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Thread: Danzig, Memel, Kolberg and Maribor - Do They Have Any German Population?

  1. #11
    Senior Member flâneur's Avatar
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    I remember reading about the last days of the ost front in Guy Sajers book The forgotton soldier.
    The soviet army herding civilians before them to add to the confusion and carnage.....

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    Quote Originally Posted by Untersberger View Post
    Hallo Herr Geyer,

    Welcome to my world in this instance regarding this very subject. The lost territories of German Speaking Europa can be seen in pictures all over my walls and it continues to break my heart as most were lost in purely acts of spite and also of course acts of cruel genocide which western historians blatantly choose to Ignore still to this very present day. The BRD Government more shamefully so..

    From Eupen to Strassburg to Meran to the Zips and from Danzig to Königsberg and from Stettin to the Sudetenland etc etc..

    It Hurts..

    @Tom Toms DANZIG does indeed have a German speaking population numbering approx in Ethnicity at about 30,000.. This was the last I heard and I must go and get that checked out.. This I heard about 2 years ago..
    bund der deutschen minderheit in Danzig:
    http://www.dfk-danzig.de/index.php?o...d=16&Itemid=62

    It's written, there is few thousands germans and people with german roots(and in neighbourhood), Danzig with its surroundings has circa 500 000 population, so they're not very significant there.

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    Quote Originally Posted by NorseWarrior View Post
    Amazing how such cities so close to Austria can be so ethnically cleansed of Germans.
    Post-war xenophobia/paranoia/anger?

    I sometimes have the feeling that the 'banishment' of Germans from many areas in C and E Europe is (almost) as bad as some of the atrocities committed by Nazi Germany. And it happened again in ex-Yugoslavia, if I remember correctly.

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    Senior Member Hilderinc's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by johanpeturdam View Post
    Post-war xenophobia/paranoia/anger?

    I sometimes have the feeling that the 'banishment' of Germans from many areas in C and E Europe is (almost) as bad as some of the atrocities committed by Nazi Germany. And it happened again in ex-Yugoslavia, if I remember correctly.
    Actually, the USSR persuaded all the Eastern Bloc countries to expel/deport to work camps/murder Germans, except Romania, but later the USSR came in and did it themselves.

    But the punishment of the Germans in these places was nothing in comparison to the horrors that the Germans who lived in the territories annexed by Poland and Russia faced.

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    Senior Member Hilderinc's Avatar
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    Below are the list of cities named on the map attached (which happens to be the original image that the map at the top of this page is based on)


    Gottschee



    1929

    Gottschee was founded at the end of the 13th century, carved out of the uninhabited mountain forests in what is today the south central part of Slovenia.

    The county of Gottschee was colonized in 1300 by the Carinthian counts of Ortenburg with settlers from Carinthia and Tyrol, and by other settlers who came from Austrian and German Dioceses of Salzburg, Brixen, and Freising. The settlers cleared the vacant and heavily forested land and established towns and rural villages.

    In 1350, the emperor made available 300 families from Thuringia in Germany, and this group formed the basis of the population of Gottschee County as a German-speaking language island in a duchy mostly inhabited by Slovenians.

    The people of Gottschee continued to preserve the customs of their ancestors. They also developed a distinct German dialect called Gottscheerisch. It was mainly a spoken language and those that were born there in the 1920s and 1930s still speak the language today (On the Links page, click Gottscheer Relief Association of New York to view and listen to the Gottscheerisch language.)
    ....................
    Today, the largest number of Gottscheers and their descendants live in the United States, many living in Ohio and New York, with smaller numbers living in Austria, Canada, Germany, and Slovenia.

    continued: http://www.gottschee.org/history.html

    (Slovene name Kočevje)


    Kremnitz




    In the 13th century the inhabitants of this area were affected by the invasion of the Mongols. Following that difficult period, Hungarian kings invited new colonists from Germany to settle in the region to help replenish the decimated population. They went on to restore the mining activities in the town. The first written reference to the town dates back to 1328, when it was granted royal town privileges by King Charles I of Hungary.

    As one of the most important centers of Protestant Reformation in the country, the town belonged to the Protestant "League of Seven Mining Towns" together with Dilln (Banská Belá), Neusohl (Banská Bystrica), Schemnitz (Banská Štiavnica), Libethen (Ľubietová), Königsberg (Nová Baňa), and Bugganz / Puk(k)an(t)z (Pukanec).

    According to the 2001 census, 95.8% of inhabitants were Slovaks and 1.2% Germans. Even among the Slovaks, there are many descendants of the Carpathian Germans

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kremnica

    (Slovakian name Kremnica)


    Munkatsch




    During the mid-late 18th century, the city came under Austrian control as part of the Kingdom of Hungary and was made a key fortress of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1726, the Palanok Castle and the town, before 1711 owned by the Rákóczi family, was given by the Habsburgs to the Schönborn family, who were responsible for an expansion of the town. They also settled many Germans in the territory, thereby causing an economic boom of the region.

    Ukrainian majority (77.1%), Germans (1.9%)

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mukachevo

    The section on how the Germans killed the jews living in this town is larger than the rest of the article, and they make no mention of the Soviet slaughter of the Germans.

    (Ukrainian name Mukachevo)


    Temeschburg (Temeswar)




    Temeschburg has been an important economic center since the 18th century when the Habsburg administration was installed. Due to Austrian colonization, ethnic and religious diversity and innovative laws, the economy began to develop. The technicians and craftsmen that settled in the city established guilds and helped develop the city's economy. Notably, in 1717 Temesvar became host to the region's first beer factory.

    Notably, the Hungarian and German communities experienced significant decline, with the latter being reduced by half between 1992 and 2002.

    The ethnic makeup, as of 2009, is as follows: 85.52% Romanian, 2.25% German

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timisoara

    (Romanian name Timişoara)


    Esseg




    According to the 1910 census, the city had 31,388 inhabitants. One source lists 12,625 as Croats, 11,269 (27.8%) as Germans or Danube Swabians, 7,500 as Jews, and 3,729 as Magyars

    After World War II the entire Danube Swabian population was expelled as a revenge for their participation in German occupation of Yugoslavia. Their property has become publicly owned and redistributed to the World War II victims. <-- but the expelled population with their possessions seized are not victims.

    1991 Census lists a total population of 165,253, composed of 110,934 (67.1 per cent) Croats, 276 (0.16%) Germans

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osijek

    (Croatian name Osijek)


    Leutschau




    After the Mongol invasions of 1241/1242, the area was also settled by Germans.

    Two damaging fires, the first in 1550 destroyed nearly all of the Gothic architecture and another in 1599. In this period of prosperity several churches were built and the town had a school, library, pharmacy, and physicians. There was a printing press as early as 1624. Leutschau was a center of the Protestant Reformation in Slovakia.

    Out of 14,366 inhabitants (2001 census) 1.61% were Lutherans; I will assume this to roughly be how many Germans there are, as it makes no mention of them except in the paragraphs I posted above.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levoca

    (Slovakian name Levoča)


    Will follow up with the other cities soon
    Attached Images Attached Images  

  6. #16
    Senior Member Hilderinc's Avatar
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    Werschetz




    From the Iron Age, there are traces of the Hallstatt culture and La Tène culture (which is largely associated with the Celts).

    In the beginning of the Habsburg rule (1716), its population numbered 75 houses. Soon, German colonists started to settle here. They founded new settlement known as Werschetz.

    In 1910, the population of the town numbered 27,370 inhabitants, of whom 13,556 spoke the German language.

    After 1944 Werschetz citizens of German ethnicity were sent to local communist concentration camps, and often tortured or killed by Tito's communist partisans. This genocide is seldom heard of and in fact Tito and his men are often celebrated both inside and outside Yugoslavia. Since 1944 when it was "liberated" by the Red Army's 46th Army, the town was part of the new Socialist Yugoslavia, and the German majority was ethnically cleansed.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vr%C5%A1ac

    (Serbian name Vršac)


    Bielitz-Biala




    In the second half of the 13th century, the Piast Dukes of Oppeln invited German settlers to land between Silesia and Lesser Poland in order to colonize the Silesian Beskids. Nearby settlements west of the Biała River were Nikelsdorf, Kamitz, Alt-Bielitz (now Stare Bielsko), Batzdorf and Kurzwald. Nearby settlements east of the river Bialka were Kunzendorf, Alzen and Wilmesau. Nearby settlements in the mountains were Lobnitz and Bistrai.

    During the First Partition of Poland in 1772, Biala was annexed by Austria and included in the crownland of Galicia. In 1918 both cities became part of a reconstituted Polish state, even though the majority of the population was ethnic German.

    After the "liberation" of the city by the Red Army in 1945, the ethnic German population was expelled.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bielsko-Biala

    (Polish name Bielsko-Biała)


    Fünfkirchen




    The city Sopianæ was founded by Romans at the beginning of the 2nd century, on an area peopled by Celts and Pannoni tribes. The area has been inhabited since ancient times, with the oldest archaeological findings being 6000 years old.

    The resumption of wine production by German and Bohemian immigrants, and the discovery of coal in the 18th century, spurred Fünfkirchen's development.

    2001 Census - Magyars - 92.6%, Germans - 3.1%

    Sorry, unable to find any more information than this, will update if I do.

    (Hungarian name Pécs)


    Bistritz




    Transylvanian Saxons settled the area in 1206 and called the region "Nösnerland".

    The main attraction of Bistritz's central square is the Lutheran church, which was built by the Transylvanian Saxons and originally constructed in the 14th century in Gothic style but later remodeled between 1559–1563 by Petrus Italus with Renaissance features. It was renovated in 1998.

    On June 11, 2008, the tower and roof of the church caught fire when 3 Gypsy children who went to steal copper set it on fire while playing. The main part of the church suffered just a little damage and is not in much danger, the interior being intact. It is speculated that both bells residing in the tower (one dating from the 15th century,the other from the 17th) might have melted.

    The Bistriţa-Năsăud County Museum, located in a former barracks, contains Thracian, Celtic, and German artifacts. 19th century fires destroyed much of the city's medieval citadel.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bistrita

    Can't find any population statistics, does anyone know how large the Saxon population is?

    (Romanian name Bistriţa)


    Troppau



    1900

    According to the Austrian census of 1910 the town had 30,762 inhabitants. The census asked people for their native language, 27,240 (92%) were German-speaking

    Already a day before Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland in 1938, the town seceded from its okres [county] and became its own Stadtkreis [free city]. After the end of World War II, the German population of Troppau was expelled in 1945–46 under terms included in the Beneš decrees; many of them settled in Bamberg, Germany.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opava

    (Czech name Opava)


    Olmütz




    Largely because of its ecclesiastical links to Austria, Salzburg in particular, the city had a German influence since the Middle Ages.

    the use of the Czech language in official matters went into decline and by the 19th century, the official statistics record that the number of Germans was three times higher than the number of Czechs.

    Germans were expelled at the end of WWII

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olomouc

    (Czech name Olomouc)


    Eger




    In 1149, by the marriage of Adela of Vohburg to the emperor Frederick I, Eger came into the possession of the House of Swabia, and remained in the hands of the emperors until the early 13th century, during which time it became an Imperial Free City.

    Austrian National Socialism and hence German National Socialism can trace its origins to Eger when Franko Stein transferred a small newspaper (Der Hammer) from Vienna to Eger in 1897. There he organized a German workers congress called the Deutschvölkischer Arbeitertag, which published the 25-point program.

    1930 - 31,406 inhabitants, of whom 3,493 (11%) were Czech. [the rest German]
    1947 - 14,533 inhabitants, due to the expulsion of ethnic Germans and resettlement of Czechs

    (Czech name Cheb)

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheb

  7. #17
    Senior Member Hilderinc's Avatar
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    Budweis




    The city was founded by Hirzo, a knight of King Ottokar II of Bohemia, and was granted its Municipal charter in 1265.

    The city was a German-speaking enclave from the 17th century to 1890. During the industrialization of the city, Czechs became again the ethnic majority. Until the Expulsion of Germans after World War II, the city contained a significant German minority (about 15.5% in 1930).

    1880 census:11,829 Germans and 11,812 Czechs

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceske_Budejovice

    (Czech name České Budějovice)


    Pilsen




    Pilsen was first mentioned as a castle in 976, as the scene of a battle between Duke Boleslaus II of Bohemia and Emperor Otto II.

    It quickly became an important town on trade routes leading to Nuremberg and Regensburg; in the 14th century, it was the third-largest town in Bohemia after Prague and Kuttenberg.

    Before 1860 the town was mostly German-speaking; after 1918 it was mostly Czech speaking. However much of the countryside to the west, north and south of the town continued to speak a local German dialect.

    Following Czechoslovak independence from Austria-Hungary in 1918 the German-speaking minority in the region had hoped to be united with Austria and were unhappy at being included in Czechoslovakia. Many allied themselves to the Nazi cause after 1933, in hopes that perhaps Adolf Hitler might be able to unite them with their German-speaking neighbours. In 1938 Pilsen became literally a frontier town, after the creation of the Sudetenland moved Germany's borders to the city's outer limits.

    The German-speaking population was forcibly expelled from the city and in fact all of Czechoslovakia after the end of war in 1945, according to provision in the Potsdam agreement. All of their property was confiscated.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plzen

    (Czech name Plzeň)


    Iglau




    The city's German name, Iglau, is derived from the German word for hedgehog, Igel, hence the hedgehog on the coat of arms.

    In the Middle Ages inhabited mostly by Germans (coming mostly from Northern Bavaria and Upper Saxony).

    After World War I the town constituted a German language island (Sprachinsel) within Slavic speaking Moravia. This affected local politics as it remained the centre of the second largest German-speaking enclave in the republic of Czechoslovakia (after Schönhengst (Hřebečsko)).

    After the Czechoslovak Republic was proclaimed on 28 October 1918, the indigenous Germans of Bohemia and Moravia, claiming the right to self-determination according to the 10th of President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, demanded that their homeland areas remain with the new Austrian State. The Volksdeutsche of Iglau relied on peaceful opposition to the Czech military occupation of their region, a process that started on 31 October 1918 and was completed on 28 January 1919. Thereafter extremist political figures like Hans Krebs, editor of the Iglauer Volkswehr newspaper, became prominent with the rise of Nazism and the Nazi occupation (1939–1945).

    The area remained, until the end of World War II, a distinctive regional folk culture reflecting hundreds of years of local customs. The town dialect of German was a unique branch of Mitteldeutsch. Musicians often used homemade instruments and original groups of four fiddles (Vierergruppen Fiedeln) and Ploschperment. Typical folk dances were the Hatschou, Tuschen and Radln. Peasant women like wearing old "pairische" Scharkaröckchen costumes with shiny dark skirts and big red cloths.

    After the end of World War II, and following the Beneš decrees, these German speaking Moravians were either slain or evicted; it is estimated that hundreds died on the arduous trek to Austria

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jihlava

    (Czech name Jihlava)


    Brünn




    Foreign colonists started to arrive from the 13th century: Germans, Flemish and Walloons, who settled around the Lower Square

    At the turn of the 20th century the problem of nationalism reached its height between the Czech and the German inhabitants; the majority German representation in the city administration ended in 1919.

    Majority of Germans were expelled after WWII

    http://www2.brno.cz/index.php?nav01=...=en&nav03=1555

    If I find more info, I will add

    (Czech name Brno)


    Zwittau




    The town was founded in around 1150, when monks set up the church and nearby village. A century later German speaking colonists were moved into the area.

    In 1930, 88.4 % of the population was German. In the beginning of the 20th century the town saw tensions between Czech and German speaking people.

    Germans were expelled after WWII

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svitavy

    Again, will add more info if I can find it.

    (Czech name Svitavy)


    Reichenberg




    Settled by German and Flemish migrants since the 14th century, Reichenberg was once home to a thriving textile industry and hence nicknamed the "Manchester of Bohemia"

    After World War I, the Lands of Crown of Bohemia, consisting of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia one of the parts of Austria overthrowed the Hapsburg rule to became independent. All those lands had mixed population of Czech and German language; some Germans refused to be incorporated into Crown of Bohemia, citing Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points and the doctrine of Self Determination. An independent Sudeten German provinces of Austria was briefly formed with Reichenberg as the nominal Capital. Therefore, Czechoslovak Army occupied with no military clashes the whole area of the secessionist provinces and reintegrated them into Crown of Bohemia which was renamed to Czechoslovakia.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, Reichenberg became unofficial capital of Germans in Czechoslovakia. This position was underlined by foundations of important institution, like Buecherei der Deutschen, a central German library in Czechoslovakia, and by failed effort to relocate German (Charles) University from Prague to Reichenberg.

    High number of unemployed people, hunger, fear of future and ignorance of Prague government led to the flash rise of populist SdP Party founded by Konrad Henlein, born in the suburbs of Reichenberg.

    The city became the centre of Pan-German movements and later the Nazis especially after the 1935 election

    After WWII nearly all of the city's German population was expelled following through the Beneš decrees.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberec

    (Czech name Liberec)


    Teplitz-Schönau




    With the dissolution of Austria-Hungary after World War I, the predominantly German-speaking population found itself in newly established Czechoslovakia. Right-wing political groups like the German National Socialist Worker's Party referred to themselves as Volksdeutsche and began to urge for a unification with Germany, their efforts laid the foundation for the rise of the Sudeten German Party under Konrad Henlein after 1933. With the Sudetenland, Teplitz was annexed by Nazi Germany according to the 1938 Munich Agreement.

    After World War II the Czechoslovak government enacted the Beneš decrees, whereafter the "Ethnic German" population was expelled from Teplitz.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teplice

    (Czech name Teplice)


    -----------------------------------------
    I have to admit, I only thought Prussian culture was completely destroyed after WWII. I never knew how many unique German cities there were throughout Austria-Hungary. I almost feel ashamed for my ignorance


    (this concludes my set of posts)

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