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Thread: Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure and Fitness

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    Post Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure and Fitness

    Int J Sports Med. 1998 Jul;19(5):328-35.

    Physical activity, energy expenditure and fitness: an evolutionary perspective.

    Cordain L, Gotshall RW, Eaton SB, Eaton SB 3rd.

    Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80323, USA.

    The model for human physical activity patterns was established not in gymnasia, athletic fields, or exercise physiology laboratories, but by natural selection acting over eons of evolutionary experience. This paper examines how evolution has determined the potential for contemporary human performance, and advances the experience of recently-studied hunter-gatherers as the best available (although admittedly imperfect) indicator of the physical activity patterns for which our genetically determined biology was originally selected. From the emergence of the genus Homo, over 2 million years ago (MYA), until the agricultural revolution of roughly 10000 years ago our ancestors were hunter-gatherers, so the adaptive pressures inherent in that environmental niche have exerted defining influence on human genetic makeup. The portion of our genome that determines basic anatomy and physiology has remained relatively unchanged over the past 40 000 years. Thus, the complex interrelationship between energy intake, energy expenditure and specific physical activity requirements for current humans remains very similar to that originally selected for Stone Age men and women who lived by gathering and hunting. Research investigating optimal physical activity for human health and performance can be guided by understanding the evolution of physical activity patterns in our species.

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    Post Re: Physical activity, energy expenditure and fitness (abstract)

    Thus, the complex interrelationship between energy intake, energy expenditure and specific physical activity requirements for current humans remains very similar to that originally selected for Stone Age men and women who lived by gathering and hunting. Research investigating optimal physical activity for human health and performance can be guided by understanding the evolution of physical activity patterns in our species.
    ...and of different populations races because of different adaptations especially from the Holocene on.

    I see in different races and body types not only an adaptation to environmental pressures in general, but to their subsistence pattern as well which is man-made but highly selective.

    Agriculturalists with their reduced, high fat-low energy bodies oftentimes, and herdsmen-mobile farmers-warriors with their low fat-medium energy, and H-G with their high fat-high energy bodies, at least in the temperated zones as one suggestion.

    Do you have any articles about pastoral-agricultural differences in Europe beside that one about Southern Russia with bone-growth-femur differences?
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    Post Re: Physical activity, energy expenditure and fitness (abstract)

    [QUOTE=Agrippa

    Agriculturalists with their reduced, high fat-low energy bodies oftentimes, and herdsmen-mobile farmers-warriors with their low fat-medium energy, and H-G with their high fat-high energy bodies, at least in the temperated zones as one suggestion.
    [/QUOTE]
    Do you have any articles of other information that would expand on your comments above?

    Thanks....interested in reading more on this particular subject.

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    Post Re: Physical activity, energy expenditure and fitness (abstract)

    Quote Originally Posted by RusViking
    Do you have any articles of other information that would expand on your comments above?

    I cant give you some, because most I read in books I borrowed, heard in lectures and in the end combined partly just by myself with just recent support by some articles and studies I read.

    The article about the growth differences between agriculturalists-pastoralists is here on Skadi, but dont know where to find atm.

    I can just give you the following facts out of my knowledge:

    a) Early agriculturalists had SIGNIFICANTLY worse nutrition than most European h-g.
    b) They were smaller and even there bone structure was usually more gracile than those of h-g, so it is unlikely that it was nutrition as nurture factor only, but a genetic difference also.
    It seems to be logical that high reproductive rates (young helping hands and more r-selection because of diseases and catastrophies which lead to high infant mortality) but a high fat-low energy level (for the bad times which came quite often)
    c) Pastoralists-herdsmen had usually a better nutrition, at least with more energy and less often periods of starvation with bottlenecks than agricult.
    d) The race charts show an interesting distribution of more reduced types in areas we would say are more influenced by agricult. adapted populations for a long time.
    e) high fat-low energy is no advantage in mobile, aggressive acting, strongly group selected pastoral groups, but for more peaceful, more frugal and static (in their cultural development) populations.

    There are many more arguments and I hope for many responses.
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    Post Re: Physical activity, energy expenditure and fitness (abstract)

    Quote Originally Posted by Agrippa
    I cant give you some, because most I read in books I borrowed, heard in lectures and in the end combined partly just by myself with just recent support by some articles and studies I read.

    The article about the growth differences between agriculturalists-pastoralists is here on Skadi, but dont know where to find atm.

    I can just give you the following facts out of my knowledge:

    a) Early agriculturalists had SIGNIFICANTLY worse nutrition than most European h-g.
    b) They were smaller and even there bone structure was usually more gracile than those of h-g, so it is unlikely that it was nutrition as nurture factor only, but a genetic difference also.
    It seems to be logical that high reproductive rates (young helping hands and more r-selection because of diseases and catastrophies which lead to high infant mortality) but a high fat-low energy level (for the bad times which came quite often)
    c) Pastoralists-herdsmen had usually a better nutrition, at least with more energy and less often periods of starvation with bottlenecks than agricult.
    d) The race charts show an interesting distribution of more reduced types in areas we would say are more influenced by agricult. adapted populations for a long time.
    e) high fat-low energy is no advantage in mobile, aggressive acting, strongly group selected pastoral groups, but for more peaceful, more frugal and static (in their cultural development) populations.

    There are many more arguments and I hope for many responses.
    I believe you are right on track. This is just my recent personal experience but very interesting: As soon as I received my FTDNA haplotype and they could not classify my haplogroup I went searching. Found the exact haplotype in supposedly UP (Basque and other types), H-G types. After awhile on the forum here and watching what people wrote, and being interested in nutrition, I went looking for a paleo diet, if you will, and found one. Thinking that it might fit my body better, I tried it. After one week this is what happened:

    1. Gastric and intestinal upset, of which I had been plagued all my life (minor but iritating (gas, bloated stomach, etc.), subsided almost completely. A fabulous result on its own.

    2. Stomach flattened out.

    3. Less hyper-energy, but felt good.

    4. Kept muscle mass longer. (After a few weeks I noticed this, after not working out for a few days)

    5. General feeling of being much healthier (less response certainly to pollen here in Florida)

    In a crude sense I thought that not being of the Neolithic type, perhaps I was not supposed to eat grass, while others are and have the stomachs for it.

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    Post Re: Physical activity, energy expenditure and fitness (abstract)

    Right, not the same diet for everyone. Just think about Lactoseintolerance and low energy-high fat levels.

    If such people eat the wrong things all the time it is not very likely that they feel really good, although the same diet might be optimal for another person.
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    Post Re: Physical activity, energy expenditure and fitness (abstract)

    Quote Originally Posted by Agrippa
    Right, not the same diet for everyone. Just think about Lactoseintolerance and low energy-high fat levels.

    If such people eat the wrong things all the time it is not very likely that they feel really good, although the same diet might be optimal for another person.
    What is also very interesting is that I have no problems with milk and dairy products and keep that in the diet for the nutritional value.

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    Post Re: Physical activity, energy expenditure and fitness (abstract)

    Quote Originally Posted by RusViking
    What is also very interesting is that I have no problems with milk and dairy products and keep that in the diet for the nutritional value.
    I have the idea that the Northern h-g had to rely even more on milk-dairy products than the Southern Neolithics which were better adapted to a less energy and more grain diet + more fruits which the Northerner lack even more - Vitamin problems.

    That could caused the strong selection trend for Lactosetolerance in Northern former h-g regions which adapted therefore a combined or pastoral economy.

    They just didnt adapt in the same way to grains-low energy as many Neolithic Southerners, they avoided it with a faster adaptation to milk-dairy.

    But thats just a personal speculation out of nothing from me.
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