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Thread: Origins of the Indo-Europeans: The Genetic Evidence

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    Post Origins of the Indo-Europeans: The Genetic Evidence

    Origins of the Indo-Europeans: genetic evidence.

    Sokal RR, Oden NL, Thomson BA.

    Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York, Stony Brook 11794-5245.

    Two theories of the origins of the Indo-Europeans currently compete. M. Gimbutas believes that early Indo-Europeans entered southeastern Europe from the Pontic Steppes starting ca. 4500 B.C. and spread from there. C. Renfrew equates early Indo-Europeans with early farmers who entered southeastern Europe from Asia Minor ca. 7000 BC and spread through the continent. We tested genetic distance matrices for each of 25 systems in numerous Indo-European-speaking samples from Europe. To match each of these matrices, we created other distance matrices representing geography, language, time since origin of agriculture, Gimbutas' model, and Renfrew's model. The correlation between genetics and language is significant. Geography, when held constant, produces a markedly lower, yet still highly significant partial correlation between genetics and language, showing that more remains to be explained. However, none of the remaining three distances--time since origin of agriculture, Gimbutas' model, or Renfrew's model--reduces the partial correlation further. Thus, neither of the two theories appears able to explain the origin of the Indo-Europeans as gauged by the genetics-language correlation.

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    Origins of the Indo-Europeans

    Ancient R1a1 Siberians were blue/green eyed

    More info on those Andronovo and Tagar skeletons that turned out to be mostly R1a1.

    The genotype for rs12913832 was obtained for 23 out of the 25 samples, and most had the G/G genotype (n=15), which indicates that at least 60% of ancient specimens were probably blue- or green-eyed individuals. The remaining samples had the A/G (n=5) or A/A (n=3) genotypes, which are predictive of brown eye color phenotype.

    Pigment phenotype and biogeographical ancestry from ancient skeletal remains: inferences from multiplexed autosomal SNP analysis
    http://www.springerlink.com/content/e48j28227r67184u/

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    DNA from German Corded Ware Burials
    Ancient DNA, Strontium isotopes, and osteological analyses shed light on social and kinship organization of the Later Stone Age

    Quote:
    In 2005 four outstanding multiple burials were discovered near Eulau, Germany. The 4,600-year-old graves contained groups of adults and children buried facing each other. Skeletal and artifactual evidence and the simultaneous interment of the individuals suggest the supposed families fell victim to a violent event. In a multidisciplinary approach, archaeological, anthropological, geochemical (radiogenic isotopes), and molecular genetic (ancient DNA) methods were applied to these unique burials. Using autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal markers, we identified genetic kinship among the individuals. A direct child-parent relationship was detected in one burial, providing the oldest molecular genetic evidence of a nuclear family. Strontium isotope analyses point to different origins for males and children versus females. By this approach, we gain insight into a Late Stone Age society, which appears to have been exogamous and patrilocal, and in which genetic kinship seems to be a focal point of social organization.
    http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/20...07592105SI.pdf


    Ydna results: Three men all of them R1a
    Quote:
    The
    consensus haplotype of the three individuals (based on most
    complete profile) gave two exact matches in in an European
    population sample of 11,213 haplotypes in a set of 100 populations
    (as of July 2008, Release ‘‘23’’ from 2008–01-15 14:44:25):
    one individual from Poland (1/939 from Gdansk) and one from
    Russia (1/48 from Tambov).

    Mtdna:

    K1b
    K1b
    U5b
    K1b
    I
    H
    X2
    X2
    K1a2

    So Corded Ware people were mostly R1a.

    Y Chromosome Haplogroups of Ancient Southern Siberians from Krasnoyarsk


    The samples belonged to the Afanasyevo (which did not yield a result), Andronovo, Tagar, and Tachtyk cultures. The non-R1a1 individual belonged to haplogroup C(xC3) and the Andronovo culture; the 2 other Andronovo individuals belonged to R1a1. This is an interesting result which suggests the presence of an eastern element in steppe cultures that originated by all accounts in the west of the area in question.

    Int J Legal Med. 2007 Nov;121(6):493-9.

    First successful assay of Y-SNP typing by SNaPshot minisequencing on ancient DNA.

    Bouakaze C, Keyser C, Amory S, Crubézy E, Ludes B.

    In the present study, a set of 13 Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) selected for the identification of the most frequent Asian Y-haplogroups was included in an allele-specific primer extension assay. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was accomplished by co-amplification of these 13 DNA fragments within 2 multiplex PCRs followed by detection with 1 minisequencing reaction using the SNaPshottrade mark Multiplex kit and analysis of extension products by capillary electrophoresis. First developed on modern samples, the assay was optimized for the analysis of 11 ancient DNA (aDNA) samples from the Krasnoyarsk region (southern Siberia) that were dated from 5,500-1,800 years before present (YBP). SNP typing was successful for most of them, which were all assigned to Y-haplogroup R1a1 except one. These results show that SNPs are well-suited for the analysis of aged and degraded DNA samples. Moreover, we found that the SNaPshot minisequencing methodology is a convenient, robust, and efficient method for SNP typing. To our knowledge, this study reports the first successful investigation of Y-SNPs on aDNA samples. The potential use of Y-SNPs in both evolutionary and forensic fields is also discussed.

    Link


    http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2008/03...f-ancient.html

    Current distribution pattern of the Y-STR haplotypes found in the ancient Siberians under study. Each square represents a present-day individual sharing the same Y-haplotype of an ancient specimem



    Ancient DNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan people.

    Keyser C. et al.

    Abstract


    Quote:
    To help unravel some of the early Eurasian steppe migration movements, we determined the Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial haplotypes and haplogroups of 26 ancient human specimens from the Krasnoyarsk area dated from between the middle of the second millennium BC. to the fourth century AD. In order to go further in the search of the geographic origin and physical traits of these south Siberian specimens, we also typed phenotype-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA analyses reveal that whereas few specimens seem to be related matrilineally or patrilineally, nearly all subjects belong to haplogroup R1a1-M17 which is thought to mark the eastward migration of the early Indo-Europeans. Our results also confirm that at the Bronze and Iron Ages, south Siberia was a region of overwhelmingly predominant European settlement, suggesting an eastward migration of Kurgan people across the Russo-Kazakh steppe. Finally, our data indicate that at the Bronze and Iron Age timeframe, south Siberians were blue (or green)-eyed, fair-skinned and light-haired people and that they might have played a role in the early development of the Tarim Basin civilization. To the best of our knowledge, no equivalent molecular analysis has been undertaken so far.

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