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Thread: Frederick I (Barbarossa)

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    You are not wrong, who deem / That my days have been a dream Johannes de León's Avatar
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    Post Frederick I (Barbarossa)

    Frederick I Hohenstaufen (1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa ("Frederick Redbeard") was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. He was also Duke of Swabia (1147-1152, as Frederick III) and King of Italy (1154-1186). As son of Duke Frederick II of Swabia and Judith of Bavaria, from the rival House of Guelph, Frederick descended from Germany's two principal families, making him an acceptable choice for the Empire's princely electors as heir to the Imperial crown.


    Frederick sends out the boy to see whether the ravens still fly.
    In 1147 Frederick became duke of Swabia and shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanied his uncle, the German king Conrad III on the Second Crusade. The expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king. In 1152 the dying king of Germany advised the elector princes to choose Frederick as his successor to the exclusion of his own young son. Energetically pressing his candidature, he was chosen as the next German king at Frankfurt on the 4th of March and crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle several days after.

    The new king was anxious to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto I the Great, and saw clearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy. Issuing a general order for peace, he was prodigal in his concessions to the nobles. Abroad, Frederick intervened in the civil war for the Danish between Svend III and Valdemar I of Denmark, and negotiations were begun with the East Roman emperor, Manuel I Comnenus. It was probably about this time that the king obtained a divorce from his wife Adela of Vohburg, on the ground of consanguinity, and made a vain effort to obtain a bride from the court of Constantinople. On his accession Frederick had communicated the news of his election to Pope Eugenius III, but neglected to ask for the papal confirmation. Eager to make amends with the Papacy, Frederick concluded a treaty with Tome in March 1153, by which he promised in return for his coronation to defend the papacy and make no peace with king Roger I of Sicily, or other enemies of the Church, without the consent of Eugenius.

    He undertook six expeditions into Italy, in the first of which he was crowned emperor in Rome by Pope Adrian IV in the aftermath of the overthrow by Imperial forces of the republican city commune headed by Arnold of Brescia. He left Italy in the Autumn of 1155 to prepare for a new and more formidable campaign. Disorder was again rampant in Germany, especially in Bavaria, but general peace was restored by Frederick's vigorous measures. Bavaria was transferred from Henry II Jasomirgott, margrave of Austria, who became duke of Austria in compensation, to Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony. On June 9, 1156 at Würzburg, Frederick married Beatrice of Burgundy, daughter and heiress of Renaud III, adding the County, also known as Franche Comté to his possessions.

    In June 1158, Frederick set out upon his second Italian expedition, which resulted in the establishment of imperial officers in the cities of northern Italy, the revolt and capture of Milan, and the beginning of the long struggle with Pope Alexander III, who resulted in the excommunication of the emperor in 1160. In response, Frederick declared his support for Antipope Victor IV. Returning to Germany towards the close of 1162, Frederick prevented a conflict between Henry of Saxony and a number of neighbouring princes. He also severely punished the citizens of Mainz for their rebellion against Archbishop Arnold. The next visit to Italy in 1163 saw his plans for the conquest of Sicily ruined by the formation of a powerful league against him, brought together mainly by the taxes collected by the imperial officers.

    Frederick then organized the magnificent celebration of the canonization of Charlemagne at Aix-Ia-Chapelle, while restoring the peace in the Rhineland. In October 1166, Frederick went once more on journey to Italy to secure the claim of his Antipope Paschal, and the coronation of his wife Beatrice as Holy Roman Empress. This campaign was stopped by the sudden outbreak of the plague which threaten to destroy the Imperial army and drove the emperor as a fugitive to Germany, where he remained for the ensuing six years. Again, Henry of Saxony used Frederick's absence to create political unrest, which required the Emperor's attention. Conflicting claims to various bishoprics were decided and imperial authority was asserted over Bohemia, Poland and Hungary. Friendly relations were entered into with the eastern emperor Manuel, and attempts were made to come to a better understanding with Henry II of England and Louis VII of France.

    In 1174, Frederick made his fifth expedition to Italy and, in response, the pro-papal Lombard League was formed to stand against him. With the refusal of Henry of Saxony to bring help to Italy, the campaign was a complete failure. Frederick suffered a heavy defeat at the battle of Legnano near Milan, on May 29, 1176, where he was wounded and for sometime believed to be dead. He had no choice other than begin negotiations for peace with Alexander III and the Lombard League. These resulted in the Treaty of Venice, signed in August 1177, where a truce for six years was agreed. Moreover, Frederick recognized Alexander as the rightful pope by kneeling before him to kiss his feet.

    After making his peace with the Pope, Frederick embarked on the Third Crusade (1189), a grand expedition in conjunction with the French army, led by king Philip Augustus together with the English, under Richard, the Lionheart. Frederick never saw the Holy Land because he drowned while crossing the Saleph river in Cilicia, south-eastern Anatolia. His body was then embalmed, placed in a barrel and taken back to Germany on the back of a cart. This untimely death left the Crusader army under the rivals Philip and Richard and ultimately led to its dissolution. Richard continued to the East were he fought Saladin with mixed results, but ended without accomplishing his main goal, the capture of Jerusalem.

    Frederick is the subject of a sleeping hero legend. He is said not to be dead, but asleep with his knights in a cave in Kyffhäuser mountain in Thuringia, Germany, and that when ravens should cease to fly around the mountain he would awake and restore Germany to its ancient greatness. According to the story his red beard has grown through the table beside which he sits. His eyes are half closed in sleep, but now and then he raises his hand and sends a boy out to see if the ravens have stopped flying.

    The German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was codenamed Operation Barbarossa, remembering Frederick I.


    Frederick's descendents by his wife Beatrice


    • Frederick V, Duke of Swabia (1164 - 1170)
    • Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1165-1197)
    • Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia (1167 - 1191)
    • Otto II, Count of Burgundy (1171 – killed, 1200)
    • Conrad II, Duke of Swabia and Rothenburg (1173 - killed,1196)
    • Philip of Swabia (1177 – killed, 1208) King of Germany in 1198
    • Agnes of Hohenstaufen (1180-1184)
    • Sophie of Hohenstaufen (died 1187), married Count William VI of Montfort
    • Beatrice of Hohenstaufen (died 1181), married Count William IV of Chalon
    .

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    Post Re: Frederick I (Barbarossa)

    Quote Originally Posted by Johannes de León
    Frederick I Hohenstaufen (1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa ("Frederick Redbeard") was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. He was also Duke of Swabia (1147-1152, as Frederick III) and King of Italy (1154-1186). As son of Duke Frederick II of Swabia and Judith of Bavaria, from the rival House of Guelph, Frederick descended from Germany's two principal families, making him an acceptable choice for the Empire's princely electors as heir to the Imperial crown.





    Frederick sends out the boy to see whether the ravens still fly.



    In 1147 Frederick became duke of Swabia and shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanied his uncle, the German king Conrad III on the Second Crusade. The expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king. In 1152 the dying king of Germany advised the elector princes to choose Frederick as his successor to the exclusion of his own young son. Energetically pressing his candidature, he was chosen as the next German king at Frankfurt on the 4th of March and crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle several days after.

    The new king was anxious to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto I the Great, and saw clearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy. Issuing a general order for peace, he was prodigal in his concessions to the nobles. Abroad, Frederick intervened in the civil war for the Danish between Svend III and Valdemar I of Denmark, and negotiations were begun with the East Roman emperor, Manuel I Comnenus. It was probably about this time that the king obtained a divorce from his wife Adela of Vohburg, on the ground of consanguinity, and made a vain effort to obtain a bride from the court of Constantinople. On his accession Frederick had communicated the news of his election to Pope Eugenius III, but neglected to ask for the papal confirmation. Eager to make amends with the Papacy, Frederick concluded a treaty with Tome in March 1153, by which he promised in return for his coronation to defend the papacy and make no peace with king Roger I of Sicily, or other enemies of the Church, without the consent of Eugenius.

    He undertook six expeditions into Italy, in the first of which he was crowned emperor in Rome by Pope Adrian IV in the aftermath of the overthrow by Imperial forces of the republican city commune headed by Arnold of Brescia. He left Italy in the Autumn of 1155 to prepare for a new and more formidable campaign. Disorder was again rampant in Germany, especially in Bavaria, but general peace was restored by Frederick's vigorous measures. Bavaria was transferred from Henry II Jasomirgott, margrave of Austria, who became duke of Austria in compensation, to Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony. On June 9, 1156 at Würzburg, Frederick married Beatrice of Burgundy, daughter and heiress of Renaud III, adding the County, also known as Franche Comté to his possessions.

    In June 1158, Frederick set out upon his second Italian expedition, which resulted in the establishment of imperial officers in the cities of northern Italy, the revolt and capture of Milan, and the beginning of the long struggle with Pope Alexander III, who resulted in the excommunication of the emperor in 1160. In response, Frederick declared his support for Antipope Victor IV. Returning to Germany towards the close of 1162, Frederick prevented a conflict between Henry of Saxony and a number of neighbouring princes. He also severely punished the citizens of Mainz for their rebellion against Archbishop Arnold. The next visit to Italy in 1163 saw his plans for the conquest of Sicily ruined by the formation of a powerful league against him, brought together mainly by the taxes collected by the imperial officers.

    Frederick then organized the magnificent celebration of the canonization of Charlemagne at Aix-Ia-Chapelle, while restoring the peace in the Rhineland. In October 1166, Frederick went once more on journey to Italy to secure the claim of his Antipope Paschal, and the coronation of his wife Beatrice as Holy Roman Empress. This campaign was stopped by the sudden outbreak of the plague which threaten to destroy the Imperial army and drove the emperor as a fugitive to Germany, where he remained for the ensuing six years. Again, Henry of Saxony used Frederick's absence to create political unrest, which required the Emperor's attention. Conflicting claims to various bishoprics were decided and imperial authority was asserted over Bohemia, Poland and Hungary. Friendly relations were entered into with the eastern emperor Manuel, and attempts were made to come to a better understanding with Henry II of England and Louis VII of France.

    In 1174, Frederick made his fifth expedition to Italy and, in response, the pro-papal Lombard League was formed to stand against him. With the refusal of Henry of Saxony to bring help to Italy, the campaign was a complete failure. Frederick suffered a heavy defeat at the battle of Legnano near Milan, on May 29, 1176, where he was wounded and for sometime believed to be dead. He had no choice other than begin negotiations for peace with Alexander III and the Lombard League. These resulted in the Treaty of Venice, signed in August 1177, where a truce for six years was agreed. Moreover, Frederick recognized Alexander as the rightful pope by kneeling before him to kiss his feet.

    After making his peace with the Pope, Frederick embarked on the Third Crusade (1189), a grand expedition in conjunction with the French army, led by king Philip Augustus together with the English, under Richard, the Lionheart. Frederick never saw the Holy Land because he drowned while crossing the Saleph river in Cilicia, south-eastern Anatolia. His body was then embalmed, placed in a barrel and taken back to Germany on the back of a cart. This untimely death left the Crusader army under the rivals Philip and Richard and ultimately led to its dissolution. Richard continued to the East were he fought Saladin with mixed results, but ended without accomplishing his main goal, the capture of Jerusalem.

    Frederick is the subject of a sleeping hero legend. He is said not to be dead, but asleep with his knights in a cave in Kyffhäuser mountain in Thuringia, Germany, and that when ravens should cease to fly around the mountain he would awake and restore Germany to its ancient greatness. According to the story his red beard has grown through the table beside which he sits. His eyes are half closed in sleep, but now and then he raises his hand and sends a boy out to see if the ravens have stopped flying.

    The German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was codenamed Operation Barbarossa, remembering Frederick I.


    Frederick's descendents by his wife Beatrice


    • Frederick V, Duke of Swabia (1164 - 1170)
    • Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1165-1197)
    • Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia (1167 - 1191)
    • Otto II, Count of Burgundy (1171 – killed, 1200)
    • Conrad II, Duke of Swabia and Rothenburg (1173 - killed,1196)
    • Philip of Swabia (1177 – killed, 1208) King of Germany in 1198
    • Agnes of Hohenstaufen (1180-1184)
    • Sophie of Hohenstaufen (died 1187), married Count William VI of Montfort
    • Beatrice of Hohenstaufen (died 1181), married Count William IV of Chalon
    Great post Johannes de León!!! Unfortunately my rep points are down. I have been trying to give several out which I cannot at this time

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    Post Barbarossa


    Frederick I (Barbarossa)

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick of Swabia (d. 1147) and Judith, daughter of Henry the Black; born c. 1123; died 10 June, 1190. Connected maternally with the Guelphs, he seemed destined to effect a reconciliation between them and the Ghibellines. In 1146 he had already roused public attention by a determined and victorious war against Duke Conrad of Zähringen. On 4 March, 1152, after having been designated by Conrad III as his successor, he was elected German king, unopposed, and crowned at Aachen on 9 March. Taking Charles the Great as his ideal of a German emperor, Frederick determined to expand his supremacy to its utmost limits. This explains his ecclesiastical policy. With astonishing firmness his bold spirit pursued the aims it had once marked out for itself. Though no scholar, Frederick surprises us by the clearness and cleverness of his speech, by his rapid comprehension and decision, and by his well-reasoned and logical policy. A born ruler, he considered it his duty to secure for his subjects the blessings of peace. The majesty of his personal appearance was combined with attractive kindliness. Though shrewd and calculating, he had at times fits of uncontrolled passion. However, he was sufficiently master of himself to restrain his anger if the object to be attained was endangered by an outburst. Such a man naturally excited the admiration and invited the confidence of his fellow-men.

    The sense of national unity that grew out of the rivalries existing in the crusading armies found in him an ideal for its enthusiasm. In public opinion Frederick found the support which was lacking to his predecessors, Lothair and Conrad. The German people loved their king, who soon after his coronation visited the various parts of his realm and manfully exerted himself to establish internal peace. There was no reason why the secular princes of his empire should oppose the newly chosen king; his naturally conservative mind knew how to deal with existing forces. Of the princes, whose power was already approaching sovereignty, he demanded only respect for the existing order. He sought also to unite the interests of the German princes, especially those of the House of Guelph with the interests of the empire. The Gregorian, hierarchical party in Germany was in a state of complete dissolution. From the bishops Frederick had no reason to fear radical opposition to his policy towards the Church, dissatisfaction with the papal administration in Germany being then widespread. He succeeded in recovering the influence formerly exercised by the German king in the selection of bishops. Many powerful men were at that time to be found among the German clergy, prominent among them being the provost of Hildesheim, Rainald von Dassel, consecrated Archbishop of Cologne in May, 1156, and made chancellor of the empire. For eleven years he was the most faithful counsellor of Frederick. Rainald was a formidable opponent of the papacy; in him the bishop almost wholly disappears in the statesman. Similar to Frederick in character, he vigorously supported the anti-hierarchical policy of the emperor. Another prelate, also a stanch supporter of the king, was Wichmann, Archbishop of Magdeburg, more of a soldier than a bishop, and uncanonically promoted from the See of Zeitz to the Archbishopric of Magdeburg. Thus assisted by the various estates of the empire, Frederick sought to make the power of the crown as independent as possible. This he did by vigorously furthering the interests of his ancestral house. The administrators of his family property, the ministeriales, were not only managers of great estates, but at the same time an ever-ready body of warriors. The negotiations between the king and the pope concerning the appointment to the See of Magdeburg revealed for the first time a radical difference between the policies of the Church and the State. During these stormy controversies, forerunners of the approaching tempest, Frederick was strengthened in his views regarding the superiority of the royal over the papal power, chiefly through intercourse with the leading jurists of the University of Bologna. The conception of the dignity of the Roman emperor placed before him by these men confirmed him in his claims to the supremacy of the German kings over the Church, which he based upon the rights exercised by them during the Carlovingian period. The whole internal and external policy of Frederick was controlled by the idea of restoring the ancient imperium mundi. In Northern Italy, where many prosperous communes had acquired independence, the former imperial suzerainty had passed away. Frederick failed to see that in these cities a new political factor was developing, and underrated the powers of resistance of these free municipal republics. Concerned only with immediate advantages, he sought to recover the regalia (income from vacant sees and benefices), which the cities had gradually usurped, and to utilize them in persuing his imperial policy. The conduct of Frederick in Northern Italy and the mistaken concept of the relations between Church and State could not fail to bring about a conflict with the papacy. In this conflict for supremacy in Northern Italy, the pope was forced to prove that he was able to defend the position of equality with the king, which the papal see had acquired, and in this way to gain a complete victory over the emperor. The king, a deeply religious man, was, indeed, convinced that the secular and ecclesiastical power should co-operate with each other, but he made it clear that even the pope should respect in him the imperial lord. If Frederick became master of Italy, the pope would have to acknowledge this supremacy. In the beginning, it seemed probable that Frederick would triumph. The pope needed German help. Threatened by the Normans from without, he was not even secure in his own city, which governed itself through a senate elected by popular vote and tolerated the revolutionary Arnold of Brescia within its walls. It was in these circumstances that the Treaty of Constance was signed between the pope and the king (March, 1153). This treaty was aimed against the enemies of the pope both in Rome and Southern Italy. In return the pope promised to crown Frederick emperor and to help him against his enemies.

    In October, 1154, Frederick began his march Romewards. Owing to the weakness of his army, the king did not succeed at this time in subjecting to his power Northern Italy and the rebellious city of Milan. In 1155 he went on with his army to Rome, where he met the newly elected Pope Adrian IV, who maintained himself in Rome with difficulty and was anxiously awaiting the arrival of the German king. Frederick could not establish permanent order in Rome. The Treaty of Constance, promising the pope help against the Romans and Normans, was therefore not carried out. In On 18 June, 1155, after having delivered Arnold of Brescia into the pope's hands, Frederick was crowned as Roman emperor in spite of the opposition of the rebellious Romans. In Southern, as in Northern, Italy Frederick made little progress during this Italian expedition. During the years 1155-1158, Frederick reached the height of his power, and energetically safeguarded the tranquillity of his realm. The difficult Bavarian question, replete with imminent danger of war, was successfully settled; Henry Jasomirgott surrendered Bavaria to Henry the Lion and in return received Austria as an independent duchy, a step that was pregnant with consequences for the future of Germany. Frederick's policy was also successful along the eastern and western boundaries of his empire. His suzerainty in Burgundy was, in the main, re-established, after Frederick, with the consent of the Curia, had separated from Adela von Bohburg, and married Beatrice, the heiress of Burgundy. On his eastern frontier, he succeeded more and more in Germanizing and Christianizing the local tribes. In this respect, Henry the Lion was the chief pioneer of the future imperial policy. Frederick maintained amicable relations with Denmark, Poland, and Hungary. Impelled by his proud consciousness of authority, which found expression at the Diet of Würzburg (1157), Frederick undertook a second Italian campaign in 1158. In the meantime, conditions had changed in Italy; the pope, from being an opponent of the Normans, had become their ally. The friendly relations between the pope and emperor had suffered a shock after the Diet of Besançon (1157). On that occasion the papal legate had called the imperial dignity a benefice (beneficium) of the popes. The expression was ambiguous, since the Latin word beneficium might mean either a personal benefit or a feudal concession. There is no doubt, however, that the indignant German princes were right in understanding it to be an assertion of the superiority of the popes over the emperors. In sharp denial of this claim, Frederick defended his imperial sovereignty. The relations between pope and emperor became more strained. Pope Adrian was considering the excommunication of the emperor, when his death relieved the existing tension. Relying on his own resources, Frederick now began another campaign against the cities of Northern Italy. Milan succumbed after a short siege (7 Sept., 1158). At the Diet of Roncaglia the emperor undertook to define with precision the rights of the empire as against its subject rulers and cities, also to restore the earlier strong suzerainty by the appointment of imperial officials (podestà) in the North Italian cities. His intention was to establish peace, but the Lombards failed to understand this and openly rebelled. During his war with the city of Cremona occurred the disputed papal election of 1159. As supreme protector of Christendom, Frederick claimed the right to decide this quarrel. Of course, had he been able to enforce his claims it would have been a proof of the supremacy of the empire. The Synod of Pavia, assembled by Frederick in Feb., 1160, decided in favour of Victor IV. Thereupon, as Victor's protector, Frederick undertook to win over to the cause of this antipope the other rulers of Europe. Milan, in the meantime, had surrendered (March, 1162) and met with a fearful castigation.

    The successes of the emperor excited the envy of the other European rulers. Pope Alexander III, animated with the spirit of Gregory VII, refused to acknowledge the imperial supremacy. Around the pope gathered all the enemies of Frederick. The universal papal power was destined to triumph over the idea of a universal imperial power. The Western rulers were determined to resist every attempt to re-establish the imperial hegemony in the West. Frederick was again left to his own resources and, after a short sojourn in Germany, undertook a new expedition to Italy (1163). For a time the death of the antipope, Victor IV, gave rise to hopes of a reconciliation between Frederick and Alexander III, but soon the emperor recognized another antipope, Paschal III. At the same time an anti-imperial alliance, the Lombard League, was formed by the cities of Verona, Vicenza, and Padua; it was joined by Venice, Constantinople, and Sicily. Internal troubles caused by the schism prevented the emperor from coping successfully with the famous League. Some of the German clergy, moreover, had espoused the cause of Alexander III, and Frederick was unable to overcome their opposition. Nevertheless, he again left Germany (1166), marched through the disaffected cities of Northern Italy, and accompanied by the antipope, entered Rome. There a deadly fever destroyed his army, while behind him the Lombard insurrection assumed more dangerous proportions. Lengthy negotiations followed, and the emperor again attempted to overthrow the coalition of the League and Pope Alexander (1174). The great battle of Legnano (29 May, 1176) destroyed the imperial hopes, and left Frederick willing to enter on negotiations for peace. The most important result of the ensuing treaty of Venice (1177) was the failure of the emperor to establish his supremacy over the pope; and in acknowledging the complete equality of Alexander, whom he now recognized as pope, Frederick confessed the defeat of the imperial pretensions.

    While Frederick was fighting in Northern Italy, the head of the Guelphs, Henry the Lion, had refused to give him armed assistance. Now he openly rebelled against Frederick. The emperor overthrew Henry, and henceforth aimed at impeding the growth of his powerful vassals by dividing the dukedoms as much as possible. Bavaria, without Styria however, was at this time granted to the Guelph house of Wittelsbach, which act naturally revived the feud between the Houses of Guelph and Hohenstaufen.

    The Treaty of Constance (25 June, 1183) between Frederick and the Lombards deprived the pope of his important ally, the combined cities of Northern Italy. Shortly afterwards, Frederick's son Henry married Constance, the Norman princess of Sicily. The papacy was now threatened both from the north and the south. Friendly relations between the pope and the emperor were also endangered by complaints about the exercise of the Jus spolii and the collection of the tithes by laymen. The coronation of Frederick's son Henry as King of Italy (27 Jan., 1186) led to an open rupture. The political weakness of the papacy was offset to some extent by the fact that Philipp von Heinsberg, Archbishop of Cologne and a powerful prince, became the champion of the pope. By skilful management and with the aid of a majority of the German bishops Frederick evaded the threatening peril.

    The death of Urban III and the election of Gregory VIII brought about a change in the dealings of the Curia with the empire, owing chiefly to the gloomy reports from the Holy Land.

    At the Diet of Mainz in 1188, Frederick took the cross, and on 11 May, 1189, started for Palestine. On 10 June, 1190, he met with a sudden death while crossing the River Saleph in Asia Minor.
    Last edited by Prussian; Saturday, November 20th, 2004 at 04:49 PM.
    "Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
    and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life."
    ~Friedrich Nietzsche~

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    Post Re: Barbarossa

    The city of Lodi, the main center in my homecounty, was allied with Barbarossa and was destroyed by the Milano armies for that.
    Barbarossa eventually re-founded the city few km away from the original center.. it was the 1158.

    "E tutti si scandalizzano quando sentono dire: quel tale tipo di mammifero o di uccello ormai è sparito dalla faccia della terra, non lo vedremo più; è una grave perdita. Certo, si tratta di gravissime perdite.
    Ma non sarebbe forse più grave se sparisse una comunità umana?? --Bruno Salvadori

    Seven pictures of northern European males and seven pictures of northern African males were presented randomly via a computer screen to 82 Italian female undergraduates of the University of Padua, Italy.
    Each picture depicted a full frontal face with a neutral facial expression. Participants were asked to classify each picture as either northern Italian or southern Italian.
    On average, the seven pictures depicting northern Europeans were classified as northern Italians 81% of the time. The seven pictures depicting northern Africans were classified as southern Italians 83%
    of the time.



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    Post Re: Barbarossa

    I really admire Barbarossa. For some reason, I really valued his ideas of unification. Too bad he ended up drowning
    Just close your eyes...can you remember
    The generations not so long ago
    I feel the shameless urge that we must restore
    Our former king to his rightful throne
    And with me lords and maidens
    We wait for the chosen son's return

    I come alive
    It's a time for celebration
    Our will to restore
    Make our past become the futre once more

    Still he lives! 2000 years have passed
    And still we're yearning for his return
    We fulfill a wishful prohecy
    And so the chanting begins
    Hail Caesar...Hail Caesar...we render unto you
    What is still yours

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    Post AW: Re: Barbarossa

    Quote Originally Posted by Strengthandhonour
    I really admire Barbarossa. For some reason, I really valued his ideas of unification. Too bad he ended up drowning
    Don´t worry, according to German folk mythology he will rise again some day.

    The old emperor Friedrich I. Barbarossa came mysteriously to the underground castle in the Kyffhäuser mountain. He sleeps there and sits on an ivory chair in front of a round marble table, holding his head in his hands. His red beard glows like fire and has grown through the table to the ground and very nearly around the whole table.
    Every hundred years the emperor awakes, moves his head and winks. That´s his way of saying hello to the dwarf Alberich and ask him to go up and have a look if the ravens are still flying around the mountain. If this is the case the emperor becomes sad because now he has to wait another hundred years before he can go up to the surface. So he closes his eyes and starts to fall asleep again for another hundred years. Only when the beard has completely grown around the table, will the wait be over, because then a proud eagle will rise through the air and chase the ravens away. Then the emperor will awake and be able to go back to earth and help the people to rule the empire.

    http://www.i-s-c-a.de/cms/99/?i=1.35...kawWDzVdb7q.uk



    Last edited by Zyklop; Sunday, November 21st, 2004 at 08:59 AM.
    Tolerance is a proof of distrust in one's own ideals. Friedrich Nietzsche


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    Post AW: Re: Barbarossa

    Quote Originally Posted by Zyklop
    Don´t worry, according to German folk mythology he will rise again some day.
    ....indeed according to folk legend a miracle is waiting to happen in Thuringia from that very mountain my friend.
    "Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
    and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life."
    ~Friedrich Nietzsche~

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    Post Re: Barbarossa

    yes. I have heard of this tale. Maybe it woudln´t be a bad idea for someone to look for the mountain and chase the ravens away himself
    Just close your eyes...can you remember
    The generations not so long ago
    I feel the shameless urge that we must restore
    Our former king to his rightful throne
    And with me lords and maidens
    We wait for the chosen son's return

    I come alive
    It's a time for celebration
    Our will to restore
    Make our past become the futre once more

    Still he lives! 2000 years have passed
    And still we're yearning for his return
    We fulfill a wishful prohecy
    And so the chanting begins
    Hail Caesar...Hail Caesar...we render unto you
    What is still yours

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    In 1817, the great German Romantic poet Friedrich Rückert wrote a famous poem on the theme of Barbarossa's future Arthur-like rebirth. Here's my favourite English translation:

    http://angerburg.blogspot.com/2010/07/barbarossa.html

    It comes with a marvellous painting of Barbarossa.

    If you ever tour Germany, a visit to the Kyffhäuser mountains to see the Barbarossa monument near Kelbra, as well as the Barbarossahöhle cave in which he is said to sleep, is a must.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Strengthandhonour View Post
    I really admire Barbarossa. For some reason, I really valued his ideas of unification. Too bad he ended up drowning
    True! I always thought the story of Henry the Lion betraying him which backfired and let to his own downfall would make a good plot for a movie.

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