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Thread: DNA Studies Confirm Accuracy of March of the Titans Thesis of Racial Mixing in Southern Europe

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    DNA Studies Confirm Accuracy of March of the Titans Thesis of Racial Mixing in Southern Europe

    "Over the years, I and my book, March of the Titans, have been the subject of an intense amount of vitriolic attacks from people objecting to my mention of racial mixing in Southern Europe as being the cause of the decline of the classical civilizations.

    In addition, I have also been vilified for daring to mention the very obvious admixture of sub-Saharan genes in Iberia (particularly Portugal) which resulted from the slave trading era.

    The very latest genetic studies have conclusively proven the accuracy of March of the Titans. I take no delight in having it confirmed — I would much rather have it otherwise, but, be assured, that revenge upon these internet vermin who have nothing better to do than slander me on their silly little blogs is sweet."


    DNA Studies Confirm Accuracy of March of the Titans Thesis of Racial Mixing in Southern Europe


    http://www.arthurkemp.com/?p=376


    Portugal: Modern DNA Tests Prove March of the Titans Correct Once Again


    http://www.arthurkemp.com/?p=397

    http://www.white-history.com/refuting_rm/index.html


    Over the years, I and my book, March of the Titans, have been the subject of an intense amount of vitriolic attacks from people objecting to my mention of racial mixing in Southern Europe as being the cause of the decline of the classical civilizations. In addition, I have also been vilified for daring to mention the very obvious admixture of sub-Saharan genes in Iberia (particularly Portugal) which resulted from the slave trading era.

    The very latest genetic studies have conclusively proven the accuracy of March of the Titans. I take no delight in having it confirmed — I would much rather have it otherwise, but, be assured, that revenge upon these internet vermin who have nothing better to do than slander me on their silly little blogs is sweet. Herewith follows a selection of the genetic reports which confirm that March of the Titans is 100 percent correct:

    Moors and Saracens in Europe: estimating the medieval North African male legacy in southern Europe

    European Journal of Human Genetics (2009) 17, 848-852; published 21 January 2009 (Full PDF Copy)

    “To investigate the male genetic legacy of the Arab rule in southern Europe during medieval times, we focused on specific Northwest African haplogroups and identified evolutionary close STR-defined haplotypes in Iberia, Sicily and the Italian peninsula.

    Our results point to a higher recent Northwest African contribution in Iberia and Sicily in agreement with historical data.

    Southern Italian regions known to have experienced long-term Arab presence also show an enrichment of Northwest African types. The forensic and genomic implications of these findings are discussed.


    Introduction

    After the collapse of the Roman Empire in Europe, the Arab dominance across the Mediterranean was one of the most impressive historical events that occurred in this region.

    Arabs appeared on the southern shores of the Mediterranean in the early seventh century and quickly conquered North Africa.
    They spread their language and religion to the native Northwest (NW) African Berber populations, which represented the bulk of the Muslim army that later conquered southern Europe.

    Referred to either as Moors (in Iberia) or Saracens (in South Italy and Sicily), their arrival in Europe dates to 711 AD, rapidly subduing most of Iberia and Sicily (831 AD). Among European kingdoms their presence was seen as a constant danger, and only by the fifteenth century was the Iberian reconquest completed.

    In the thirteenth century Frederick II destroyed Arab rule in Sicily and between 1221 and 1226 he moved all the Arabs of Sicily to the city of Lucera, north of Apulia. Lucera was later destroyed by Charles II (1301) but an Arab community was recorded in Apulia in 1336.
    Guerrilla warfare was still conducted by Arabs in Sicily even after Frederick II’s actions.

    So far, Y chromosome studies attempting to estimate the medieval North African (MNA) contribution to southern Europe have focused almost exclusively on the North African haplogroup E3b1b1b-M81, and have only partially taken into consideration the evolutionary relationships among haplotypes.

    To generate a more comprehensive view of the genetic legacy of the MNA dominance in Europe, we systematically screened for Y chromosome haplotypes within three NW African specific haplogroups, across multiple southern European populations, and performed additional genotyping to refine the available genetic data.

    Our results confirm a general correlation between historical and genetic data: Iberia and Sicily are the regions with the highest MNA male legacy.


    Results and discussion

    To address the degree of historical NW African contribution, we used a combined SNP-STR approach. The coalescent times for the three NW African specific haplogroups ranges between 5000 and 24 000 years, spanning a number of historical scenarios each potentially explaining their presence on the Northern Mediterranean shores.

    It follows that estimating MNA genetic legacy on the basis of haplogroups’ occurrence only would be misleading. To avoid this limitation, we have extended our analysis to include STR data whose high mutation rate allows one to focus on more recent events.
    We screened more than 2300 South European samples (Figure 1; Table 1) to identify those haplotypes which are evolutionary close to NW African chromosomes.



    Total frequencies for these chromosomes range between 0 and 19% across southern Europe, the highest being in Cantabria and comprising a sample from the Pas Valley, previously shown to have an extremely high frequency of the North African haplogroup E1b1b1b.

    Our estimates of NW African chromosome frequencies were highest in Iberia and Sicily, in accordance with the long-term Arab rule in these two areas. The chromosome frequencies in the two samples were not significantly different from each other (Fisher’s exact test P=0.83) but were both significantly different from the peninsular Italy sample (P<0.01).

    An inspection of Table 1 reveals a non-random distribution of MNA types in the Italian peninsula, with at least a twofold increase over the Italian average estimate in three geographically close samples across the southern Apennine mountains (East Campania, Northwest Apulia, Lucera).

    When pooled together, these three Italian samples displayed a local frequency of 4.7%, significantly different from the North and the rest of South Italy (P<0.01), but not from Iberia and Sicily (P=0.12 and P=0.33, respectively). Arab presence is historically recorded in these areas following Frederick II’s relocation of Sicilian Arabs.

    In Iberia, a non-random distribution might also potentially be present, as suggested by our lower estimates in the northeast (Basque region and Catalans), but more samples across the peninsula will be required to properly address this issue. Assuming that a large population in regions such as Iberia, Sicily and Italy was present in the past, the ratio between Y chromosomes with a MNA ancestry and other types will have stayed approximately constant across time.

    Smaller areas, however, would have been influenced by drift, in the Pas Valley for example. Consistent with historical data, no population in Central Europe or the Balkans shows the presence of recently introgressed NW African types besides a few chromosomes in Albania and Romania. The increasing use of highly structured distributions of Y chromosome types to investigate the ethnic/geographic origin of unknown samples gives the identification of regions in Italy enriched with recently introgressed NW African types forensic relevance.

    We found that more than 56% of the Italian individuals identified here as having a recent NW African do not have a match in a large Italian Y chromosome dataset comprising almost 1200 individuals. Of these, 31% instead perfectly overlap with types from NW African populations, potentially providing misleading advice to investigators. Such results are also of interest in the light of the expanding business of genealogical services offering Y chromosome analysis to identify an individual’s ethnic ancestry. Our results clearly confirm that conclusions based on single chromosomes should be taken very cautiously.

    What are the expected genomic consequences of this historically recent admixture event? Suppose that 40 generations ago there was a 5% male introgression of African DNA into the European gene pool, corresponding to a total contribution of 2.5% of genetic material.
    Immediately after the admixture event, a fraction of chromosomes within Europe would have African ancestry.

    Recombination since this event will have substantially reduced the size of the fragments of African ancestry within European haplotypes, and with these parameters we would today expect to see an approximately exponential distribution (measuring size using genetic distance) of fragment sizes, with a mean value of roughly 2.6 cM.

    Assuming a genome-wide average recombination rate of 1.3 cM/Mb, 2.5% of a typical present day southern European genome would consist on average of 2 Mb regions of African DNA. We therefore believe that signatures of this event would be correctly identified using modern dense genotype data.

    By using northern Italian and Mozabite samples recently genotyped for a large SNP autosomal dataset as the best available proxy of Italian and northern African populations, we estimated that about 41.5% of more than 640 000 genotyped SNPs showed an absolute allele frequency difference of at least 10% between the two groups.

    Such frequency differences (and sometimes even smaller) between cases and controls characterized the vast majority of the inferred disease-causing SNPs in a recent genome-wide investigation. In general then, it is critical to take population structure into account so as to avoid false positives in case-control association studies. Thus, an understanding of similar historical admixture events is likely to aid researchers conducting such studies.”

    The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula

    The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 83, Issue 6, 725-736, 04 December 2008

    “Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape.

    The Iberian Peninsula provides a suitable region for examination of the demographic impact of such recent events, because its complex recent history has involved the long-term residence of two very different populations with distinct geographical origins and their own particular cultural and religious characteristics-North African Muslims and Sephardic Jews.

    To address this issue, we analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes, which provide the necessary phylogeographic resolution, in 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) and Sephardic Jewish (19.8%) sources.

    Despite alternative possible sources for lineages ascribed a Sephardic Jewish origin, these proportions attest to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants.

    In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient. The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement-more marked in some regions than in others-plus the effects of genetic drift.”

    -----

    This genetic study generated quite a few media articles. Here are two:

    DNA study shows 20 percent of Iberian population has Jewish ancestry

    By Nicholas Wade Published: Thursday, December 4, 2008

    “Spain and Portugal have a history of fervent Catholicism, but almost a third of the population now turns out to have a non-Christian genetic heritage. About 20 percent of the current population of the Iberian Peninsula has Sephardic Jewish ancestry, and 11 percent bear Moorish DNA signatures, a team of geneticists reports.

    The genetic signatures reflect the forced conversions to Christianity in the 14th and 15th centuries after Christian armies wrested Spain back from Muslim control. The new finding bears on two very different views of Spanish history: One holds that Spanish civilization is Catholic and all other influences are foreign, the other that Spain has been enriched by drawing from all three of its historical cultures – Catholic, Jewish and Muslim.

    The genetic study, based on an analysis of Y chromosomes, was conducted by a team of biologists led by Mark Jobling of the University of Leicester in England and Francesc Calafell of the Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona. The biologists developed a Y chromosome signature for Sephardic men by studying Sephardic Jewish communities in places where Jews migrated after being expelled from Spain in the years from 1492 to 1496.

    They also characterized the Y chromosomes of the Arab and Berber army that invaded Spain in 711 A.D. from data on people now living in Morocco and Western Sahara. After a period of forbearance under the Arab Umayyad dynasty, Spain entered a long period of religious intolerance, with its Muslim Berber dynasties forcing both Christians and Jews to convert to Islam, and the victorious Christians then expelling Jews and Muslims or forcing both to convert.

    The genetic study, reported online Thursday in the American Journal of Human Genetics, indicates there was a high level of conversion among Jews. Jonathan Ray, a professor of Jewish studies at Georgetown University, said that a high proportion of people with Sephardic ancestry was to be expected.

    “Jews formed a very large part of the urban population up until the great conversions,” he said. The genetic analysis is “very compelling,” said Jane Gerber, an expert on Sephardic history at the City University of New York, and weighs against scholars who have argued that there were very few Jewish conversions to Christianity.

    Ray raised the question of what the DNA evidence might mean on a personal level. “If four generations on I have no knowledge of my genetic past,” Ray said, “how does that affect my understanding of my own religious association?” The issue is one that has confronted Calafell, an author of the study. His own Y chromosome is probably of Sephardic ancestry – the test is not definitive for individuals – and his surname is from a town in Catalonia; Jews undergoing conversion often took surnames from place names.
    Jews first settled in Spain during the early years of the Roman empire. Sephardic Jews bear that name because the Hebrew word for Spain is Sepharad.”


    DNA Reveals Spain’s Hidden History

    Published 16 December, 2008, 11:15

    “DNA tests have proved there were mass conversions of faith in Spain over six centuries ago, and that the country now has a prevalent Jewish and Muslim mix. Spain’s turbulent past was made even more perplexing when scientists unveiled remarkable new evidence that suggests there was a mass conversion to Catholicism by Muslims and Jews in the 15th and 16th centuries.

    During this time, Spain was under horrendous religious oppression. It is perhaps the country’s bleakest period. Historically, it has generally been agreed that some time after they conquered Spain, the Moors expelled all Muslims and Jews who refused to convert to the Catholic faith. Although historians have often debated how many Jews converted and how many chose exile, the new evidence controversially challenges the belief that the Moors’ desire to convert Jews and the Muslims caused two separate migrations from Spain.

    Jane S. Gerber, an expert in Sephardic history at the City University of New York, believes the study shows that the numbers of religious conversions to Catholicism were “grossly underestimated.” The study, conducted by the American Journal of Human Genetics, gathered evidence through means of DNA testing and concluded that thousands of Spanish people, in particular Jews, converted to the Catholic faith in order to remain in the country.

    Francesc Calafell of the Pompeu Fabra University and Mark Jobling of Leicester University led the genetic study, which was based on an analysis of Y-chromosomes of Sephardic Jews in areas where they migrated to after being expelled from Spain in 1492 - 1496 and the DNA of over 1000 Spanish and Portuguese men. The geneticists then determined whether the participant’s Y chromosome came from a Jewish or Moorish predecessor or from another source.

    Stunningly, evidence revealed that 20 per cent of the Iberian Peninsula’s population has Sephardic Jewish ancestry and that 11 per cent of the Spanish and Portuguese population has DNA matching Moorish descent. Fransesc Calafell said he did not anticipate the findings. ”The Jewish link was particularly surprising, we had certainly not expected it,” he said. The compelling evidence sheds new light on previous beliefs that few Jews converted to Christianity in Spain during this period.

    The findings came as a surprise not only to historians and academics, but also to the men who participated in the DNA tests, many of who were completely oblivious of their ancestry.”

    - O – O – O – O – O - O -

    Portugal has the highest frequency of the female mediated mtDNA haplogroup L of Sub-Saharan origin in Europe. This is the result of the slave trade. In 2003, a study by Brehm at al. which analysed 525 Portuguese individuals reported mtDNA L haplogroups at 11.8% in the south, 8.1% in the center, 3.3% in the north and also found a significant Sub-Saharan imprint in the Autonomous regions of Portugal, with L haplogroups constituting about 13% of the lineages in Madeira and 3.4 % in the Azores.

    In a 2005 study by Pereira et al. that analysed 549 Portuguese individuals, sub-Saharan mtDNA L haplogroups were found at rates of 11.38% in the south, 5.02% in the center and 3.21% in the north.


    African Female Heritage in Iberia: A Reassessment of mtDNA Lineage Distribution in Present Times

    Human Biology,
    Volume 77, Number 2, April 2005

    “The Iberian peninsula is a peripheral region of Europe in close proximity to Africa. Its inhabitants have an overall mtDNA genetic landscape typical of European background, although with signs of some African influence, whose features we deemed to disclose by analyzing available mtDNA HVRI distributions and new data.

    We analyzed 1,045 sequences. The most relevant results are the following:

    (1) North African sequences (haplogroup U6) present an overall frequency of 2.39%, and sub-Saharan sequences reach 3.83%, values that are, in both cases, much higher than those generally observed in Europe; and


    (2) there is a substantial geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of these lineages (haplogroup L being the most frequent in the south, whereas haplogroup U6 is generally more common in the north).

    The analysis of the observed diversity within each haplogroup strongly suggests that both were recently introduced (in historical times).

    Although for haplogroup U6 the documented event that is demographically compatible is the Islamic period (beginning of the 8th century to the end of the 15th century), for haplogroup L the most probable origin is the modern slave trade (mid 15th century to the end of the 18th century).

    However, the observed geographic structuring for one of the haplogroups does not fit the expected distribution provided by simplistic historical considerations.

    In fact, although for haplogroup L the north-south increasing frequency is corroborated by historical data, the opposite trend, observed for haplogroup U6, is more difficult to reconcile with the magnitude and time span of the Islamic political and cultural influence, which lasted longer and was more intense in the south.

    To clarify this conundrum, we need not only a substantial increase in the amount of mtDNA data (particularly for North Africa) but also new historical data and interpretations.”


    HLA genes in Portugal inferred from sequence-based typing: in the crossroad between Europe and Africa

    Tissue Antigens,
    Volume 66, Number 1, July 2005 , pp. 26-36(11)

    “The human leukocyte antigen-A (HLA-A), -B and -DRB1 polymorphism was examined in the Portuguese population, discriminating between North, Centre and South inhabitants. All data were obtained at high-resolution level, using sequence-based typing.

    The most frequent allele at each locus was A* 020101 (26%), B* 440301 and B* 510101 (12% each) and DRB1* 070101 (15%).
    The predominant three-locus haplotype was A*020101-B*440301-DRB1*070101 (3.1%), highly frequent in North Portugal (5.4%), lower in Centre (2%) and absent in the South.

    The present study demonstrates that the Portuguese population has been genetically influenced by Europeans and North Africans, via several historic immigrations.


    North Portugal seems to concentrate, probably due to the pressure of Arab expansion, an ancient genetic pool originated from several North Africans and Europeans, influences throughout millenniums.

    South Portugal shows a North African genetic influence, probably of recent origin by means of Berbers accompanying Arab expansion.


    We found that Centre Portugal is the distribution limit of some alleles and haplotypes that characterize the North or the South of the country. Despite North, Centre and South Portugal not being significantly different in allele frequencies, this study shows that HLA allele and haplotype frequencies are not homogeneous in the country. North and South Portugal show more similarity to North Africans in opposition to Centre which appears closer to Europeans.”


    North African genes in Iberia studied by Y-chromosome DNA haplotype V

    Human Immunology
    , Volume 62, Issue 9, September 2001, Pages 885-888

    American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Science,Inc.

    “Haplotype V at the Y-chromosome specific DNA polymorphism (p49/TaqI) was reported in a study concerning 487 males originating from five different geographic locations in Iberia and North Africa. The highest frequency of haplotype V (68.9%) was previously observed in Berbers from Morocco, and it was previously established that this haplotype is a characteristic Berberian haplotype in North Africa.

    Percentages of haplotype V geographic distribution reveal a gradient of decreasing frequencies with latitude in Iberia: 40.8% in Andalusia, 36.2% in Portugal, 12.1% in Catalonia, and 11.3% in Basques; such a cline of decreasing haplotype V frequencies from the South to the North in Iberia clearly establishes a North African toward Iberian gene flow.”


    North African genes in Iberia studied by Y-chromosome DNA haplotype 5

    Human Biology
    , Oct 2001 by Lucotte, Gerard, Gerard, Nathalie, Mercier, Geraldine

    “In our own present data concerning southwest European frequencies, haplotype 15 frequencies are heterogeneous among the five populations studied. The study of variations in the frequency of haplotype 5, the second most frequent (31.6%) haplotype is the main purpose of the present study.

    The most elevated value obtained for haplotype 5 in our series was for Berbers (68.9%), and percentages of haplotype distributions show a gradient of decreasing frequency north from Morocco: 40.8% in Andalusia, 36.2% in Portugal, 12.1% in Catalonia, and 11.3% in the Basque region.

    Haplotype 5 frequencies are heterogeneous among the five populations tested; there is a significant Haplotype 5, the “Berber haplotype” (Lucotte et al. 2000), therefore allows assessment of the patrilineal North African gene flow into Iberia.
    For the corresponding matrilineal gene flow, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analyses have already shown that the Iberian Peninsula is differentiated in terms of levels of genetic diversity and presence of unique lineage groups (forte-Real et al. 1996).

    In this last study it might be considered that the North African Berber branch had some input into Iberia (quantified as approximately 10% in Spanish mtDNA lineages, 7% in Portuguese, and none in Basque). Initial studies on genetic markers corresponding to nuclear gene frequencies in human populations in the Iberian Peninsula (Bertranpetit and CavalliSforza 1991; Calafell and Bertranpetit 1993) have shown that the first principal component (PC) of gene frequencies (the percentage of variation explained by this factor being 27.1%) is that between people originally of Basque and nonBasque descent.

    The second PC (14.5% of variation explained, and 41.6% cumulated) points to the genetic divergence between Catalonia and the central and south central parts of Iberia. The third PC (12.3%, and 53.9% cumulated) concerns the Mediterranean as opposed to the Atlantic regions. The fourth and fifth factors cover a reasonable portion of variance (9.6% and 9.0%, respectively), but they were more difficult to interpret.”


    North African Berber and Arab Influences in the Western-Mediterranean Revealed by YChromosome DNA Haplotypes

    Human Biology
    , June 2006

    “We have analyzed Y-chromosome diversity in the western Mediterranean area, examining p49a,f TaqI haplotype V and subhaplotypes Vb (Berber) and Va (Arab). A total of 2,196 unrelated DNA samples, belonging to 22 populations from North Africa and the southern Mediterranean coast of occidental Europe, have been typed.

    Subhaplotype Vb, predominant in a Berber population of Morocco (63.5%), was also found at high frequencies in southern Portugal (35.9%) and Andalusia (25.4%). The Arab subhaplotype Va, predominant in Algeria (53.9%) and Tunisia (50.6%), was also found at a relatively high frequency in Sicily (23.1%) and Naples (16.4%); its highest frequency in Iberia was in northern Portugal (22.8%) and Andalusia (15.5%).

    In Iberia there is a gradient of decreasing frequencies in latitude for both subhaplotypes Va and Vb, related to eight centuries of Muslim domination (8th to 15th centuries) in southern Iberia. During the 7th century A.D., Muslim people coming from the Arabian peninsula and the Middle East invaded North Africa. The most important population movement relating both sides of the Mediterranean Sea was the conquest of the Iberian peninsula by North African populations (with recruited Berbers), soon after the first Muslim invasion.

    More than eight centuries (8th to 15th centuries) of Muslim domination in the southem part of Iberia imparted an important cultural legacy (Conrad 1998) and probable gene exchanges between North African and Iberian populations. Haplotype XV was also predominant in the first European study we published (Lucotte and Hazout 1996), with elevated frequencies in French Basques.
    The geographic distribution of haplotype XV in Europe reveals a gradient of decreasing frequencies from this Basque focus toward eastern peripheral countries (Lucotte and Loirat 1999) but also toward southwestern countries.

    According to the Y Chromosome Consortium (2002) nomenclature, haplotype XV corresponds to the M173 lineage (Dieterlen and Lucotte 2005). Haplotype V {A2,C0,D0,FI,ir) is the most frequent haplotype in North Africa (Lucotte et al. 2000), with a particularly high frequency (55%) in the populations with a relative predominance of Berber origin.


    Our previous study on the subject examined the relative frequencies of haplotype V in four Iberian populations compared with a Berber population living In North Africa (Lucotte et al. 2001). The highest frequency of baplotype V (68.9%) was observed in Berbers from Morocco, and the geographic distribution of haplotype V revealed a gradient of decreasing frequencies with latitude in Iberia (40.8% in Andalusia; 36.2% in Portugal; 12.1% in Catalonia, and 11.3% in the Basque Country) (Lucotte et al. 2001); such a dine of decreasing haplotype V frequencies from the south to the north in Iberia clearly established a gene flow from North Africa toward Iberia.”

    Reduced genetic structure of the Iberian peninsula revealed by Y-chromosome analysis: implications for population demography

    European Journal of Human Genetics
    (2004) 12, 855-863.

    “Europe has been influenced by both intra- and intercontinental migrations. Since the Iberian peninsula was a refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum, demographic factors associated with contraction, isolation, subsequent expansion and gene flow episodes have contributed complexity to its population history.

    In this work, we analysed 26 Y-chromosome biallelic markers in 568 chromosomes from 11 different Iberian population groups and compared them to published data on the Basques and Catalans to gain insight into the paternal gene pool of these populations and find out to what extent major demographic processes account for their genetic structure.

    Our results reveal a reduced, although geographically correlated, Y-chromosomal interpopulation variance (1.2%), which points to a limited heterogeneity in the region. Coincidentally, spatial analysis of genetic distances points to a focal distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups in this area.

    These results indicate that neither old or recent Levantine expansions nor North African contacts have influenced the current Iberian Y-chromosome diversity so that geographical patterns can be identified. Outside a European context, some studies have investigated the degree of African gene flow in Iberian populations.

    Although classical markers have failed to detect this influence, roughly 10% of Iberian mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplotypes have been found to be of African origin.
    Moreover, unlike the rest of Europe, the presence of markers with probable North African origin, the mtDNA U613,30 and the Y-chromosome E3b,26 points to a specific Northwest African influence in Iberia.
    Northwest African influences in the south of Iberia are reconciled with the slow reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the North by the Christians, which lasted seven centuries and ended in Granada in 1492.

    In fact, Bosch et al dated the specific Northwest African male influence to Iberia as E700 ybp, which they linked to the historical Islamic occupation. Favouring this, Lucotte et al27 detected that the characteristic Berber Y-chromosome haplotype p49a,f htV showed a gradient of decreasing frequencies with latitude in Iberia. As the Moslem influence in the Cantabrian fringe was barely appreciable, how can the Northwest African influence in northern parts of Iberia be explained?

    Other studies with the Y-chromosome, and also with other genetic markers, have detected this Northwest African influence in northern Iberia.”
    "Tolerance and apathy are the last virtues of a dying society."

    ~Aristotle

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    "Over the years, I and my book, March of the Titans, have been the subject of an intense amount of vitriolic attacks from people objecting to my mention of racial mixing in Southern Europe as being the cause of the decline of the classical civilizations.
    Ummm...hasn't that idea been around for a very long time. I mean...

    Hoskins, Richard - Our Nordic Race


    However, kudos to its confirmation.

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