Page 1 of 4 1234 LastLast
Results 1 to 10 of 31

Thread: Racial Anthropology, Genetics and Origins of the Jews

  1. #1
    Member

    Join Date
    Aug 2007
    Last Online
    Saturday, February 8th, 2020 @ 03:48 AM
    Ethnicity
    Katarinensische
    Subrace
    Dinarid
    Gender
    Age
    44
    Family
    Single adult
    Posts
    1,243
    Thanks Thanks Given 
    0
    Thanks Thanks Received 
    6
    Thanked in
    6 Posts

    Racial Anthropology, Genetics and Origins of the Jews

    The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East

    Almut Nebel,1 Dvora Filon,2 Bernd Brinkmann,4 Partha P. Majumder,5 Marina Faerman,3 and Ariella Oppenheim1

    1Department of Hematology, Hebrew UniversityHadassah Medical School, 2Hadassah University Hospital, and 3Laboratory of Biological Anthropology and Ancient DNA, Hebrew UniversityHadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem; 4Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster, Germany; and 5Anthropology and Human Genetics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta

    Received June 18, 2001; accepted for publication August 27, 2001; electronically published September 25, 2001.

    A sample of 526 Y chromosomes representing six Middle Eastern populations (Ashkenazi, Sephardic, and Kurdish Jews from Israel; Muslim Kurds; Muslim Arabs from Israel and the Palestinian Authority Area; and Bedouin from the Negev) was analyzed for 13 binary polymorphisms and six microsatellite loci. The investigation of the genetic relationship among three Jewish communities revealed that Kurdish and Sephardic Jews were indistinguishable from one another, whereas both differed slightly, yet significantly, from Ashkenazi Jews. The differences among Ashkenazim may be a result of low-level gene flow from European populations and/or genetic drift during isolation. Admixture between Kurdish Jews and their former Muslim host population in Kurdistan appeared to be negligible. In comparison with data available from other relevant populations in the region, Jews were found to be more closely related to groups in the north of the Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turks, and Armenians) than to their Arab neighbors. The two haplogroups Eu 9 and Eu 10 constitute a major part of the Y chromosome pool in the analyzed sample. Our data suggest that Eu 9 originated in the northern part, and Eu 10 in the southern part of the Fertile Crescent. Genetic dating yielded estimates of the expansion of both haplogroups that cover the Neolithic period in the region. Palestinian Arabs and Bedouin differed from the other Middle Eastern populations studied here, mainly in specific high-frequency Eu 10 haplotypes not found in the non-Arab groups. These chromosomes might have been introduced through migrations from the Arabian Peninsula during the last two millennia. The present study contributes to the elucidation of the complex demographic history that shaped the present-day genetic landscape in the region.

  2. #2
    Member

    Join Date
    Sep 2003
    Last Online
    Thursday, November 20th, 2008 @ 08:58 PM
    Country
    Other Other
    Gender
    Posts
    767
    Thanks Thanks Given 
    0
    Thanks Thanks Received 
    2
    Thanked in
    2 Posts

    Post Anthropological plates: Jews

    Jews from Krakow


    source: J Talko Hryncewicz “Czlowiek na ziemiach naszych”

    left: laponoid Jew,
    right: armenoid Jew

    left: mix oriental/mediteranean types
    right: Jew- noridid type

    source: J.Czekanowski “Czlowiek w czasie i przestrzeni”

  3. #3
    Senior Member
    Willigut's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2005
    Last Online
    Sunday, November 15th, 2009 @ 06:40 PM
    Subrace
    Megalithic Atlantomediterranid
    Gender
    Age
    37
    Politics
    Nacionalsocijalista
    Posts
    78
    Thanks Thanks Given 
    0
    Thanks Thanks Received 
    0
    Thanked in
    0 Posts

    Post Racial composition of the "Biblical" Jews (pics and map).

    Both Carleton S. Coon and Hans F.K. Gunther agreed that Jews are a mixture of races especially from the time of Diaspora (70 A.D.), when they have mixed with European and some Asiatic gentile populations.


    The Southern Jews make up the main Jewish population of Africa, the Balkans, Italy, Spain, and Portugal, and part of this population in France, Holland, and England. They show a mixture of Oriental, Hither Asiatic, Mediterranean, Hamitic, Nordic, and Negro, the Oriental predominating. The Eastern Jews make up the Jewish population of Russia, Poland, Galicia, Austria, and Germany; probably the greater part of that of North America; and part of that of Western Europe. They show a mixture of Hither Asiatic, Oriental, East Baltic, Inner Asiatic, Nordic, Hamitic, and Negro, the Hither Asiatic predominating to a certain extent.

    -From THE RACIAL ELEMENTS OF EUROPEAN HISTORY by Hans F.K. Gunther.


    The Jews have been left to the end because they do not as a whole fit into any single
    racial classification heretofore outlined.


    -From THE RACES OF EUROPE by Carleton S. Coon.


    But even today, by my experience in Serbia, many Jews especially from tribes of Levi and Kohanim (which are from rabbinic pure blood lines) kept theirs unique Racial substance from Biblical times. That is Oriental/Hither Asiatic (Armenoid) mixture with Hamitic and Negro strain; they also get some Nordic blood from Amorites and maybe Philistines. This is "classic Jewish" type from anti-Semitic cartoons. See pictures bellow.

  4. #4
    Senior Member
    Willigut's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2005
    Last Online
    Sunday, November 15th, 2009 @ 06:40 PM
    Subrace
    Megalithic Atlantomediterranid
    Gender
    Age
    37
    Politics
    Nacionalsocijalista
    Posts
    78
    Thanks Thanks Given 
    0
    Thanks Thanks Received 
    0
    Thanked in
    0 Posts

    Racial Biology of the Jews by Baron Otmar von Verschuer

    Excellent study by famous Racial theoretician in Third Reich! Taken from http://www.jrbooksonline.com
    Attached Files Attached Files

  5. #5
    New Member
    Join Date
    Aug 2003
    Last Online
    Friday, January 13th, 2006 @ 04:08 AM
    Subrace
    Don't know
    Location
    Michigan
    Gender
    Age
    46
    Politics
    Don't know yet
    Posts
    12
    Thanks Thanks Given 
    0
    Thanks Thanks Received 
    0
    Thanked in
    0 Posts

    Re: Racial composition of the "Biblical" Jews (pics and map).

    Can you provide pictures as examples? Thanks for the references as I was looking for this type of information.
    a.k.a.: PHPZend

  6. #6
    Senior Member
    Willigut's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2005
    Last Online
    Sunday, November 15th, 2009 @ 06:40 PM
    Subrace
    Megalithic Atlantomediterranid
    Gender
    Age
    37
    Politics
    Nacionalsocijalista
    Posts
    78
    Thanks Thanks Given 
    0
    Thanks Thanks Received 
    0
    Thanked in
    0 Posts

  7. #7
    Member
    RusViking's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2004
    Last Online
    Monday, July 31st, 2006 @ 12:10 AM
    Subrace
    Nordid
    Country
    United States United States
    Location
    Florida
    Gender
    Age
    69
    Family
    Married
    Occupation
    Executive
    Politics
    Live and let live.
    Religion
    None
    Posts
    327
    Thanks Thanks Given 
    0
    Thanks Thanks Received 
    1
    Thanked in
    1 Post

    Interesting study on the Jews:

    http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.pdf

    "Rather, modern Jews exhibit a diversity of genetic profiles, some reflective of their Semitic/Mediterranean ancestry, but others suggesting an origin in European and Central Asian groups. The blendings of European, Semitic, Central Asian and Mediterranean heritage over the centuries has let to today's Jewish population."
    AKA rossi, rusman

    If you adhere to the truth, and have a good grounding in logic and the scientific method, then, you might, just might, know something sometime.

  8. #8
    Member
    „Friend of Germanics”
    Funding Membership Inactive
    visigodo's Avatar
    Join Date
    Sep 2004
    Last Online
    @
    Ethnicity
    Spanish
    Ancestry
    Spain
    Subrace
    Nordid
    Country
    European Union European Union
    Gender
    Politics
    European Nationalist.
    Posts
    804
    Thanks Thanks Given 
    0
    Thanks Thanks Received 
    0
    Thanked in
    0 Posts

    Lightbulb Physical Anthropology of the Jews

    By Joseph Jacobs & Maurice Fishberg


    Anthropometry


    Measurements of Jews have been taken sporadically in most European countries with the following results: The average height of Jews is 162.1 cm.; span of arms, 169.1 cm.; and girth around the chest, about 81 cm.: so that they are the shortest and narrowest of Europeans. Their skulls are mainly brachycephalic; that is, the breadth is generally over 80 per cent of the length. This has been used as an argument against the purity of race, as most Semites—like the Arabs and Syrians—are dolichocephalic, or longheaded. But, as Jewish skulls are almost the broadest in all Europe, it is difficult to say how this characteristic could have arisen from any mixture: it is probably due to cerebral development.


    As regards complexion, Jews are darker than the surrounding peoples in Europe, except Galicia. The hair is also darker; on the average 15 per cent having black hair as against 3 to 4 per cent in the general European populations. Curiously enough, there is a larger proportion of red-haired men among Jews than in any other race; possibly due to want of nutrition. Jewesses seem to be more keen-sighted and to have greater strength of grip than other women. Among Jews about one-fifth have blue eyes, against one-third in the general populations. Altogether about one-fourth of the Jews can be described as fair, as against one-half of the populations among whom they dwell. The nose is generally considered the characteristic feature of the Jews, who have, on the average, the longest (77 mm.) and narrowest (34 mm.). Its characteristic shape is due to the accentuation of the nostrils, which gives it the "figure 6" formation. The lips of Jews are also characteristic, as large a proportion as 48 per cent being thick.

    These features are the elements that go to make the marked Jewish type, which has been defined "as Semitic features with ghetto expression": it is found in the Assyrian bas-reliefs as well as in the ghetto of today. From composite portraits of Jewish lads, the Jewish face has been defined as possessing "accentuated flexible nostrils; largish mouth, with ends well marked, and pouting under-lip; heavy chin; broad forehead with prominent superciliary ridges scantily covered with hair toward the outer extremities; and large, brilliant, dark eyes, set closely together, with heavy upper and protuberant lower lid, having a thoughtful expression in youth, transformed to a keen and penetrating gaze in manhood."

    The above results are averages taken from different numbers and different classes, and consequently vary in trustworthiness. The details as to hair, eye, and complexion are based upon the examination of no less than 120,000 individuals; those with regard to the nose, upon only 119. Differences in social position are found to affect results considerably; thus, while 12,000 Jews gave an average height of 162.1 cm., that of 130 English Jews of the better class was 170.8 cm. The predominantly narrow girth of Jews would give them what is technically known as the lowest "index of vitality"; but statistics prove otherwise.



    ANTHROPOLOGICAL TYPES

    Correlated norms of racial qualities. Individuals who present an interrelation between the color of the hair and that of the eyes are considered typical representatives of their race. In the blond races fair hair is generally accompanied by blue eyes; in brunette races brown or black hair is generally accompaniedby dark eyes. The former are considered anthropologically blond types; the latter, brunette types. Individuals who do not exhibit such an interrelation of the color of the hair and eyes, having dark hair with blue eyes and vice versa, are called mixed types. Owing to the preponderance of dark hair and eyes among the Jews (
    see Eye (1); Hair (2)), anthropologists have counted them among the races of a brunette type.

    From extensive investigations of the color of the hair and eyes of the school-children in Germany, Virchow has shown that the Jews have not maintained their type in as pure a state as has been generally supposed. Of 75,377 Jewish children examined, only 46.83 per cent were brunettes having both dark hair and dark eyes; 11.17 per cent were blonds having light hair and light-colored eyes; and 42 per cent were of the mixed type having either dark hair with fair eyes, or vice versa. In Austria, according to Schimmer, 32 to 47 per cent (according to the province) of the Jewish children are pure brunettes, and 8 to 14 per cent are pure blonds. In Bulgaria, Wateff has found that only 49.57 per cent of Jewish children are brunettes, while 8.71 are blonds and 41.72 are of mixed type; and even in North Africa, where the dark type predominates among the Jews, 76.40 per cent are brunettes, 4.62 per cent are blonds, and 18.98 per cent are of mixed type.

    See Types of Pigmentation in Jews of Various Countries.
    http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/table.jsp?table_id=463&volid=12&title=TY PES, ANTHROPOLOGICAL:


    Among Jewish adults anthropological investigation has shown that the brunette type is not in the majority. From the accompanying table it will be observed that the percentage of brunettes is only 43 among the Galician Jews, while it reaches as high as 74 per cent among Lithuanian Jewesses. Blonds are very rare among the Jews of Russian Poland; but among other classes they are encountered quite often. Among the Little-Russian Jews the proportion reaches 16 per cent. The mixed types are everywhere found in the proportion of from 30 to 40 per cent of all the individuals examined.



    Origin of Blond and Mixed Types


    The origin of the blond and mixed types among the Jews has been a favorite topic of discussion for many anthropologists. Some have maintained that they are the product of intermixture with the indigenous peoples of the European countries in which the Jews have lived; others show that even among Jews who do not live among blond races, as, for instance, those of Syria, Tunis, Morocco, and Algiers, many blonds are met with. It is also shown that if intermixture with northern European races were the origin of the blond Jews, the countries whose non-Jewish populations present the largest percentage of blonds, as Prussia, Lithuania, etc., should have the largest proportion of Jewish blonds also. On the other hand, in the south and the east of Europe, where the Gentiles are darker, more Jewish brunettes and fewer blonds should be found. That this is not the case is shown by the following figures, taken from Virchow's census of the color of the hair and eyes of school-children in Germany:

    See table
    http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/table.jsp?table_id=464&volid=12&title=TY PES, ANTHROPOLOGICAL:


    These figures show in a striking manner that in the provinces of Germany where the percentage of brunettes is smallest among the Christian population—in Prussia, for instance, only 14.05 per cent—the Jews have 42.34 per cent of brunettes; while in Alsace-Lorraine and Bavaria, where the Christians show 25.21 and 21.1 per cent of brunettes respectively, the Jews have only 34.59 and 39.45 per cent respectively of such. This is further confirmed by the following figures (from the works of Virchow and Schimmer) showing the distribution of Jewish pure blond and brunette types in Germany and Austria:


    See table
    http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/table.jsp?table_id=465&volid=12&title=TY PES, ANTHROPOLOGICAL:


    Distribution of Blonds


    It is evident from these figures that the farther one goes south and east in Europe, the smaller is the percentage of brunettes encountered among the Jews and the larger the percentage of blonds. With the non-Jewish-population the reverse is the fact. Most of the blonds are found in Prussia, Pomerania, Sleswick-Holstein, Hanover, Westphalia, etc., while farther east, reaching to Posen, Silesia, Bohemia, Moravia, Upper and Lower Austria, Bukowina, and Galicia, the percentage of pure blonds decreases and that of brunettes increases. It is also noteworthy, as has been pointed out by Virchow, that in localities where, owing to religious and social prejudices, the Jews have lived for centuries in strict isolation from other races, and presumably have not intermarried with their Gentile neighbors, the proportion of blond types is larger than in the Prussian provinces, where they have not been socially isolated, but, on the contrary, have entered into general social intercourse with the non-Jewish inhabitants. Here the largest proportion of brunettes is found among the German and Austrian Jews. But it must be mentioned that in Algiers, Tunis, and Morocco, where the indigenous population is of a dark type, the Jews also are darker.

    It has been suggested that the blond type among the Jews is due to intermixture with the so-called Aryan, or north-European, races, in proof of which the following argument has been advanced: The Aryan type is known to consist in the combination of blond hair, blue eyes, tall stature, and dolichocephalism or long-headedness. Among the Galician Jews, Majer and Kopernicki found that while among the brunette Jews 6.2 per cent are dolichocephalic, 20 per cent of the blond Jews of the same section are so. This has been repeatedly cited as evidencing a relation between blondness and long-headedness among the Jews in Galicia, and is thought to be due to Teutonic intermixture. In Odessa, Pantukhof ("Proc. Russian Anthropological Society," pp. 26-30, St. Petersburg, 1889) has found that the Jews who have dark hair and eyes are of short stature, while those who have fair eyes and hair are taller. In Caucasia the same author has observed that the Jews with fair eyes measure on the average 1.644 meters, and those with dark eyes 1.617 meters only. But all these conclusions are based on a small number of cases, and other investigations tend to disprove them. In Baden, Otto Ammon found no relation between blond hair, blue eyes, and dolichocephalism, while in Poland, Elkind noticed that Jews with dark hair and eyes were taller than those with fair hair and light eyes, which phenomena are the reverse of those in the so-called Aryan type.

    Similar results were obtained by Fishberg in his observations of the immigrant Jews in New York. The darker Jews had practically the same head-form (cephalic index 81.97) as the blond-haired (82.35). The same was the case with tall Jews as compared with those of short stature: the craniometrical lines were about the same. Indeed, Jews with fair hair and eyes were taller than those with dark hair and eyes.
    Fishberg concludes from all the statistics gathered by him that the ideal Aryan type is not to be observed among the Jews. On the contrary, the rule appears to be that tall persons have darker hair and eyes, and that a smaller percentage of them are dolichocephalic; while Jews of short stature are of fairer complexion and include a larger percentage of dolichocephalic persons. This tends to exclude the hypothesis that Aryan influence is the cause of the Jewish blond type; but it tends to confirm the theory of admixture from the Slavonian type.

    Bibliography:

    M. Fishberg, Materials for the Physical Anthropology of the Eastern European Jews, in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1905;
    S. Wateff, Anthropologische Beobachtungen der Farbe der Augen, der Haare und der Haut bei den Schulkindern von den Türken, Pomaken, Tataren, Armenier, Griechen und Juden in Bulgarien, in Correspondenzblatt der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, 1903, xxxiv., Nos. 7, 8.

    What is popularly known as "the Jewish type" is not a correlation of definite anthropological measures or characteristics, but consists principally in a peculiar expression of face, which is immediately and unmistakably recognized as "Jewish" in a large number of cases of persons of the Jewish race. It has been observed that children in New York, Gentile as well as Jewish, can unerringly distinguish between Jew and Gentile, whether juvenile or adult. The negroes of the Gold Coast are said to differentiate the two types of Europeans with equal exactitude, saying "here come two whites and a Jew," instead of "here come three whites" (Andree, "Zur Volkskunde der Juden," p. 38).

    Yet when taken together in large numbers, a considerable proportion of Jews fail to betray their racial provenience. In collective photographs of Jewish school-children and inmates of institutions it has been found that while about 53 per cent of the subjects can be more or less certainly identified as Jews by their facial expression, the remaining 47 per cent fail to show any distinctive feature which would definitely mark them as Semites, though if compared with Gentiles of the same class they could probably be differentiated. It has also been remarked that persons who do not have the Jewish expression in their youth acquire it more and more as they grow from middle to old age. Although Jewesses appear to be more variable in appearance than Jews, they seem to show the type in its greatest purity when they actually are Jewish in features.



    Expression


    The precise nature of this Jewishness is very difficult to determine with any degree of certainty or accuracy. Evidently it is not in any one feature, for whenever any single trait, such as the shape of the nose or the brilliancy of the eyes, is assumed to be characteristic, the very next example is liable to disprove the validity of the test. The sole attempt to obtain any scientific discrimination of the Jewish expression was made by F. Galton and Joseph Jacobs in 1885, by means of composite portraiture. In their experiments Jewish boys of the Jewish Free School, London, were selected as being typically Jewish in appearance, and full-face and profile photographs were first taken on a uniform scale, and then superimposed on a single plate, so that the eyes and mouth in each case fell upon the same spots on the plate. By this means all the varying traits and features blurred out, while the common characteristics were emphasized and became stronger. The results were given in "The Photographic News," April, 1885, and in "The Journal of the Anthropological Institute," 1885.


    Composite Portraits


    The full-face composite here given is made up of (a) that of five Jewish lads, (b) that of another five, and (c) one of (a) and (b), thus giving the summary of the characteristic features of ten typically Jewish boys. The result is remarkably Jewish in appearance, and it will be found that this character is given by the eyebrows, eyes, nose, and lips, while the position and contour of the cheek-bone also serve to determine it. The eyebrows are generally well-defined, somewhat bushy toward the nose, and tapering off toward the extremities. The eyes themselves are generally brilliant, both lids are heavy and bulging, and it seems to be the main characteristic of the Jewish eye that the upper lid covers a larger proportion of the pupil than among other persons. This may serve to give a sort of nervous, furtive look to the eyes, which, when the pupils are small and set close together with semistrabismus, gives keenness to some Jewish eyes. The lymph-sac beneath the eye is generally fuller and more prominent than among non-Jews. The high cheek-bone gives as a rule the hollow cheek that adds to the Jewish expression, while the nose in full face can be discerned only by the flexibility of the nostrils, the chief Jewish characteristic of this organ (see Nose (3)). The upper lip is generally short, and the lower projects, giving a somewhat sensual appearance to the face. The chin almost invariably recedes from the lip, leaving an indentation beneath it in the great majority of instances. The ears of many Jewish persons project, and in boys increase the impression of Jewishness.


    Adults


    With growth, as already noted, the Jewish expression becomes even more marked. In males this may be due to the appearance of the mustache and beard, and it is frequently found that the mustache is somewhat sparse, a rather bare portion intervening between the tuft under the nostril and the mustache proper. The beard is in some cases comparatively thick and in others luxuriant, curling, and parting naturally. It is to be observed that some Jewish faces have almost all of these stigmata. The miniature of Spinoza (Jew. Encyc. xi. 512) shows the brilliant and sensitive eye, the conspicuous nostril, and the thick underlip. That of Benfey (ib. iii. 16) has the projecting ears, the thick underlip, and the conspicuous alæ of the nose, while the lymph-sac is well developed and the pupil of the eye is nearly half hidden by the upper lid. The same characteristic will be seen in the portrait of Moses Berlin (ib. iii. 80), which has, in addition, the marked eyebrows and the curved nostril.

    Besides all these details, there is something in the whole formation of the face which is generally found in the Jewish type. As a rule, the face is oval in shape, especially in the best type of Jewesses, and if regarded in profile, it is distinctly convex, the nose being, as it were, an appendix to the ellipsoid. It is rare indeed that a Jew is found with a prognathous jaw.

    Notwithstanding the similarity of expression found in large measure among all Jews, there are a number of distinctions which enable a close observer to distinguish between various subtypes of the Jew. Close attention to Talmudic study, combined with the peculiar work of the sweat-shop, produced in eastern Europe what is known as "the ghetto bend." The need for wearing phylacteries on the forehead while the head is covered has led in many instances to the hat being worn upon the back of the head. These two characteristics often enable observers to identify Jews from eastern Europe, even before their faces are seen. Among them, too, it has been claimed, various subdivisions can be discerned, consisting mainly in differences in the projection of the cheek-bones, the formation of the eyelids, and the thickness of the lips. It has even been held by those who believe in a strong admixture from surrounding nations that there is a Slavonic, Mongoloid, and Armenioid type of the Jew, due to admixture of Slavic, Tatar, or Armenian blood. Luschan indeed professes to regard the last-named as the original source of the Jewish race.


    Numbers of Jews are found, on the other hand, who possess none of the characteristics here noted, and yet are recognizable as Jews. This is especially true of the Little-Russians, who apparently resemble their Gentile neighbors in every facial characteristic, but are differentiated from them by some subtile nuance which distinguishes them as Semites. It is seemingly some social quality which stamps their features as distinctly Jewish. This is confirmed by the interesting fact that Jews who mix much with the outer world seem to lose their Jewish quality. This was the case with Karl Marx, Halévy the musician (Meyerbeer was remarkably Jewish), Sir Julian Goldsmid, Sir John Simon (in whom there was a mixture of Gentile blood), Sir David Salomons, and Rubinstein. Two illustrious living Italians, Lombroso and Luzzatti, would scarcely be taken for Jews; and even the late Theodor Herzl was not distinctively Jewish, all observers drawing attention to his resemblance to the Assyrian rather than to the Jewish type.

    (1) Eye.
    Bibliography: Jacobs, Jewish Statistics, pp. xxxii.-xxxiv.J.


    — Biblical Data:


    This important organ is mentioned more than 800 times in the Bible, but is described only in its external appearance and significance, according to the experience of daily life. The following parts are mentioned: the eyeball ("bat 'ayin" = "girl of the eye," "little doll"; Lam. ii. 18; "babat 'ayin," Zech. ii. 12; comp. Levy, "Chal. Wörterb." i. 419b); the pupil ("ishon" = "little man," whose image appears in the eye as in a mirror; Deut. xxxii. 10; Ps. xvii. 8; Prov. vii. 2; comp. Prov. vii. 9, xx. 20); the eye-socket ("or"; Zech. xiv. 2); the eyelashes ("'ap'appayim"; Ps. xi. 4; Prov. vi. 25; by synecdoche = "the eye"; comp. Job xli. 10); the eyelids ("shemurot"; Ps. lxxvii. 5), and the eyebrows ("gabbot 'enaw"; Lev. xiv, 9).

    The eye of the Oriental is not only large, but it is also very strong. It appears from Gen. xxix. 17 that weak eyes were an exception. Near-sightedness, far-sighteduess, and weak-sightedness are not mentioned. The eye became weak, heavy, or fixed in old age (Gen. xxvii. i.; Deut. xxxiv. 10, I Sam. iv. 15; compare also Eccl. xii. 3). The sight was also impaired by sorrow and misfortune (Ps. vi. 8, xxxi. 10, lxxxviii. 10; Job xvii. 7). The eye is the source of tears (Jer. viii. 23); and tears flowed often and copiously (Lam. i. 16; iii. 48, 49; Ps. cxix. 136), injuring and even ruining the eyes (Lam. ii. 11, iii. 51; I Sam. ii. 33; Jer. xiv. 6). Sorrow dims and obscures the eyes (Lev. xxvi. 16; Deut. xxviii. 32, 65; Job xxxi. 16; Lam. v. 17); while under favorable circumstances they light up (I Sam. xiv. 27, 29). The eye is said to be affected by emotions in general (Ps. lxix. 4; cxix. 82, 132). The fat eye of persons addicted to high living protrudes (Ps. lxxiii. 7); much drinking of wine makes the eye deep red (Gen. xlix. 12; Prov. xxiii. 29). The son closed the eyes of his dead parent (Gen. xlvi. 4).


    Diseases and Care of the Eye


    How far blindness—very frequent in antiquity—prevailed in ancient Israel can not be determined from the references found in the Bible. Blind persons are spoken of comparatively seldom (see Jew. Encyc. iii. 248, s.v. Blind, The). If a priest became blind or had a spot on his eye ("teballul be-'eno"; Lev. xxi. 20), he was not allowed to officiate at the sacrifice. Diseases of the eye were not recognized as such, since the oculist's art was not at all developed among any ancient people except the Egyptians; hence nothing has been transmitted on this point, and the nature of the diseases mentioned can not be definitely determined. The reference to the "shut" eyes (Isa. xliv. 18) indicates that an inflammation of the eyes is generally meant; and the same may be assumed from the expressions used to denote "opening the eyes" (Isa. xlii. 7, xxix. 19, xxxv. 5; comp. ib. xliii. 8; Num. xxii. 31; Ps. cxix. 18). The original inhabitants of Palestine are called figuratively "pricks" and "thorns" in the eyes (Num. xxxiii. 55; Josh. xxiii. 13). In regard to the care of the eyes, it is said that smoke injures them (Prov. x. 26). Women used a cosmetic for the eye consisting of a mixture of plumbagin and zinc, which they applied to the inner surface of the eyelids in such a way as to produce a narrow black rim, making the eyes appear larger (II Kings ix. 30; Jer. iv. 30; Isa. liv. 11; Ezek. xxiii. 40).


    Blinding as a Punishment


    The barbaric custom of putting out the eyes was practised quite frequently. Samson was blinded by the Philistines, and King Zedekiah by the Babylonians (Judges xvi. 21; II Kings xxv, 7; Jer. xxxix. 7, lii, 11). The Ammonites consented to make peace with the inhabitants of Jabesh only on condition that all of them would submit to having their right eyes "thrust out" (I Sam. xi. 2). The "lex talionis" is expressed by the phrase "eye for eye" (Ex. xxi. 24; Lev. xxiv. 20; Leut. xix. 21; comp. Ex. xxi. 26). The custom of putting out the eyes was so widely spread that it became a figurative term for deceiving (Num. xvi. 14).


    Emotional Significance of the Eye


    The ancient Israelites had very expressive eyes. Desire, love, hatred, pride, etc., were all expressed in the eye; and in the Hebrew language are found separate terms for all modes of seeing and not seeing (Gen. iii. 6; Num. xv. 39; I Kings ix. 3; II Chron. xvi. 9; Job x. 4, xv. 2, xvi. 9, xxxi. 7, xxxix. 29; Ps. x. 8, xxxv. 19; Prov. vi. 13, x. 10, xxiii. 5, xxviii. 27, xxx. 13; Eccl. ii. 10; Cant. iv. 9; Ecclus. [Sirach] xxvi. 29, xxvii. 22; Isa. iii. 16, vi. 10; Ezek. vi. 9, xxii. 26; God's eye, Ps. xciv. 9). According to Ecclus. (Sirach) xxiii. 19, God's eye is 10,000 times brighter than the sun. Good will and malevolence are mirrored in the eye (Prov. xxii. 9, xxiii. 6; I Sam. xviii. 9; Deut. xv. 9; xxviii. 54, 56). The raising of the eyes expressed a wish, as it still does among children (Ps. cxxiii. 1; Isa. xxxviii. 14). "Eye" is often used metaphorically (Ex. x. 5, 15 and Num. xxii. 5 ["the eye (= "face ") of the earth"]; Prov. i. 17 ["the eye (= "sight") of any bird"]; Cant. i. 15, iv. 1, v. 12 ["eyes of doves"]; Ezek. i. 4, 7; x. 9 ["like the eye(= "color") of amber," etc.]; Zech. ix. 1 ["the eyes (= "sight") of all men"]).E. G. H.


    — In Rabbinical Literature:


    Much more was known regarding the anatomy and physiology of the eye during the period of tradition in the centuries immediately preceding and succeeding the beginning of the common era than in Biblical times. The eyeball of man is round, while that of a beast is oblong. It consists of a dark and a white mass separated from each other by a narrow rim. The white part preponderates in the human eye, while the black preponderates in the eyes of beasts. The white is derived from the father; the black, from the mother. The black part is the means of sight. Eyes and eyesight differ in size and strength in various persons. "Persons with large eyes often have a peculiar expression. Heavy eyelids droop. The eyebrows are sometimes close to the eye; sometimes they are so long that they hang far down the face; and again there are no eyebrows at all. The eyelashes also may be heavy or sparse, or there may be none at all. Sometimes the eyes are very deeply set, a formation that may be regarded as a bodily defect" (Rosenzweig, "Das Auge in Bibel und Talmud," pp. 12, 19).


    Care and Diseases of the Eye


    Pain in the eyes is dangerous, as the sight is connected with the heart ('Ab. Zarah 28b). Some kinds of food are beneficial and others harmful to the sight. Fine bread and old wine are good for the eyes, as well as for the entire body. Rapid walking consumes one five-hundredth part of the sight. Much talking hurts one whose eyes are affected. Dirt is harmful, and many diseases are caused by touching the eyes with unwashed hands. The salt taken from the Dead Sea is especially dangerous. The eyes of the inhabitants of Palmyra twitch because they live in a sandy region (Rosenzweig, l.c. pp. 20 et seq.). Water is excellent for the eyes. A drop of cold water in the eyes in the morning and washing the hands and feet at night are better than all the eyesalves in the world (Shab. 78a, 108b). Tears contain salt in order that they may not flow unrestrictedly in sorrow and distress, which would be very injurious. Tears produced by smoke or weeping injure the eye, while those that are produced by laughter or incense are beneficial. A collyrium made of stibium or antimony is often mentioned (comp. Levy, "Neuhebr. Wörterb." s.v. ). This salve was forbidden when made by the heathen (Niddah 55b; Yer. 'Ab. Zarah 40d). The veil of the Arabian Jewish women left the eyes exposed (Shab. 65a; Yer. Shab. 7b). Several diseases of the eye are mentioned, but they can not be definitely identified. Professional and popular therapeutics are found side by side. Either Galen influenced the rabbinical physicians, or both he and they drew from the same source. Artificial eyes made of gold are mentioned (Yer. Ned. 41c; comp. Yer. Sanh. 13c).

    With the rise of Arabian culture the art of medicine was more highly developed, and physicians acquired a scientific knowledge of the eye, although this was not advanced beyond the point reached by Galen, either by the Arabian or the Jewish physicians, or by Christian practitioners, down to the eighteenth century. The general history of medicine, therefore, presents also the theories of the Jewish physicians regarding the eye. For the history of the sense of sight as recorded by the Jewish philosophers, exegetes, and other non-medical writers of the Middle Ages, see D. Kaufmann's exhaustive monograph, "Die Sinne," in "Jahresbericht der Landes-Rabbinerschule," Budapest, 1884.


    Bibliography:

    A. Rosenzweig, Das Auge in Bibel und Talmud, Berlin, 1892;
    Friedmann, Der Blinde, Vienna, 1873; G. Brecher, Das Transeendentale; Magie und Magische Heilarten im Talmud, ib. 1850; Hamburger, R. B. T. i. 134 et seq., 193; Hastings, Diet. Bible, i. 814.S. S. L. B.


    — Color:


    The color of the eyes is an important racial trait. The various colors are due to the amount of pigmentation, and can be reduced to three; viz., fair (blue, gray), dark (black, brown), and intermediate (green, yellow, etc.). The Jews have usually black or brown eyes. The appended table (No. 1) shows the colors of the eyes of 147,375 school-children in various countries:

    see Table No. 1.
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - EYE

    Observations on children must, however, be taken with reserve, because their eyes grow darker when they reach maturity. The appended table (No. 2), showing the colors of the eyes in more than 7,000 Jews, brings out this point clearly:


    see Table No. 2.


    Table Heading: Table No. 2.


    JewishEncyclopedia.com - EYE

    It will be observed that the frequency of light, particularly blue, eyes among Jews reaches 25 per cent in some series (Ammon, Beddoe, Fishberg, Weissenberg). Some anthropologists claim that this trait points to intermixture of foreign, non-Semitic blood, especially Aryan. In support of this view it is shown that in those countries where light-colored eyes are frequent among the indigenous population the Jews also show a larger percentage of blue and of gray eyes. This can be seen in Table No. 2. In Baden over 50 per cent of Jewish recruits have blue or gray eyes; in Russia the percentage is less; while in Caucasia, where the native races have dark eyes, the Jews show 84.31 per cent of dark eyes. The English Sephardim show even a higher percentage of blue eyes than the Ashkenazim.

    An important phenomenon in connection with the eyes of Jews is the variation of color according to sex. It appears from the figures in Table No. 2 that the eyes of Jewesses are darker than those of Jews. Joseph Jacobs sees in this a comparatively small variability of type among Jewesses as compared with Jews ("Racial Characteristics of Modern Jews," in "Jour. Anthropological Institute," 1885, v.).


    The Jew's Eye


    The appearance and form of the Jewish eye have attracted much attention. It is stated that a Jew may be recognized by the appearance of his eyes even when his features as a whole are not peculiarly Jewish. Ripley ("Races of Europe," p. 396) gives this description: "The eyebrows, seemingly thick because of their darkness, appear nearer together than usual, arching smoothly into the lines of the nose. The lids are rather full, the eyes large, dark, and brilliant. A general impression of heaviness is apt to be given. In favourable cases this imparts a dreamy, melancholy, or thoughtful expression to the countenance; in others it degenerates into a blinking, drowsy type; or again, with eyes half-closed, it may suggest suppressed cunning." Similar descriptions of the Jewish eye are given by Leroy-Beaulieu ("Israel Among the Nations," p. 113) and also Jacobs (Jew. Encyc. i. 620a, s.v.).


    Bibliography:
    Majer and Kopernicki, Charakterystyka Fizyczna Ludnosci Galicyjskiej, in Zbior Wiodom. do Antropol. Kraj. i. 1877, ii. 1885;
    Blechman, Ein Beitrag zur Anthropologie der Juden, Dorpat, 1882; J. Talko-Hyncewicz, Charakterystyka Fizyczna Ludnosci Zydowskiej Litwi i Rusi, in Zbior Wiodom. do Antropol Kraj. xvi., 1892; S. Weissenberg, Die Südrussischen Juden, in Archiv für Anthropologie, xxiii. 347-423, 531-579; J. Jacobs, On the Racial Characteristics of Modern Jews, in Jour. Anthropological Institute. xv. 23-62; idem and I. Spielman, On the Comparative Anthropometry of English Jews, ib. xix. 76-88; L. Glück, Beiträge zur Physischen Anthropoloie der Spaniolen, in Wissenschaftliche Mittheilungen, aus Bosnien und der Herzegowina, iv. 587-592; I. I. Pantukhof, Observations Anthropologiques an Caucase, Tiflis, 1899; O. Ammon, Zur Anthropologie der Badener, Jena, 1899; J. Beddoe, On the Physical Characteristics of the Jews, in Tr. Ethnological Soc. i. 222-237, London, 1861; Yakowenko, Material for the Anthropology of the Jews (in Russian), St. Petersburg, 1898; M. Fishberg, Physical Anthropology of the Jews, in American Anthropologist, Jan.-March 1903.

    — Color-Blindness:


    Inability to distinguish colors may be the result of disease or of injury, or it may be congenital. Among Jews the defect is known to be extremely frequent, as is shown very clearly by the first table following, taken from Jacobs. In a later communication Jacobs gives his own investigations on the subject ("On the Comparative Anthropometry of English Jews," in "Jour. Anthropological Institute," xix. 76-88), which show a yet larger proportion of color-blindness among English Jews:

    see table
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - EYE

    see table
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - EYE


    The average percentage of color-blindness among Jews examined by Cohn, Carl, Ottolenghi, and others, is about 4 per cent. Among the English Jews Jacobs has found that it is more than three times as large as this. These investigations confirm the general observations that color-blindness is more frequent in men than in women (Havelock Ellis, "Man and Woman," pp. 138-145). They also show that the East End (London) Jews, who are poorer, have a larger percentage of color-blindness than their wealthier brethren of the West End.


    Jacobs attributes color-blindness to the fact that the Jews are town-dwellers, where comparatively so little color, and especially so little green, is to be met with.
    To this high proportion of color-blindness he also attributes "the absence of any painters of great ability among Jews, and the want of taste shown by Jewesses of the lower grades of society," which manifests itself in the preference for bright primary colors for wearing-apparel.

    It must also be remembered that in the main the Jews in almost every country are poor. They are consequently the class of people which is most predisposed to color-blindness. In the "Report" of the Committee on Color-Blindness appointed by the Ophthalmological Society of London it is stated that the reason for the high percentage of color-blindness found among the Jews lies in the fact that those of them who were examined were priacipally of the poorer class.



    — Defective Vision:


    Jacobs and Spielman in their investigations on the comparative anthropometry of English Jews ("Jour. Anthropological Institute," 1889, p. 79) showed that London Jews could read a test-type at a distance of only 19 inches as against 25 inches by other Londoners; Jewesses were not so markedly inferior, 23 inches as against 24 inches. On the other hand, the better-nurtured Jews had a range of 29 inches.

    Botwinnick reports his observations on 829 Jews and 2,763 Christians in Russia. Of the Christians 2.21 per cent were affected with near-sightedness, while about 4½ times as many Jews—9.88 per cent—were thus affected. The same observer shows that cases of myopia of a high degree (technically known as "10D") are more frequent among Jews than among non-Jews. His investigations in the Jewish schools in St. Petersburg revealed the fact that among Jewish school-children 16.7 per cent (16.5 per cent in boys and 16.8 per cent in girls) suffered from near-sightedness, as against 2 to 7.5 per cent in Christian children. Beginning with the twelfth year of life, when 18.2 per cent were affected with myopia, the percentage rose, nearly one-half of all the Jewish children from 16 to 18 years of age being near sighted.


    Astigmatism is also very frequent among Jews. Javal and Wecker have shown that it is of a peculiar kind. The horizontal meridian of the cornea presents the maximum of curvature.
    This is contrary to the rule, the maximum of curvature being usually perpendicular (Wecker, "Sur l'Astigmatisme dans Ses Rapports avec la Conformation des Os du Crâne," in "Bulletin de la Société d'Anthropologie," June 15, 1869, pp. 545-547).

    Botwinnick attributes the near-sightedness of the Jews to hereditary predisposition to weakness of the organ of sight. But this does not by any means explain the problem. The fact that the Jews are town-dwellers must not be overlooked. Besides this, the Jews are a nation of students.



    Bibliography:


    Joseph Jacobs and I. Spielman, On the Comparative Anthropometry of English, Jews, in Jour. Anthropological Institute, xix. 76-88;

    N. R. Botwinnick, Materiali k Voprosu o Blisorukosti u Evreev, in Vratch, 1899, No. 42.


    — Pathology:


    Jews are known to be great sufferers from diseases of the eyes. The most frequent of these appears to be trachoma or granular conjunctivitis. Pilz ("Augenheilkunde," 1859) was the first to direct attention to this fact. In the city of New York the board of health recently (1903) investigated the frequency of trachoma among school-children. The results show that the disease was very prevalent in schools where the majority of the pupils were Jewish.

    Glaucoma is another disease of the eyes prevalent among Jews. The characteristics of this disease are steadily increasing hardness of the globe of the eye, with pressure and cupping of the optic nerve; and forward pressure of the iris and dilation of pupil. It is very injurious to the eyesight. As a result of these diseases blindness is very frequent among Jews (see Jew. Encyc. iii. 249, s.v. Blindness).

    The most important sequela of trachoma is entropion, which consists in a distressing distortion of the lid-borders, due to the formation of contracting scar-tissue, which causes misdirection of the eyelashes, so that they turn against the globe. This condition is frequent among the Jews of eastern Europe, Egypt, and Palestine, who are huddled together in unhealthful dwellings and live under the worst conditions of poverty and misery.

    Hervé states that lacrimal tumors are very frequent among Jews. He attributes this to an anatomical peculiarity, the narrowness of the nasal canal among Jews ("Bulletin de la Société d'Anthropologie," Dec. 20, 1883, p. 915). Of the other diseases of the eyes frequent among Jews may be mentioned simple conjunctivitis, and particularly blepharitis, which consists in an inflammation of the lid-borders, with a resulting falling out of the eyelashes. In extreme cases, because of the destruction of the eyelashes and consequent distortion of the eyelids, it proves to be a most unsightly facial blemish. This disease is frequent among the Jews of eastern Europe, Egypt, and Palestine. It can be stated that the conditions predisposing to this disease are identical with those causing trachoma.J. M. Fi.

    (2) Hair.


    Biblical Data:


    The hair of the ancient Hebrews was generally black (comp. Cant. iv. 1, v. 11). In Eccl. xi. 10 black hair is designated as a sign of youth in contrast with the white hair of age. Josephus narrates ("Ant." xvi. 8, § 1) that Herod dyed his gray hair black in order to appear younger. Black hair was in any case considered beautiful, black being the general color, while light or blond hair was exceptional. David is designated as "admoni" = "ruddy" (I Sam. xvi. 12, xvii. 42), this expression being also applied to Esau's hair (Gen. xxv. 25). The Hebrews had thick hair (Ezek. viii. 3). Long, heavy hair was considered as a sign of vitality. In the case of Samson, traced back to religious reasons (he having been dedicated to God), the connection of long hair and bodily strength was based on the current views. Absalom's famous hair (II Sam. xiv. 25 et seq.) was considered not only as an ornament, but as a token of strength. A bald head, therefore, was an object of mockery (II Kings ii. 23; comp. Isa. iii. 17, 24).


    Fashion Among Men


    From the Old Testament it may be gathered that it was customary for the men to have their hair cut from time to time. The Nazarites allowed theirs to grow uncut for religious reasons. Absalom, proud of his thick head of hair, had it cut once a year only. But generally the hair was cut oftener. It was never shaved save on special occasions; the high priests and the priests in general were expressly forbidden to have theirs shaved. They were neither to shave their hair according to heathen custom, nor to allow it to grow uncut like that of the Nazarites (comp. Ezek. xliv. 20). There is no other information in the Bible concerning the care of the hair.
    As the ancient Egyptians had combs, and as the Assyrians, also, were very careful in dressing their hair, it may be due to mere chance that combs are not mentioned in the Old Testament. The Hebrews, however, did not follow the Egyptian custom of wearing wigs. The Assyrians wore their hair in several braids reaching down to the nape of theneck. Samson's seven braids ("maḥlefot"; Judges xvi. 13, 19) indicate that this fashion obtained, for a time at least, in Israel.


    Fashions Among Women


    Among women long hair is extolled as a mark of beauty (Cant. iv. 1, vii. 6). A woman's hair was never cut except as a sign of deep mourning or of degradation (Jer. vii. 29; comp. Deut. xxi. 12). Women gave much thought to the care and decoration of their hair (II Kings ix. 30; Cant. iv. 1, vi. 4, vii. 5; Judith x. 3). The prophet Isaiah derides the many aids used by the women in curling and tending their hair (Isaiah iii.). Josephus mentions the custom—still obtaining in the East—of sprinkling gold-dust on the hair in order to produce a golden shimmer ("Ant." viii. 7, § 3).


    Religious Customs


    As a sign of mourning, part of the head, especially in front, was shaved. Although this was forbidden by the Law as a heathen superstition (Deut. xiv. 1; Lev. xxi. 5), the words of the Prophets indicate that it was customary among the people (Isa. xii. 12; comp. ib. iii. 24; Jer. vii. 29, xvi. 6; Ezek. vii. 18; Amos viii. 10; Micah i. 16; compare also the same custom among Arab women). The practise can not be interpreted as indicating a renunciation of everything considered in ordinary life to be a mere ornament (comp. Jer. vii. 29).

    The Law regards it in an entirely different light, as it forbids shaving of the head on the ground that Israel belongs to Yhwh only (Deut. xiv. 1). Originally, shaving in times of mourning indicated that the hair was sacrificed to the dead (comp. Lucian, "De Dea Syria," 60). The Law also regarded as a heathen custom the shaving of the head in a circle, so that only a strand remained in the center (comp. Jer. ix. 26, xxv. 23, xlix. 32), and forbade it as such to the Israelites (Lev. xix. 27). Herodotus (iii. 8) says expressly that the Arabs intended to imitate thereby the fashion of their god Orotal-Dionysus, and he correctly ascribes to the custom a religious reason. The ancient conception, mentioned above, that the continuously growing hair, like the blood, is a sign of vitality sufficiently explains the sacrifice of the hair.E. G. H. I. Be.


    — In Rabbinical Literature:


    The hair was regarded by the Rabbis as so powerful an augmentation of beauty that married women were recommended to hide it. In connection with this recommendation the Talmud relates the following: Ḳimḥit, the mother of seven sons who successively held the office of high priest, was once asked by what merit of hers she was so blessed in her sons. "Because," said she, "the beams of my house have never seen my hair" (Yoma 47a). In Talmudical times it was the custom for women to plait their hair. "Because she [the wife accused of adultery] plaited her hair to please him [her alleged paramour] the priest loosened her hair" (Num. R. ix.). A man who curled his hair was regarded as a vain person. At the age of seventeen Joseph was still termed "lad" ("na'ar"), because he was childish enough to curl his hair (Gen. R. xxxiv.). Elijah had naturally curly hair; his enemies, however, mocked him, declaring that he curled it (Pesiḳ. R. 26 [ed. Friedmann, p. 129a]). While Samson was filled by the Holy Spirit his hair made a noise like bells, and the sound was heard from Zorah to Eshtaol (Yer. Soṭah 17b). The Midrash finds in the name "Joel ben Petuel" an indication that the prophet who bore it curled his hair like a maiden (Midr. Teh. lxxx.). Absalom was very vain of his hair, and therefore he was hanged by his hair (Soṭah 9b). One who does not wash his hands after shaving his hair has spells of anxiety for three days (Pes. 112a).

    In enumerating the wonders of Creation, God pointed out to Job the wisdom shown even in the making of human hair. Each hair (
    ) has a separate follicle, for should two hairs derive their nourishment from one follicle, the human eye would be dimmed (B. B. 16a).

    Because such was the custom of the heathen the Rabbis forbade the Jews to trim the hair over the forehead, but let it hang down over the temples in curls (Sifre, Aḥare Mot, xiii. 9). A certain Abṭalion ben Reuben, however, was allowed to wear his hair in that fashion () because he associated with the court (B. Ḳ. 83a). David had four hundred children who wore their front hair in that fashion, while their back hair was in long locks, as in a wig (; Ḳid. 76b). This way of wearing the back hair is disapproved by the Rabbis. "He who grows his back hair in the form of a wig [] does so for an idolatrous purpose" (Deut. R. ii.). The king had his hair cut every day; the high priest, every week; an ordinary priest, once a month. The high priest had his hair cut in the "Lulian" (= "Julian") style (), which consisted in having the top of one row of hairs touching the root of the other (Sanh. 22b; Ned. 51a). A penalty of one hundred "sela'im" is imposed by the Rabbis for pulling an antagonist's hair (Shulḥan 'Aruk, Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, 420, 41). The washing of the dead () begins with the hair, because human hair is associated with the thoughts ("Sifte Renanot" to "Ma'abar Yabboḳ," ch. xi.).

    The number of the hairs of the human head is one billion and seven thousand; according to another statement the human head has a billion locks, each lock containing 410 hairs, equivalent to the numerical value of
    ("holy"); and each hair has 410 worlds (ib.).S. S. I. Br.


    — Superstitions:


    The hair of children is not cut till they are at least three years old. In Palestine this is done on the grave of some saint, as on the "Iṭilula" of Rabbi Simson ben Yoḥai (Reischer, "Sha'are Yerushalayim," p. 24). Among the Beni-Israel, if the child comes as the result of a vow, its hair is not cut till its sixth or seventh year. It is usual in all these cases to weigh the hair cut off against coins which are given by the parents to charitable purposes. If a person's body is very hairy, it is a sign that he will be very lucky. The hair cut from the head should be burned, or hidden in a crevice where it can be found; if thrown away it will cause a headache. Red-haired persons are supposed to be very passionate and traitorous; hence, perhaps, the red hair attributed to Judas in early Christian art. Albinos can never become great.In Talmudic times, when a man was to be buried, his hair was cut (M. Ḳ. 8b). This custom seems to be no longer followed. J.


    — Anthropology:


    Among Jews the color of the hair has attracted special attention because, while the majority have dark hair, there is found a considerable proportion with blond and red hair, as shown by the appended table (No. 1):

    see Table No. 1: Color of Hair Among 145,380 Jewish School Children.
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - HAIR.


    From these figures it is seen that the proportion of dark hair (black and brown) is quite high—66 per cent in Germany, and reaching 76.3 per cent in Hungary. The proportion of fair hair is lowest in Hungary (23.7 per cent) and highest in Germany (32 per cent). In a fair proportion of blond-haired children the hair becomes darker as age advances; it is therefore essential to take observations upon adults. In the appended table (No. 2) are given the results of investigations upon Jews of both sexes and in various parts of the world:


    see Table No. 2: Color of Hair Among 7,505 Jews.
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - HAIR.


    Red Hair


    The figures in this table show again that dark hair predominates. The percentage of blond Jews varies only slightly, but is greatest in those countries in which the non-Jewish population is blond. Thus in northern Russia (the Baltic Provinces) Blechman found 32 per cent of blonds; in England, according to Jacobs, 25.5 per cent have blond hair.

    On the other hand, in Caucasia, where the natives are dark, the Jews show 96 per cent of dark hair. The proportion of red hair is also quite high, reaching 4 per cent in some observations. This has been considered characteristic of the Jews by some anthropologists. It appears to be not of recent origin, and was not unknown among the ancient Hebrews (Esau was "red, all over like a hairy garment"; Gen. xxv. 25). Races are also differentiated, more or less, by straight, curly, or woolly hair. Among the Jews the distribution of these varieties of hair is shown in the following table (No. 3):

    JewishEncyclopedia.com - HAIR.


    The next table (No. 4) shows that the beard is usually darker than the hair:

    see Table No. 4: Color of the Beard
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - HAIR.


    By comparing these figures with those in No. 2 it is found that in the beard the proportion of light to dark is much higher. The number of red beards also increases perceptibly.



    Hair of Jewesses


    The differences in the color of the hair between the sexes have also been investigated. Jacobs shows that the Jewesses in England have darker hair. Similar observations have been made by Weissenberg in South Russia, by Talko-Hryncewicz in Little Russia, by Yakowenko in Lithuania, and by Majer and Kopernicki in Galicia. On the other hand, Elkind in Poland and Fishberg in America have found conditions different: the males have darker hair than the females.


    Cause of Blond Hair


    The true explanation of the existence of Jewish blonds has been the subject of lively discussions among anthropologists. Some believe that it is due to climate and environment (Pruner, Bey, Pritchard, Jacobs), while others attribute it to racial intermixture, particularly to the admission of Aryan blood into modern Jewry (Broca, Virchow, Schimmer, Ripley, and others). Elkind shows that the color of the hair is independent of the cranial index. Virchow's investigations show that in the eastern or darkest provinces of Germany the proportion of blond types among Jews does not decrease; whereas in the Prussian provinces, which are predominantly blond, the Jews show the highestproportion of brunettes, and in Silesia, where the non-Jewish population is of very dark complexion, the Jews have a high percentage of blonds. The same has been shown by Schimmer to be the case in Austria. Andree ("Zur Volkskunde der Juden," pp. 34-40) points out that the fact that red and blond Jews are found in North Africa, Syria, Arabia, Persia, etc., is proof that intermarriage has had little to do with the production of the blond type in eastern Europe. He is of the opinion that there were blonds among the ancient Hebrews, and that the modern red and blond Jews are their descendants. Luschan agrees in this view. Jacobs attributes the erythrism of the Jews to defective nutrition, and shows that it is present not only among the European Jews, but also among those in Algiers, Tunis, Bosnia, Constantinople, Smyrna, and Bokhara, where the presence of Aryan blood could not be admitted.


    Grayness and Baldness


    The color of the hair undergoes changes with the advance of the age of the individual. Up to the age of thirty-five or forty the hair remains the same color in the majority of people. If grayness occurs earlier it is considered premature. It has been stated that premature grayness is very frequent among Jews (Weissenberg); but investigations by Fishberg and Yakowenko show that it appears rather later—at about the age of forty-five.

    Baldness also is considered premature before the age of forty-five, at which age other signs of decay, such as loosening of the teeth and weakening of sight, begin to appear. It occurs most often among brain-workers and among those exposed to prolonged mental worry and anxiety. Weissenberg found that among Jews between the ages of twenty-one and fifty 16 per cent are more or less bald. Others point out that normal baldness (that is, baldness not due to favus) is not more frequent among Jews than among others. Yakowenko shows that it is found only as an exception among Jews before forty-five, and that when it occurs before this age it is usually due to favus. Fishberg reports only 83 individuals wholly or partially bald among 1,188 Jews over the age of twenty. Only 12 Jews among those less than forty were thus affected.

    Bibliography:

    Jacobs, On the Racial Characteristics of Modern Jews, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xv. 23-62;
    idem, On the Comparative Anthropometry of English Jews, ib. xix. 76-88; Virchow, Gesamtbericht . . . über die Farbe der Haut, der Haare und der Augen der Schulkinder in Deutschland, in Archiv für Anthropologie, xvi. 275-475; Schimmer, Erhebungen über die Farbe der Augen, der Haare und der Haut bei den Schulkindern Oesterreichs, in Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft, Vienna, Supplement i., 1884; Fishberg, Physical Anthropology of the Jews, in American Anthropologist, Jan.-March, 1903; Elkind. Evrei Trudi Antropologitshes-kavo Amdilla, xxi., Moscow, 1903; Majer and Kopernicki, Chakterystyka Fizyezna Ludnosci Galicyjskiej, in Zbior Viadam do Antrop. Kraj, Cracow, i. and ix., 1877-85; J. Beddoe, On the Physical Characters of the Jews, in Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, 1861, i. 222-237; Pantukhof, Observations Anthropologiques au Caucase, Tiflis, 1893.J. M. Fi.

    Jewish "Nostrility"


    Anthropologists who consider the nose an important racial index (Topinard, Bertillon, Deniker, and others) in their classifications of varieties of noses have one class which they call "Jewish," or "Semitic"—prominent, arched, and "hooked" noses. It has been pointed out that this Semitic nose appears in ancient Egyptian monuments, in figures representing Semites. On the other hand, some authors show that this form of nose is not characteristically Semitic, because the modern non-Jewish Semites, particularly such as are supposed to have maintained themselves in a pure state, as the Bedouin Arabs, do not possess this characteristic nose at all. Their noses are as a rule short, straight, and often "snub," or concave. Luschan holds that the hook-nose is by no means characteristic of the Semites, and contends that the small number of arched noses that are found among the Jews is due to ancient intermixture with the Hittites in Asia Minor. He shows that other races also, as the Armenian, for instance, who have a good portion of Hittite blood in their veins, have hook-noses.

    Among the modern Jews the hook-nose is not as frequently encountered as popular belief and caricaturists would lead one to believe. In the appended table are given figures of the percentage of four varieties of noses—straight ("Greek"), aquiline, or arched ("Jewish," "Semitic"), flat and broad, and "snub," or retroussé:


    see table
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - NOSE:


    From these figures it can be seen that the majority of noses in Jews are straight, or what is popularly known as "Greek." Over 60 per cent of the noses of Jews in the table above are of this variety, in some groups exceeding even 80 per cent. "Jewish" or arched noses are in the minority, less than 25 per cent being of this kind; in Poland, Elkind found only 6.5 per cent of Semitic noses among the Jews in Warsaw; Weissenberg, in South Russia, only 10 per cent; Yakowenko, in Lithuania, 9.79 per cent. The proportion of "snub" noses—from 3 to 6 per cent—is of interest.


    A comparison of the statistics of noses in Jews and non-Jews in Russia and Galicia shows that the percentage of straight noses is about the same in both; aquiline and hook-noses are somewhat more frequently met with among the Jews, while "snub" noses are oftener encountered on non-Jewish faces. The "Jewish" nose is thus seen by statistical evidence to be not the one which is prominent, hooked, or arched. The question why artists and scientists have always considered a certain nose characteristic of the Jew has been variously explained. Beddoe claims that it is due to a characteristic tucking up of the wings. Joseph Jacobs concludes that "the nose does contribute much toward producing the Jewish expression, but it is not so much the shape of its profile as the accentuation and flexibility of the nostrils." From his composite photographs of Jewish faces he shows that when the nose is covered the Jewish expression disappears entirely, and that it is the "nostrility" which makes these composites "Jewish." "A curious experiment illustrates this importance of the nostril toward making the Jewish expression. Artists tell us that the best way to make a caricature of the Jewish nose is to write a figure 6 with a long tail (Fig. 1); now remove the turn of the twist as in Figure 2, and much of the Jewishness disappears; and it vanishes entirely when we draw the continuation horizontally as in Figure 3. We may conclude, then, as regards the Jewish nose, that it is more the Jewish nostril than the nose itself which goes to form the characteristic Jewish expression." Ripley agrees with Jacobs on this point, and concludes that next to dark hair and eyes and a swarthy skin the nostrils are the most distinctive feature among the Jews ("Races of Europe," p. 395).

    The relation of the breadth of the nose to its length, known as the "nasal index," has been considered one of the best means of distinguishing the various races of mankind. Those in whom the breadth of the nose exceeds 85 per cent of its height are considered as platyrhine; those in whom the width of the nose is less than 70 per cent of its height are leptorhine; and lastly those races in which the width of the nose varies between 70 and 85 per cent of its height are classed as mesorhine. Measurements of Jewish noses show that they are mostly leptorhine, or narrow-nosed, as can be seen from the following table:


    see table
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - NOSE:


    Bibliography:

    y: N. D. Elkind, Evrei, Moscow, 1903; Joseph Jacobs, On the Racial Characteristics of Modern Jews, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, 1886, xv. 23-62; A. A. Ivanowski, Ob Antropologitchekom Sostave Naselenia Rossii, Moscow, 1904; Oscar Hovorka, Die Aeussere Nase, Vienna, 1893; P. Topinard, Eléments d'Anthropologie Générale, Paris, 1885; S. Weissenberg, Die Südrussischen Juden, in Archiv für Anthropologie, 1895, vol. xxiii.J. M. Fi.

    CRANIOMETRY


    The methods of measuring skulls for the purpose of determining certain topographical relations, the most important measurement of the skull being the cranial index, or the cephalic index in case the measurements are taken on the living. This consists in the ratio of the width of the head above the ears to the length of the head from the forehead to the most distant point at the back of the head. The cephalic index is expressed by multiplying the width of the head by 100 and dividing the product by the length. Thus, supposing a head to be 153 mm. wide and 186 mm. long, then 153 × 100/186 = 82.26, the cephalic index. The broader or rounder a head is, the higher is its cephalic index, and vice versa. When the cephalic index is above 80 anthropologists term it "brachycephalic"; between 75 and 80, "mesocephalic"; and less than 75, "dolichocephalic." There have been but few measurements of Jewish skulls, most of the measurements of Jews having been taken on the living. The following is a list of the measurements of 100 Jewish skulls taken by various anthropologists:

    see table
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - CRANIOMETRY:


    The 30 Crimean skulls measured by Ikoff, being those of Karaites, can not, perhaps, be considered Jewish in the strict sense of the word; and no conclusion can be drawn from the remaining 70.



    Cephalic Index


    Resort must be had to an analysis of the measurements of the living for the determination of the Jewish cranial type. Appended is a table of nearly 3,000 Jewish heads, from various countries, measured during the last twenty years:

    see table
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - CRANIOMETRY:


    On an examination of the figures in this table a remarkable uniformity of the cephalic index of the modern Jews will be noticed. Excepting the Caucasian Jews, of whom but few have been measured, it is shown that nearly 90 per cent are between 81.5 and 83. This indicates a limited variability and differentiation. In fact, the differences are so slight (from 80 to 83) that they may be fairly assigned to the usual discrepancies between different series of measurements of a single and homogeneous race. Another remarkable fact is the striking absence of the dolichocephalic type, which is characteristic of all the other modern Semitic races and tribes, as the Arabs, Syrians, Abyssinians, etc. Among the modern Jews this ranges, as is seen in the table, from 1 per cent, in Blechman's series, to 7.3 per cent in Glück's. On the other hand, the brachycephalic type predominates, nearly all the series showing more than 60 per cent of heads having a cephalic index of over 80.



    Arrangement by Curve

    Modern anthropologists do not rely solely on averages for the purpose of ascertaining the character of a given race. The best test at present at the command of the anthropologist, of the homogeneity or variability of a race, is the seriation and coordination of the figures obtained by measurement, and the representation of them graphically in the form of a curve. In case the people investigated is a mixed race, its component elements are shown in the curve by different culminating points. From the literature on the anthropology of the Jews 1,071 measurements of Jewish heads in various countries have been collected, and the data has been arranged in curve-form. The figures from which the appended diagram is derived were obtained from the following sources:

    see table
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - CRANIOMETRY:


    These 1,071 heads are classified as follows: dolichocephalic, 17 = 1.58 per cent; mesocephalic, 235 = 21.94 per cent; brachycephalic, 819 = 76.48 per cent.
    What is most worthy of notice is the small percentage of dolichocephaly—only 1.58 per cent—and the large preponderance of brachycephaly, 76.48 per cent. The graphic representation of these 1,071 measurements is shown on the accompanying diagram. The cephalic index is marked from left to right, the percentage of persons having a given index being indicated above each index. Thus, 10.46 per cent of heads have an index of 80; 14.19 per cent, one of 82; and so on. The curve culminates at the index of 82—corresponding exactly to the average and also to the mean index. The largest percentage of people have this cephalic index; and around them are clustered the majority of heads—those having larger indexes to the right, and those with smaller indexes to the left. At the index of 75 the line of the curve begins to ascend regularly and rapidly, until it reaches 82, when it rapidly descends. It thus forms an acute pyramid with its apex almost in the middle. "A sharp pyramid generally denotes a homogeneous people: if they were all precisely alike, a single vertical line, 100 per cent, would result" (Ripley).

    (see image)

    JewishEncyclopedia.com


    Cephalic Index of 1,071 Jews and 345 Jewesses.The index is indicated along the base-line. The percentage of a given index is indicated by the altitude. The cephalic indexes from which this curve was obtained were those of Jews in various parts of the world. Russian Jews are those observed by Yakowenko, Blechman, Weissenberg, etc.; Italian Jews (Sephardim), by Lombroso; Causasian Jews, by Pantukhof; while those measured by Fishberg include Russian, Polish, Austrian, Hungarian, Rumanian, German, and American Jews. Some, though very few, in the last-mentioned series are of African origin. When figures taken from such diverse elements of Judaism present such a homogeneity, it can safely be concluded that the cranial type of the modern Jews shows very little if any intermixture of foreign blood. So little has this been anticipated that Lombroso, in his frequently quoted comparison of 95 Italian and 112 Jewish heads, insists upon the variability of the latter;whereas, if he had drawn a curve, the result would have shown several apexes among the Italians and only one, and that a steep one, for the Jews at the usual index (82—), leading to an exactly opposite conclusion to that of Lombroso. There appears no perceptible difference between the cephalic index of Jews and that of Jewesses, as can be seen from the following table:

    see table
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - CRANIOMETRY:


    Skulls of Jewesses


    In the measurements of 345 heads of Jewish women collected by Fishberg (50 from Weissenberg's measurements, 80 from Yakowenko's, and 215 from Fishberg's), the following distribution is found: dolichocephalic, 9 = 2.61 per cent; mesocephalic, 67 = 19.42 per cent; brachycephalic, 269 = 77.97 per cent. These figures agree with those cited above for men. A curve drawn from the measurements of 345 heads of Jewesses here recorded has the appearance indicated in the accompanying diagram. It will be observed that this curve is not a smooth pyramid, as is the curve of the cephalic index of Jews. It shows, in fact, a decided double apex. one pointing at an index of 81, the other at 84, which seems to indicate a greater variability and differentiation in Jewish females than in Jewish males. This is contrary to what has been observed throughout the organic world. This point, recently brought out by Fishberg ("American Anthropologist," Oct.-Dec. 1902), is of sufficient scientific interest to merit further investigation.

    The absolute figures obtained by craniometry of modern European Jews show a striking uniformity unknown among other civilized races. In the accompanying table the length of the head varies from 183 mm. in Majer's and Kopernicki's, Weissenberg's, and Yakowenko's series, to 188 mm. in Blechman's—a difference of only 5 mm., which is comparatively insignificant. The same is the case with the width of the head, which varies from 150 to 156 mm.—a difference of only 6 mm.

    see table
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - CRANIOMETRY:


    Circumference of Jewish Skulls


    Of the other measurements of the head, the horizontal circumference is important enough to be mentioned here. A table giving figures on this subject is appended:

    see table
    JewishEncyclopedia.com - CRANIOMETRY:

    As is the universal rule, the circumference of the head of the male is greater than that of the female by about 2.5 cm. (1 inch). Another point worth noting is that (wherever data are obtainable) the circumference of the head among the Jews is, as a rule, greater than that among the races with whom they dwell.

    The most important problem suggested by a study of craniometrical results concerning Jews is the relation of the type head of the modern Jews to that of the ancient Hebrews and to the modern Semitic skulls. The pure Semitic skull is dolichocephalic, as may be seen from a study of the heads of modern Arabs, Abyssinians, Syrians, etc. The cephalic index of these races is from 73 to 77. As is at present accepted by nearly all anthropologists, the shape of the head is the most stable characteristic of a given race. It is little if at all influenced by climate, environment, nutrition, or sexual and social selection. The only way the type of the head may change is by intermixture with other races. If the ancient Hebrews were of the same stock as the modern non-Jewish Semites, and if the modern Jews are their descendants, then a pure dolichocephalic type of head would be expected among the Jews. As has been seen, all the results of craniometry prove that the Jews are brachycephalic, and that the dolichocephalic form is only found among them in less than two per cent of cases.


    Ancient Jewish Skulls


    This can be explained in two ways: either the modern Jews have very little Semitic blood in their veins, as Lombroso, Luschan, and others are inclined to think, or the ancient Hebrews may have been a brachycephalic race. In order to establish this, an examination is necessary of more skulls of ancient Hebrews, which are not available at present. The only skulls of ancient Hebrews recorded are five obtained by Lombroso from the catacomb of St. Calixtus in Rome, dating back to 150 C.E. Lombroso aptly remarks that these skulls are of great importance, because at the period from which they are derived (second century), there could not have been any considerable racial intermixture of the Jews with other peoples, and the cranial typethey represent should be considered pure. The cranial indexes of these skulls are 80, 76.1, 78, 83.4, and 75.1, giving an average cephalic index for the living of 80.5, which is far above the cephalic index of the non-Jewish Semites.

    Of course, no positive conclusion can be drawn from only five skulls; still, the fact that among these are found two brachycephalic and only one dolichocephalic, points strongly against the opinion that the ancient Hebrews were a purely dolichocephalic race.
    The twelve skulls from a Jewish cemetery in Basel, of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, which have been examined by Kollmann, are even more brachycephalic than those of contemporary Jews. The average cranial index of these skulls is 84.66; i.e., a cephalic index of 86.66. This again shows that the brachycephalism of the modern Jews is not of recent origin.

    It can therefore be stated that the modern European Jews are shown by craniometrical evidence to be a pure type, and that no evidence of appreciable racial intermixture is discoverable. The opinion that the Sephardim are dolichocephalic, while the Ashkenazim are brachycephalic, is not supported by craniometrical research on European Jews. The measurements by Jacobs, Lombroso, Livi, and Glück prove that the Sephardim are almost as brachycephalic as are the Ashkenazim, as can be seen from the accompanying table. Jacobs' measurements of the Jews in London show that the percentage of dolichocephalic is even larger among the Ashkenazim, being 28.3 per cent, as against only 17 per cent among Sephardim.



    Bibliography:

    Majer and Kopernicki, Charakterystyka Fizyczna Ludnosci Galicyjskiej, in Zbior Wiad.do Antrop-Kraj. 1877-85, Cracow;
    B. Blechman, Ein Beitrag zur Anthropologie der Juden, Dorpat, 1882; L. Stieda and W. Dybowski, Ein Beitrag zur Anthropologie der Juden, in Archiv für Anthropologie, xiv. 167-182; J. Jacobs and I. Spielman, On the Comparative Anthropometry of English Jews, in Jour. Anthropological Institute, xix. 76-88; K. N. Ikoff, Neue Beiträge zur Anthropologie der Juden, in Archiv. für Anthropologie, xv. 369-389; S. Weissenberg, Die Süd-Russischen Juden, in Archiv für Anthropologie, xxiii. 347-423, 531-579; C. Lombroso, L'Antisemitismo ele Scienze Moderne, Turin, 1894; L. Glück, Beiträge zur Physischen Anthropologie der Spaniolen, in Wissenschaft. Mitt. aus Bosnien u. d. Hercegovina, iv. 587-592; O. Ammon, Zur Anthropologie der Badener, pp. 643-673, Jena, 1899; I. I. Pantukhof, Anthropologitcheskia Nabliudenia na Kavkase, pp. 33-41, Tiflis, 1893: M. G. Yakowenko, Materiali k Anthropologii Evreev, St. Petersburg, 1898; J. Talko-Hryncewiez, Anthropologia Ukrainskikh i Litowskikh Evreev, in Proc. Russian Anthrop. Soc. 1890-91, pp. 70-75, St. Petersburg; J. Kollmann, Schädel und Skeletreste aus einem Judenfriedhof des 13. und 14. Jahrhunderts zu Basel, in Verh. der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, viii. 115-126, Basel, 1885: Maurice Fishberg, The Physical Anthropology of the Jews: I, The Cephalic Index, in American Anthropologist, Oct.-De

    Source:
    http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=371&letter=T#1615

    JewishEncyclopedia.com - CRANIOMETRY

    "With the miscegenation vary as much the form as the essence of the nations".
    ILSE SCHWIDETZKY, Grundzüge der Völkerbiologie.



  9. #9
    Senior Member
    Saxnot's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2009
    Last Online
    Friday, March 9th, 2012 @ 09:06 PM
    Ethnicity
    English
    Country
    United States United States
    State
    Illinois Illinois
    Location
    Illinois
    Gender
    Religion
    Western Race Soul
    Posts
    83
    Thanks Thanks Given 
    0
    Thanks Thanks Received 
    0
    Thanked in
    0 Posts

    Who Are the Jews?

    Are they European? Middle Eastern? Both? A new race in the making? Are they really psychologically different from Europeans (from a biological level), or is it merely their culture that makes them who they are?

    One of the things I've noticed is that, when it comes to Jews, taxonomy doesn't seem to matter much, at least when speaking in terms of basic psychology or ability. Of course, I know that not everybody believes that the mental characteristics of an individual are influenced by race, but for many a Nordid looking European will be expected to display a particular character or behavior, but a Nordid looking Jew will invariably be a Jew, regardless of how much much Nordic blood can be found in his or her own veins.

    I guess my question is, if you believe the physical characteristics of a person can be a determining factor on what to expect from that individual, should we extend the same rule on Jews (I.E, a Nordid looking Jews acting like a Nordic individual), or does ancestry overrule all considerations in this case?

  10. #10
    Funding Member
    „Friend of Germanics”
    Funding Membership Inactive
    Nachtengel's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jul 2008
    Last Online
    Saturday, April 17th, 2021 @ 11:09 PM
    Ethnicity
    German
    Gender
    Posts
    6,433
    Thanks Thanks Given 
    201
    Thanks Thanks Received 
    1,253
    Thanked in
    739 Posts
    Jews are an ethno-religious group which is generally racially mixed. The typical Jew, the one portrayed in caricatures is Armenoid with maybe some Orientalid traits. There are Europid and Nordid Jews but Europid and European are not the same thing. Jews have a very strong ideology of chosenitism which enables them to act as a group regardless of racial characteristics.

Page 1 of 4 1234 LastLast

Similar Threads

  1. Racial Anthropology of the Finns
    By juhamatti in forum Physical Anthropology
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: Saturday, January 8th, 2011, 01:08 PM
  2. Replies: 0
    Last Post: Friday, April 14th, 2006, 07:36 PM
  3. Genetics of Modern Human Origins and Differentiation
    By Euclides in forum Population Genetics
    Replies: 16
    Last Post: Monday, April 10th, 2006, 03:25 PM
  4. Anthropology and Genetics of the Lebanese
    By Frans_Jozef in forum Physical Anthropology
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: Thursday, April 8th, 2004, 11:13 AM

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •