last edited by Ocko; Saturday, November 13th, 2010 at 01:59 AM. Reason: addition
    weel nich will dieken dej mot wieken

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    Here are some more info on Derenburg:

    The Y chromosome hgs obtained from the three Derenburg early Neolithic individuals are generally concordant with the mtDNA data (Table 1). Interestingly, we do not find the most common Y chromosome hgs in modern Europe (e.g., R1b, R1a, I, and E1b1), which parallels the low frequency of the very common modern European mtDNA hg H (now at 20%–50% across Western Eurasia) in the Neolithic samples. Also, while both Neolithic Y chromosome hgs G2a3 and F* are rather rare in modern-day Europe, they have slightly higher frequencies in populations of the Near East, and the highest frequency of hg G2a is seen in the Caucasus today [15]. The few published ancient Y chromosome results from Central Europe come from late Neolithic sites and were exclusively hg R1a [31]. While speculative, we suggest this supports the idea that R1a may have spread with late Neolithic cultures from the east [31].
    source

    Here is also something what Dieneke in the same article writes:

    It is also fascinating that the presence of 33.3% haplogroup G2 in the German Neolithic is matched by a presence of 33.3% haplogroup G2 in 7th c. Bavarian knights, and maybe even the latest French royalty. The Y-DNA landscape of Europe is still largely empty in space and time, and it will be exciting to see it filled out over the next years.
    There is a lot of DNA mumbo jumbo for me I don't understand.

    But it seems there are direct lineages from the neolithic times to now.

    Don't know how that fits together
    weel nich will dieken dej mot wieken

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