Hum Biol. 2000 Aug;72(4):597-617.

HLA polymorphism and evaluation of European, African, and Amerindian contribution to the white and mulatto populations from Parana, Brazil.

Probst CM, Bompeixe EP, Pereira NF, de O Dalalio MM, Visentainer JE, Tsuneto LT, Petzl-Erler ML.

Departamento de Genetica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Brazil.

Polymorphism of classical HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ genes differs greatly among populations, both in frequencies and in the presence of alleles and haplotypes particular to population groups, making these genes powerful tools for the study of origins of populations and their degree of admixture. Antigen, allele, and haplotype frequencies, together with linkage disequilibrium patterns, are reported for 2 populations in the southern Brazilian state of Parana, one of predominantly European ancestry (white), the other of predominantly African and European ancestry (mulatto). Genetic distance estimates between the 2 groups and other populations studied previously, and of degree of admixture, were performed. In accordance with phenotypic classification, the white population is of predominantly European origin (80.6%), with a smaller contribution of African (12.5%) and Amerindian (7.0%) genes. The mulatto population consists of African (49.5%) and European (41.8%) ancestry, with a smaller but significant contribution of Amerindian (8.7%) ancestry. On the basis of history and population genetics, there is controversy regarding the Amerindian contribution to Parana's gene pool. These results provide a better picture of Parana's ethnic constitution and on the Amerindian contribution to the white and mulatto populations.