From Drachenloch above Vattis in the valley of the Tamina in Switzerland there is an Old Stone-Age cavern. Neanderthal man had used this cavern. The earliest remains the large-brain Neanderthal have been found at Gibraltar from around 100,000 B.C. They had tamed and used fire, they lived in the skins of other animals, and they cooperated to hunt the wild mammoth probably following the example of the wolf. The cavern at Drachenloch is filled with bones of the cave bear. At the far end of one of the chambers of the cavern were three bear skulls gathered together in an empty space.

Another was placed under a huge stone. It was encircled by a sort of stone crown adapted to the shape of the bear's head. Since the skulls included the first two cervical bones it can be assumed that they were not fleshless, but were in a state to be eaten. They were an offering in the most primary sense of religion, an offering to a supreme or higher spirit. The bear-skull crypt was an expression of awe and of hope. What we are observing at Drachenloch is the first physical evidence for spirituality in Homo sapiens.

To the modern mind, so removed from the shambles of the primitive life, bones interred in a pitch-dark cave, sprinkled with hematite are a mori memento, an uncomfortable reminder of mortality, not of spirituality or a sense of hope. It immediately follows that Cave Man must have been a rude, ignorant villain. This suits the Judeo-Christian tradition of evolution from simpler forms of life up to the blessed and literate pinnacle of evolution, us. The secularized academic story is merely a lengthened, more elaborated, more prosaic version of this story. Even the skilled 19th-century physical anthropologist Richard Virchow who reconstructed the first Neanderthal skeleton, incorrectly as it turns out, was swept along by the character of his old arthritic subject to give it an opprobrious stamp of personality that remains the colloquial definition, inappropriately, to the present day.

Bear religion/ philosophy/dance was the proud, courageous achievement of the northern human and it leaves its imprint everywhere. No Homo sapiens has moved north without assistance from the bear until the advent of the fixed agricultural civilizations. The geographic domain of this Bear culture is congruent with the Eurasian language family defined by Joseph Greenberg that includes: Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Korean, Japanese, Ainu, Gilyak, Chukchi-Kamchatkan, and Eskimo-Aleut. The earliest possible level for there to have been a continuous Homo sapiens culture from Iberia to Siberia was with the Cro-Magnon people who followed Neanderthal into Europe.

Beginning around 35,000 B.C. Cro-Magnon moved into Europe. In no cases so far discovered were they in contention with Neanderthal. After 60,000 years in Europe, living under environmental conditions significantly more demanding than anything experienced by modern European Man, Homo sapiens Neanderthalensis may have become extinct as a result of a serious drop in temperature. The next colonists of the north brought the first stages of art and literacy, symbolic representations and metaphors. Cro-Magnon left a vast and amazing record of depictions, sculptures, and notations that suggest their style of their life. Bear images now appear. The killing of bears was depicted at Les Trois Frères. A bear head is found engraved on the Massat baton. A masked male bear dancer with a pole is shown engraved on a bone from Mas d 'Azil (Only human females were rendered realistically in Paleolithic-Age art. Male figures were always masked.). Two dance-like humans surround a bear engraved in a piece of stone at Péchialet.

Alexander Marshack describes a remarkable etched bone rod from La Madeleine. "The phallus is almost flower-like in its complexity, making contact in one direction with a bear head via an angular emanation, in the other direction a smaller sub-phallus seems directed into a vulvar form." Cro-Magnon birthing images ranged from realistic to the most abstracted claviform outline, a sign that looks like the old English thorn letter, . This is also the third character in the Germanic runic alphabet Thurisaz meaning 'giant'. This key or claviform shape has been found at Niaux, Trois-Frères, La Pasiega, Altamira, and Pindal. Most intriguing, however, is to find this shape inscribed on the walls of Tuc d'Audoubert in the chamber of the ceremonial bear. Leroi-Gourhan states that the claviform shape was derived from the female statuettes and engraved figures with broad hips that are so well known from Ice-Age art.

Outside of the range of the great cave sanctuaries in southern France and the Basque region it is small mobulary statuettes of the birth-goddess that are found all the way to Siberia, including a stunning, fired clay example from the Gravettian people in Eastern Europe not far from Lepenski Vir. The Gravettian people were the closest likely direct ancestors of the Indo-Europeans. There were no cave sites available to the Gravettian people. They constructed yurt-like domiciles with the hides and bones of the mammoth that existed in great herds. The dog that would be sacrificed at Lepenski Vir was first domesticated from the wolf by the Gravettian people. But why was the bear so highly revered and associated with birthing?

The Bear culture can still be found practiced among the Gilyaks of Eastern Siberia, the peoples who live on Kamtchatka and Saghalien, and the aboriginal Ainu who occupy Yezu Island. These people worship the bear as god. What we have learned from these people is that what the bear eats Homo sapiens can eat and should eat. Bears are omnivorous. Fish in the diet of Ursa and of Homo provides vitamin D without which the skeleton will be malformed. This is especially acute for Homo in the north where the wearing of skins cuts out ultra-violet exposure to the skin. Red flesh in the diet is an absolute necessity for northern Homo sapiens, especially for the female who, quite uniquely among mammals, is in estrus monthly the year round. The loss of blood, the loss of iron puts the female at risk of iron-deficiency anemia when green vegetables are not available. This can only be made up by adding meat to the diet.

Protein malnutrition in general is also avoided with meat in the diet. With the vast herds of large mammals that existed during the Ice Age in the North scavenging was certainly available, but hunting by spear is also pictorially commemorated. The burning of flesh as a ritual act of gratitude is found as a part of Northern culture for at least 50,000 years all the way down to and including the early stages of the pure male theologies. Tragically and miraculously it is bear liver that completes the human diet for the Eurasian peoples who live in winter. Bear liver provided the only source for vitamin A. Too much bear liver is a poison; cooking the liver destroys the vitamin. Therefore the ritual eating a small portion of raw bear liver was learned. Miraculously this had the immediate and tangible effect of improving night vision. Eating bear liver literally enabled the northerner to see the stars and the celestial bear. In addition to modeling bear diet and eating bear liver, where possible Cro-Magnon people followed the bear into caves to survive the winter.

Cro-Magnon, therefore, was in contention with the bear for cave sites. The bear, however, merely hibernated. This left Cro-Magnon in a position to become knowledgeable about the birthing of the bear. Unlike Homo sapiens the family Ursa does not suffer travail in childbirth. The 1,500 pound adult cave bear gives birth to a 2 pound neonate. The mother bear gives birth in her sleep. Because of this the mother bear is almost totally self-sufficient from the male. There is almost no need for social evolution among the family Ursa. The male bear plays his single, simple hormonal role. The female bear is the epitome of the ego ideal for the female Homo sapiens wishing to be self-reliant, wishing to survive in the north. As a contrast, the human female shares travail at birth with the family Canis and sympathizes with the necessities of her comadre the wolf or the dog, but there is no celestial ideation of Canis. Like the family Canis, the family Homo has had to evolve a social body around the birthing mother.

Living in bear territory while being the killer of bears is almost beyond the understanding of polite civilized modern culture. For a first hand account we turn to S. M. Shirokogoroff who has described life among the Tungus. The Tungus hunter speaks to bears when there is no harm intended. They do not understand the details of the speech, merely the intent, or shall we say the envelope of meaning, according to the Tungus. Hunters are extremely careful to follow rituals concerning clean and unclean in relation to the bear. The person that has been touched by bear, something the bear smells, is considered gálegder and will be avoided by the hunter. The behavior of the animal shows the Tungus that the bear has a soul that leaves the body after death just as any human soul and may harm him if not treated properly. The ceremonial eating of bear follows the same pattern as a human funeral, and there are male or hunter taboos followed in this ceremony. There is a prohibition against women eating bear meat or sitting on the bear's skin. Very often a bear may be seen collecting berries at a short distance from a woman collecting berries. This shows the Tungus that the bear is not a bad-hearted animal. It is from the Tungus language that we get the word shaman meaning 'he who knows'.

Women, of course, have a different relationship to the bear. It is possible that when the human sexes were more distinct one from another, bears identified between the two as suggested by this very rare instance of female oral tradition, Anne Cameron's Daughters of Copper Woman. The following passage comes from Song of Bear:

And she stood up and the bear stood up and the young woman put on her dress, and took the bear's paw and walked off with her, up the mountain to the cave where the bear lived, and they went inside and they loved each other. In the cold winter they slept together and the bearís thick fur kept them both warm, and in the springtime they came from the cave together and danced, and fished, and were happy. And the bear wrote a song for the young woman and would sing to her, and the young woman was happy.
Anybody who can find music for this song, and sing it, or dance to it, is a sister of the bears and can ask to be admitted to the Bear Clan. And when you go in the mountains, whether it is your menstrual time or not, you wear a bell, so the bears will hear you and know you are their friend.

The linguistic association of the bear with birth was common and widespread to all temperate and boreal climate peoples in the Northern hemisphere. The basic monosyllabic root BhR is a gold mine of linguistic elaboration and metaphor. From the Proto-Indo-European root Bher we have the nominative form that refers to the animal; the reflexive form, in Latin ferre, indicating fertile; the reflexive form referring to the pregnant mother bearing the burden of the fetus; the nominative form for the child, or bairn in Scottish; and, since birth cannot always be completely separated from death, the nominative bier. Other possibilities beside Bher meaning 'Brown Bear' include Bherg meaning 'to growl'; and even BherhG meaning 'bright' or 'white' stemming from the white or Polar Bear that also refers to the circumpolar 'birch'. It was the Polar Bear that taught the Inuit and the Yupik how to survive an almost totally carnivorous diet.

Since the Polar Bear, the Inuit, and the Yupik have an inverse season from those to the south, summer being the starving season, there is a marked cultural/language barrier between them and those who live among the trees, with the exception of the association with the bear. Bher also has the meaning 'to bore' or 'perforate' that may refer to the burrow a bear makes when there are no caves available, but it probably refers to something else as we shall see. Bhergh means 'to hide', 'to protect', as in a cave, or a mammoth hide yurt, or at Lepenski Vir. As a suffix berg, burgh, or burg it means 'a small town'. Such were the tribes of the Bear people.
A possible voiceless or unstressed form of the monosyllabic root BhR, or at least a poetic association, is WR.

From the Proto-Indo-European root Wer meaning many things including 'urine'. The urinary system was anciently thought to be the source of the fertilizing moisture, the source of the seed. Wer meaning 'urine', or 'fertility' is the overarching sense leading to the series of associations generated out of that especially fertile place called Lepenski Vir. Wer or Ur as in original, or seed, or beginning could be compounded to Rtko giving us the cognates in Greek, árktos, in Latin ursus, and in Sanskrit ´rksas. Ur gives us Urania, the muse of astronomy, and Ursula the archaic European shamaness who was celibate, but promoted fertility by studying the stars. She was converted by the Roman church to St. Ursula. She continues in her ancient role and is beloved on both sides of the European cultural border. The masculine counterpart of that ancient goddess was Uranus the sky-god and Urion or Orion whose constellation acted as the seasonal hour hand to the constant pole star Polaris. BhR gives us the earthly bear; WR gives us the celestial bear. Lepenski Vir in Eastern Europe may have been the equivalent to the great cave sites in Western Europe, the sheltered spot where Gravettian women went to give birth.

Other ethnographic studies help us to recover some of the earthiness of life lived in the Stone Age. From the Jilin Institute for Ethnic Studies in China Fu Yuguang and Wang Honggang observed the living traditions of the Manchu who are descended from the Jurchen. The Manchu still live on the northern fringes of the Middle Kingdom. A trinity of creation sisters are central to the Manchu: Sky Mother, Abkai Hehe; Earth Mother, Bana-jiermu; and Cosmological Mother, Wolado Mama. Abkai Hehe, meaning 'woman's genitals', gave birth to the universe and continues to control it. She taught men and woman the ritual songs according to the first shamankas, Yinjiang.

Earth Mother, with her huge belly, hips, and breasts is the manifestation of this creation: its dirt, its mountains, its oceans. She taught gathering and hunting. Cosmological Mother has white wings that allowed her to fly through the cosmos creating the star patterns and constellations so that people could tell time, navigate, and predict the weather. The creation was so successful that earth became overpopulated. The male consort to Abkai Hehe, Abkai-enduri, had to cut down the largest tree in heaven and place it so that Heaven and Earth were connected. The excess population lived along its branches. Correlated with this myth is the yearly ritual to the fertility-goddess conducted by the Manchu. A sky pole is cut and its top smeared with blood. The pole symbolizes the penetration or perforation of the genital orifice of the fertility-goddess-in-the-sky. We recall the Nerthus religion involving Njörth in Atlantis. That celestial orifice is created by the apparent circular motion of the circumpolar stars close to the pole.

The apparent hole in space, sometimes identified by a faint pole star, was the uriginal Ursa. Ursa was the point of orientation from which all sky watchers in the Northern Hemisphere began. The turn stone for the pole or axis was the lodestone home for migrating peoples on the land or the sea. The actual bear constellation varies a good deal among the various Eurasian peoples revealing its ancient origin, the perseverance of its practice shows its basic importance. What we know as Ursa major or the Big Dipper is simply the most prominent nearby constellation that points to that fertile axis. In this we are carrying on what is to us ancient tradition, the tradition of the Golden Age Greeks around 600 B.C. They gave little indication that they understood anything about this.

Chinese is not formally included in the Eurasian super family of languages. Nevertheless Chinese, as we have seen, has been heavily influenced by the language cultures to the north preserving images from those cultures in its logographic language. Among those are the two primitive Jên characters. One of them is described as 'the striding legs' character that now means 'man' as in mankind. We have shown how it is likely that this was originally a feminine gender nominative that has undergone a sex change over time, yet with many other derivations that reflect its original meaning. The second Chinese Jên character means 'to bear'. This character shows three horizontal lines connected by a single vertical stroke through the middle.

The conventional interpretation of this character is that it represents someone carrying a burden with a bamboo pole with a load on each end. This may do as a secondary derivation, but this is clearly another part of the language reform that Chinese has undergone over time. Jên is also one of the Ten Celestial Stems of the oldest Chinese calendar and in this context it means 'the great'. Its specific meaning, however, is more likely that the bottom line represents the earth, the top line represents heaven. The vertical stroke is the connection between Yin and Yang that symbolizes the conception of life, or Tzu, in the middle. When the character for woman, Nü, is added it is still called Jên and it has the meaning 'pregnancy'.

Another elaboration of that ancient Manchu rite stems from the character I, showing the mouth exhaling breath means 'I', or 'one's self'. In the phonetic series derived from this character the self-same character renamed T'ai refers to the Great Bear. This seems to be the Chinese version of I and Thou. This is another case of Joseph Greenberg's linguistic evolution from the speakerís point of view, to the demonstrative and the third person. In Chinese the first person is explicitly evolved into the demonstrative, in fact, into the third person divine. When the character of a tree is added to T'ai it means 'to carry on a pole', 'to lift'. The pole is the vehicle for connecting heaven with earth. When the character of a tree is replaced by the character for moon it is still called T'ai and it means 'the pregnant womb'.

Hugh A. Moran privately published a book in 1953 entitled The Alphabet and the Ancient Calendar Signs. He was an expert in Chinese. He began his deconstruction of Chinese symbolism with the oldest and most universal constellations for the Northern hemisphere, the Great Bear. A Chinese character that is the nominative for bear is Nai that means 'the great brown bear of the north'. Nai is compounded of four characters. Moran deconstructed this character as a Pei character on the right side, next to the character for flesh, Ju, under the character for private, Ssu. 'North' is the meaning of the character Pei. Peiking is a northern city.

Pei is a doubling of the ancient character Pi. The conventional meaning of Pi is 'spoon'. Weiger does not offer any etymological explanation for the character Pei, but he does state that Pi is an inverted Jên 'the striding legs'. To convention this is totally meaningless, just another arbitrary phonetic. According to Moran's theory the spoon was actually what we call the Big Dipper or Ursa major, and the two combined refer to the great asterism that includes both Ursa major and Ursa minor that includes the pole star. The conventional interpretation of the compound character Nai offered by Wieger and Chinese commentators is of a roaring, angry bear that stands ready for a fight, with a fleshly body and two claws on the right-hand side. This, however, is unlikely since when Nai becomes the radical used for 'the small black bear of southern China', Hsuing, it shows four paws added on the bottom, or a total of six paws if Wieger is correct. Nai is clearly a logographic representation of an ancient ritual offering of bear flesh to the power of the celestial bear. This is a rite that seems to have gone back as far as Drachenlock Cave. Moran observes, "For many primitives and characters to which the Chinese give a fantastic explanation or none at all, the astrological theory provides a perfectly intelligible origin."

The lose of a distinction between the celestial bear into the earthbound bear in Chinese is the same as has occurred in the Indo-European languages where the root Rtko meaning 'north' and the celestial bear is etymologically collapsed into the root Bher meaning 'bear', the earthly bear with all its attendant derivations. This doubtless occurred independently, but for the same reason. In concert with these developments the Jên character meaning 'to bear' was given a new name, Wang. Wang means 'king'. Out of the womb of matriarchy is born patriarchy. In a later development the Pei character was elaborated with a moon underneath, also called Pei, and it carries the meaning 'rebellion', 'to apostatize', 'secretly', and 'deaf'. The Chinese, of course, know little or nothing about the ancient matriarchal antecedents to their language anymore than Europeans do to their language or their May-Day Pole.

Alexander Marshack has made an important survey of Old Stone Age Art and has solved one of its major riddles. In his book, The Roots of Civilization, Marshack has shown how notched and inscribed bones of this period represent a lunar notation - the first physical evidences of a calendar. A major dilemma that had to be solved is described by Marshack:

If you watch the sky each night and count the days of the waxing and waning moon, you will find that the number of days between one invisibility and the next is either 29 or 30 days. One cannot observe the astronomically precise 29 1/2 days. Instead there may be only, two, or three nights without a visible moon, with two as an average. The observer of this uneven visual month might mark it off as 28 or 31 days. But if he is off by one day here or there in his notation he will always be corrected by the next series of lunar phases. For the phases of the moon are accurate, thought the observer and his notations may not be. The method is, therefore, self-correcting over a number months.

One of the lunar notational bones described by Marshack was the Blanchard bone. The notations run back and forth across the bone, a habit in reading that would sustain itself down to the earliest stages of literacy. The Blanchard bone contained 69 marks with space left for three more marks where observations were, apparently, missing. The number 72 is the number of days in a five-season year. The Blanchard bone seems to be an observational data base for the determination of the number of lunations in a season. In occult tradition in Europe down to the present day the number 72 is given special significance, but the reason for it is long forgot. If three nights is the minimum period for establishing the full dark or the full light of the moon, two months is the minimum needed for online, self-correcting lunar phasing. Therefore, a year of five paired months, a season of 2 and a half months, make a handy mnemonic. Only the more rigorous demands for prophecy required by agriculture would shift attention to the sun and to the equinoxes and the solstices.

Why was a calendar needed? Cro-Magnon had demonstrated in their art a more a refined knowledge of the physical progress of the seasons than nearly any modern person has. Fundamental knowledge and memory of the seasons is the ken of hunters from long before. The answer lies in Homo sapiens physiology. Professor of Sociology and Anthropology at New Mexico State University Wenda Trevathan has studied pelvises of human fossils and concluded that childbirth has been physically tortuous, and therefore probably assisted, for millions of years. The selection for intelligence, which is to say a large brain and a long gestation, had put humans at serious risk during birthing. This is a risk for large mammals in general and the families Bovis and Canis have also pushed this limit. The genetic recipe for pelvic opening is not on the same page as the genetic recipe for brain size.

The so-called Venus birthing images of Cro-Magnon were all broad hipped, therefore, they were an attempt to correct this imbalance by sympathetic magic. Essentially selection for broader hip size occurs after the fact and there is a limit to evolution in this direction. Too much evolution in this direction makes the female immobile. Had the genetic recipe for brain size and hip size been coupled Homo might have evolved a Queen bee society. Adding to this challenge was that the gestation period for Homo and their role ideal, Ursa, is about the same, nine months, but the time of parturition for the bear was not favorable for Homo. Homo sapiens needed a calendar to fore fend against the warm weather impulses of the early spring. Too early rising is often the limitation that keeps southern species from being successful in the north. For Homo sapiens survival rates would have been dramatically improved if copulation could be put off until the June-July month bringing delivery into late spring of the next year. The lowest survival rates would have occurred when successful copulation occurred during the early or false spring of the North bringing parturition into November, the season of Scorpio that is the least successful period for survival. In spite of the hopeful Proto-Indo-European tradition that Mother Earth emerged from Chaos and bore her son Uranus as she slept, Homo sapiens has had to avoid its primary role model, the bear, when it came to birthing method the season of rut.

The most elaborate calendar bone described by Marshack is the bone baton from Cueto da la Mina. This calendar bone extended from March to October. The earliest period of the Cueto da la Mina calendar was superscripted by the image of the Ibex which calves in the spring. The Ibex has a 6 month gestation period. Their rut occurs in the fall. The depictions of the Ibex on this lunar notation, and in other cases where the Ibex was depicted, were marked by an X. Marshack suggests a sacrificial or ceremonial rite connected with the season of the Ibex. Jumping, horned Ibex maskers, called devils by anthropologists, have been found engraved on a Cro-Magnon baton from Teyjat France.

In the Germanic futhark the character X is called Gebo and it means 'gift' or, more appropriately, 'sacrificial gift'. The Celtic Ogam tree calendar associates the vowel O and furze with Ibex spring. Furze is a primary source of fodder for sheep and goats. Ogam tradition identifies this as a period for sexual restraint that is appropriate for intellectual pursuits. This was the time when the temple was ritually purified. X marks the knowledge of the calendar wheeling through time-space. X refers to the four directions plus the axis that makes the fifth direction. The X in several slightly modified forms is also associated with the chaste male shaman or magician down to historical time. The god of fertility who wore the antlers for Celtic culture, Cernunnos, was about the only chaste persona within an otherwise boldly sexual people. X marked the bear watcher. The male was an important member of the northern human family especially the shaman, magician, or songman who was always depicted as an animal composite and masked. Such males were often injured, either at birth or later on in their role as hunter, but survived through maternal affections and good nursing even when their usefulness was ostensibly nil.

The Neanderthal shaman at Shanidar Cave located in what is now Iraq is just such a case. Females also played this role. In historical times Diana and Artemis played this role. They too were injured in a sense. Their injury was that they were born slim of hip. The patriarchal cultures of Zeus, Yahweh, and Indra raped and violated this tradition knowing not what they do.

The most famous shaman of the Magdalenian Age was the fabulous cross-species dresser depicted from the cave of Les Trois Frères in France. C. M. Bowra describes 'le Sorcier' in his book Primitive Song, "who has the horns of a stag, the face of an owl, the forelegs of a bear, the tail of a horse, and the ears of a wolf, and is plainly dancing or prancing. Dancing certainly existed and had in many cases a mimetic character, since fifty-five portrayals of human beings dressed in skins, often in a dancing posture, are known from the art of the Ice-Age. Even if some of the pictures are not of human beings or even of magicians, that need not trouble us.

Even gods would not be depicted as dancing if men did not dance, and where there is dancing there is rhythm and music." It was in this high state of arousal in the nervous system that the myriad of details that Cro-Magnon necessarily had about his environment were raised from their specialized receptor sites to a state of creative, cross-sensory association in the temporal cortex. In the words of Inuit song-maker Orpingalik, "Songs are thoughts, sung out with the breath when people are moved by great forces and ordinary speech no longer suffices."

The collation of the season of sexual abstinence with the season of Ibex calving marks a great triumph of human science. The intellectual association of season with the seed was a triumph that would be given wider and wider application. The La Marche baton shows a pregnant mare accompanied by notational marks that relationship to lunar timing. The mare gives birth in the spring after an eleven month gestation period. The La Marche bone records ten and a half months. The horse, curiously, shares with Homo sapiens the absence of a hormonally determined period of rut that was in synch with the seasons. From these findings we are entitled to expect more evidence that Cave Man had all the intelligence and the knowledge necessary for husbandry and agriculture. It is hard to imagine how the record on the La Marche baton could have been collected unless there was some sort of domestic relationship between horse and man.

May Day was the traditional time celebrating the shift in emotion from white to red. The period corresponding to our June-July on the Cueto da la Mina lunar calendar was superscripted by some sort of plant life. This would have been the period of the Germanic futhark called Jara that was the fruitful time of the year that was represented by the character of an X with a vertical stroke drawn through the center of it. The Ogam tree calendar associates the vowel U and Erica, the Red Heather, with this period.

Ogam identifies this period with passion and passionate action. This European tradition remains down to the present day although it is generally not followed in practice anymore. There was no reference on this or any other calendar bone or any other Old Stone Age art to the period of winter. This blank period of the Cueto da la Mina coincides with the period that the European Brown Bear goes into hibernation. This would have been the base of a five-season pentagon. A full season of lunations is, however, commemorated by the Mistress of Laussel who holds a lunar-shaped horn inscribed with 13 lines. Five-sided, house-like forms or tectiforms have been found at Font-de-Gaume, and suggested at Bernifal. Having no external model for such an image these are the pure invention of the mind: the combination of the handy mnemonic curved into a pentagon by the conception of the full cycle of the year. This small unobtrusive and overlooked image is to human intellectual evolution what the dynamic and realistic bison at Altamira are to human artistic evolution. It represents the synthesis of an analytical data base into an overarching principle.

Five-season calendars are found among the stone-age peoples of Australia, and North America. This suggests that the discovery by Cro-Magnon was also made independently by other Homo sapiens all of whom have five-fingered hands. The five-season, lunar calendar of ten paired months is the oldest calendar for both the Norse and the Chinese. The Chinese pairs were identified by the five elements: wood, fire, earth, metal, and water. Robert Graves would find the old five-season year reflected in the Celtic Beth-luis-nion calendar, related to the traditional five vowels, but adjusted to the four-season year in response to Near Eastern influences. The Ibex tradition was a central part of European tradition for 20,000 years or so until Christianity made it taboo.

The general topic of sexuality, and birthing in particular, were put under a general indictment in Genesis as Eve's knowledge. The Ibex tradition in particular was enjoined by Matthew: "Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves." This was the profane wisdom tradition that was summed up by the five things known to god alone, according to the Quran. Those questions were: the time of the day of judgment, the time of rain, what is forming in the womb, what shall happen tomorrow, and where any person shall die. Among the people who are most directly descended from that ancient time and place in Basque country there is now a celebration on August 15 of a great banquet called Zikiro.

It is held in a cave where the roasting of a castrated lamb symbolizes the killing of a male witch. This refers back to the year 1610 when a wave of religious hysteria caused the burning at the stake of twelve witches and wizards. The Zikiro was born in 1650 in order that the people could rid themselves of the witch spirits. The old season of the witch in Bilbao is now engrossed with a ritual crucifixion and resurrection. The only place in the West where a descendant of the Ibex tradition goes on unfettered today is in Morocco where Bou Jeloud is celebrated at the Feast of Jajouka.

Marshack's discovery is in the sort of limbo that exists for a lot of new knowledge. Although Marshack has impeccable credentials and several well-known peers have praised his work, it is labeled as a speculation. Not only is there no formal process by which this hypothesis could be elevated to the level of a convention, there is the heavy burden of inertia against it in the social intellect of Western European culture. The Cave Man is to the Western European academy what the barbarian was to the ancient civilizations, the Jew was to the early Christian, and the Eastern European is to the Western European: they are the proof for their own theories of evolution, they are the justification for their own privileged position in high civilization and for the atrocities that it is forced to commit, and they are the implied threat lurking behind the failure to nurture and support that civilization.

From the perspective of Eastern Europe J. Jelìnek cites Marshack's hypothesis as confirming what was always thought to indicate some method of calendar reckoning. The Soviet academy, apparently, had actually moved beyond at least this prejudice that has hamstrung the Western academy. The Soviet academy had also been prone to develop the thesis of a matriarchal society for Paleolithic times stemming primarily from Fredrick Engels theory of the evolution of the family. This has proved to be more right than wrong, but in the Western European academy this too is still isolated as a minority opinion.

The Western academy likes to talk vaguely about sexuality and not at all about birthing. It talks about men spreading their genes around, and it likes to talk about hunting and gathering, but mostly hunting. It prefers the Ice-Age woman depicted at La Madeleine, a relief of a reclining nude that resembles a Modigliani. The name Madeleine comes from the Bible, the retired prostitute in the New Testament. This is the identification given to the whole age. The Madeleine nude is an extremely rare sort of female depiction. Nearly all female images have to do with conception and birth. Most of these are given the name Venus that is also completely inappropriate, Venus being a maiden, neither a mother or a wise woman. In short, we should not expect Marshack's presumption of the intelligent Cave Man to become generally acceptable to the educated Western public anytime soon.

The tragedy that ended the Cro-Magnon Age in Europe was accompanied by numerous extinctions of large mammals world-wide and the creation of enormous ice sheets miles thick. For one hundred and fifty years Western Science has had an explicit rule outlawing the only possible explanation. That rule has been shown to be wrong, but that rule is still being followed for all of the period for which Homo sapiens is recognized. One excuse offered by conventional science for the extinctions is that Paleolithic man over hunted the prey. This is patently absurd and there is not a single shred of circumstantial evidence to support it. The next excuse offered was some sort of cross-species virus wiped out Ice-Age megafauna and all of the large marsupial species in South America. This is also patently absurd.

Everything we know about virus host relationships would have to be ignored for this to work. Cro-Magnon were chased out of Europe by the reforestation occurring in a warmer Europe is the conventional tradition. Here the slow and gradual law of Uniformatarian change really bites the hand that feeds it. The inability of Homo to adjust to improved conditions is attributed to a temporary lapse of intelligence. This is the explanation given by Western Science. It easy to see that the academy has hit a glass ceiling in its ability to understand the meaning of human evolution, or to predict what will happen next.

Of course the academy is simply doing the work of the secularized Christian parent culture that has no capacity to ken or to cope with this scope of cosmology. For those not beholden to 19th-century Uniformatarian geology or the Judeo-Christian tradition of the parent culture what we have here is the familiar profile of a major meteor or comet impact in the ocean. It has happened 22 times or so in the last million and a half years with similar results. The positive side of these impacts is that the ocean warms up and for awhile Earth is greened again. The warmer periods that follow have made up about 5% of the total time of the Pleistocene Era. The normal state of the planet is cold and dry. In any case, Cro-Magnon culture vanishes and there is a new face of Homo sapiens in Europe.

It was not far from the cradle of Paleolithic Art that a characteristically new art form appears in Neolithic Spain. This art is usually in miniature, often depicting complex scenes of everyday life. In black or red and very occasionally in white we see hunters with, for the first time, bows and arrows. Game is now scarce. Piebald cattle are shown indicating that these Neolithic people had domesticated Bovis. These people were still following the Way, which is to say, nomadic. Certainly the most striking image is a painting from Cogul in Spain that shows nine skirted women dancing around a shorter, naked male with a prominent but flaccid penis. Here was certainly a visualization of the ceremony associated with the knowledge of the calendar and/or the nine month gestation period. Technically speaking the Homo gestation period is a full ten lunar periods. Practically speaking it was nearly always nine lunations with remainders at the beginning and the end. The most completed lunar notations such as the Cueto da la Mina bone showed nine lunations with remainders.

Following the earliest known occupation site in Eastern Europe at Lepenski Vir the first evidences of reoccupation of Northern Europe are found along the bogs and the marshes of the newly exposed coastline. Where Magdalenian reindeer hunters had once roamed in northern Germany there were now, in this warmer Mesolithic Stone Age, migrants from the east, the big bog or Maglemose people. Breuil describes the style of these people as quite different from the Magdalenians, the Maglemose having more in common with styles found in western Siberia, the central Ural region, and north of the Altai Mountains. The vast herds of the steppe are now gone. These people are gathering berries, mast, and shellfish, and they are catching fish.

Fish in the diet is helping to avoid protein malnutrition, but iron-deficiency is still a challenge. The bow and arrow has replaced the spear and with it they are killing the occasional deer. Marshack describes a palm-sized amber sculpture of a schematized bear from the bog of Resen in Jutland, Denmark. It was well worn and covered with geometric patterning in groups done months or even years apart. It was handled, and used in time for certain special events. It resembles similar fetishes described by Soviet ethnographists among the Nganasans, Entses, Dolgans, Chukchi, Koryaks, and Kets in Siberia and the Kamchatka Peninsula to this day. Among these peoples women keep track of pregnancies with a lunar calendar, and use small, well-worn, effaced sculptures as invocations for an easy birth. Such images are often buried near the hearth and the spirit they evoke is of an old, but still strong and vigorous woman.

The Finns who belong to the Ural-Altaic language family that includes the Manchu refer to the pole star as Taehti the star on the top of the Heavenly Mountain. This was the mountain peak that kept the heavens aloft. Throughout Eurasia there is the myth of the shining mountain over which the pole star is suspended, around which the stars wheel in nearer and farther circles. These circumpolar star patterns mark the earliest lunar calendars. On these shining mountains the hieros gamos or sacred marriage occurred. The Finns have no Ursa major as construed by the Greeks. They refer to the faint polar grouping Vähä Otawa known to the Greeks as Ursa minor. The story goes in the Kalevala that there was the great future preordained for the imperturbable Väinämöinen that was foreboded by the amazing circumstances of his birth. It was his mother Iro who was made pregnant by the lingonberry. He passed thirty summers and as many winters in his mother's womb; he reflected, he meditated how to live, how to exist in this somber hiding place....And he cried out: "Break my bonds, O Moon! Sun, deliver me! And the, radiant Great Bear, teach the hero how to pass through these unknown gates!"

From what we now know of Paleolithic Homo sapiens it is likely that the only dimension of intelligence that was less well developed than Neolithic Homo sapiens was the genius for socialization. The first notable accomplishments of Neolithic Homo sapiens were to apply Cro-Magnon science. The 'discovery' of husbandry and agriculture in the Neolithic Age was rather an application of knowledge through the adoption of new social arrangements. This helps to explain why domestication of plants and animals occurs world-wide rather than from some original focus of invention that spreads.

This scenario overthrows the romantic inventions of text-book academics about the discovery of husbandry and agriculture: the generalizations about the retreat of the last Ice Age that brought a warming of the world's climate and an abundance of plant and animal life and an increase in population. This turns out to be a bit too enthusiastic, and a more careful examination of the first settled agricultural groups in the Near East, the Natufians, shows that they were responding with controlled agriculture to a temporary but severe decline in the climate due to a cooling of the oceans from glacial runoff. The skeletal remains of the first agriculturalists show a dramatic decline in health as compared to Paleolithic skeletons. The social genius of Neolithic Homo combined with traditional knowledge came as acts of survival not as delightful, god-given discoveries that led us, the chosen people, out of the savagery of primitive life. And once established the school of civilization and agriculture is a sorcerer's apprentice that cannot be stopped. The reversion to the more self-reliant and less labor-intensive nomadic life is nearly impossible. A farmer is about as capable of reverting to a nomad, as an academic is capable of converting back into a farmer. The closest approximation to the freedom of the nomadic life in an agricultural society is to have others do the work for you.

The first human villages of the north in Eastern Europe had already seduced the wolf into becoming Canis familiars in the Paleolithic Age. The first rustic agricultural communities around the Fertile Crescent in the Near East would domesticate the sheep and the goat in the Neolithic Age. These fellow mammals were easily domesticated by removing the parents and substituting a human wet nurse. The rat and the mouse would domesticate themselves to humans as unacceptable fellow travelers, but they would soon be followed by the house snake. The pig would follow later, but the Ibex would not. Like the man who is leaning over and must walk or even run to keep from falling, agriculture must learn to dig deeper, to study the heavens more exactly, and to defend the harvest more stoutly. This is the settled Way of the civilized agricultural peoples. From the perspective of the nomadic peoples this fixed Way was unclean. The first human town was a reflection of a larger scale of agriculture driven by a new magic animal.

This culture, centered around Bos Taurus, was first to be seen at the site called Catal Hüyük in Anatolia around 7,000 B.C. Out of the wild urus, Bos primigenium Bojanus, came Taurus the first engine of agriculture. The central deity of that Anatolia culture was still the mother-goddess or moon-goddess of old. Concerning many cases of domestication the question may well be asked, "Who domesticated whom?" This is decidedly not the case with Bos. The bull was and remains an extraordinarily powerful and intractable animal. It must have been a case of strong motivation suggests reviewer Erich Isaac. In this light Eduard Hahn's thesis (1896) is still quoted with respect. Bos was domesticated out of religious reverence, especially because its horns were lunar shaped, or in an updated version, the head and horns of the bull resemble the female reproductive organs. From the secular perspective religious motivation is a mystery, and therefore an equally powerful and intractable motivation. Cite religion as a cause and any knot can be cut through. Insights coupled with iconic meaning are important, but not enough. The fact of the matter is that it is a failure of intellect that is at the heart of the dilemma when it comes to understanding the domestication of Bovis from this distance in time.

Bojanus was distinguished by an exaggerated gender dimorphism. The female was so small by comparison to the male that it was first thought that these bones represented different species. The female, therefore, was under extreme birthing stress and it was the female that was actually domesticated. Even though this gender disparity is reduced in modern cattle the female is still closely tied to the human veterinarian for successful parturition. What we have here is a generalization from the oldest human medical tradition. To use the word domestication as a general description for cattle is a bit of a misnomer. The male Taurus, the bull, is decidedly not domesticated, but must go along for the ride. It was certainly not the bull that took on the traces of domestication, it was the castrated bull - the ox - that would become the engine of agricultural civilization. The premature Bovis that is castrated is called a steer and the steer is a beef animal. It is the castrated adult male Bovis that gives the strong, healthy, even-tempered animal. It is no coincidence that the common name of the ox, auroch, was the name applied to the species even through it was incapable of sustaining the species directly. In fact, knowledge of castration and the effects of castration was certainly gained long before from accidents occurring to the very vulnerable human male. In the human adult male castration can also lead to a strong, healthy, and even-tempered individual, which also means a more intelligent individual.

Castration carries the signature of the shaman or magician to the Ice-Age mother goddess whose culture had discovered and used a lunar calendar, whose ritual castration sickle was lunar shaped. We recall the verb to Fag in English meaning 'to cut corn with a sickle or a curved stick'. The Druids fagged the sacred mistletoe from the sacred oak with a silver sickle. Guinevereís shaman, Gawain, would have cut from the Druid oak the golden bough in his Proto-Indo-European incarnations. This is the tradition of Njörth and his son Freyr who carry the sceptre and the sickle. Robert Graves says that, "Neolithic sickles of bone, toothed with flint or obsidian, seem to have continued in ritual use long after their supersession as agricultural instruments by sickles of bronze and iron." The castrated male would have very important roles to play in those early high civilizations. In polite company, we know, this goes without saying.

Although the mother goddess was in full force giving birth to life in general at Catal Hüyük, in all subsequent cattle cultures the masculine principle was well established on the ground and in the heavens whether they were the first great cattle civilization in Sumeria, the nomadic cattle herders of Africa, the Black Sea people moving into Western Europe, the Aryans who would turn the cow into an untouchable uneatable, or the Shang people in China. The abomination of the feminine principle would not occur until much later. That ancient Anatolia mother goddess still had a presence in historical times in the form of Artemis of Ephesis. Located at a temple made famous by a sacred stone that fell from the sky Artemis wore a bee-hive hat. The bee was an insect that provided one of the analogies for the human social hive. Artemis was adorned with animal heads commemorating her domesticating prowess, and also a phalanx of breasts, or is it eggs as others have suggested since there are no nipples. No one suggests that they might be bulls scrotums. The first great theological mission of Greek Christianity was an all out attack by Paul upon Artemis of Ephesis and all that she stood. One can read a pile of academic books summarizing early human civilization and not find a single reference to the importance of castration to human civilization. The modern academy prefers to avoid testy little details such as these and is effectively still left with a question mark when it comes to the domestication of Bovis. Erich Isaac is still in the position of Job in the Old Testament who he quotes: "Will the urns be willing to serve thee, or abide by thy crib? Canst the span him into a plowing harness or will he harrow the valleys after thee?"

The answer to this and many other questions of human evolution lie in breaking the seal that has been placed on the collective memory about the antediluvian, Bronze-Age culture. That culture of witches and magicians was brought under a curse following the terrible days after the impact of Typhon by the Iron-Age culture of the lightning-gods.

Little was known about Chinese prehistory outside of legends until the last half of the 20th century when the People's government launched a Golden Age of Chinese anthropology. The Yangshao cultures (5,000-2,000 B.C.) were among the earliest in the world to begin plant and animal domestication: rice, pig, dog, and water buffalo in the south, millet, pig, dog, and chicken in the north. These cultures very much resemble the earliest settlements in Eastern Europe that had wheat, pig, dog, sheep, and cattle. Just as the Indo-European tradition was an inheritance from Paleolithic Gravettian people, Yangshao culture descended from a Paleolithic tradition such as that found at Dragon Bone Hill. Just as the primarily agricultural peoples around the freshwater New Euxine Lake, now know as the Black Sea, were influenced by and had commerce with the upstream northern, steppe peoples, the Yangshao people settled in the flood plain of the Yellow River were influenced by the Hongshan people to their north who were more interested in hunting than planting.

In classical tradition Fu-Hsi or Fuxi was the first Pengdragon or Emperor, the first of five legendary Chinese Emperors that led up to the Chinese Bronze Age (circa 2,800 B.C.). Fu-Hsi is said to have been miraculously conceived by his mother who, after a gestation of twelve years, gave him birth at Ch'eng-chi in Shensi. Here we find the myth that corresponds to the character Xing 'the place where the clan chiefs of old were born from a woman impregnated by heaven'. This tradition goes back at least as far as Neolithic Yangshao culture. Fu-Hsi taught his people to hunt, to fish, and to keep flocks. He taught them how to twist silk threads and stretch them across so as to form rude musical instruments. From the markings on the back of a wonderful tortoise he is said to have derived the eight trigrams of the Pa-Kua from which developed a whole system of philosophy contained in the Book of Changes.

He invented a calendar, instituted a marriage contract, and last of all taught mankind how to cook their food we are told. He was a part of a Trinity that also included Shen-nung and Huang-ti. This was the Trinity that replaced the ancient female Trinity. The counterpart to Fu-Hsi in the older feminine Trinity was probably Nü-kua. It was she, according to legend, who was the founder of humanity and a heroine of a flood legend. She is equivalent to Abkai Hehe in Manchu tradition who gave birth to the universe and continues to control it. Nü-kua was also supposed to be Fu-Hsi's sister and successor therefore showing that inheritance followed the mother's line not the father's line. Females were not yet owned by a patron. Since one of the meanings of Kua is 'divination' this too refers to the Neolithic matriarchal culture that modern Chinese anthropology is just now uncovering.

We have already seen that in the culture of the Middle Kingdom an ancient matriarchal culture lies buried under such reformed and misunderstood characters such as Jên 'the striding legs', and we have seen that there is a remarkable parallel with the Proto-Indo-European root Gen(h) meaning 'to beget' or 'give birth'. Another related root in Proto-Indo-European is Gwen leading to the Greek gyne meaning 'woman' as in gynecology and the Celtic gwyn meaning 'white' and Gwenhwyfar the 'white phantom' who was one of the trinity of three Guineveres or Jennifers. Sometimes the G is dropped giving 'nature' in English. Could a similar process have occurred in Chinese giving Nü meaning 'woman'. In any case, both the trinity of Gwen's and the trinity of Nüs would come to be abominated as 'witches'. We have also already seen that Ng is not found in the initial position in Chinese, but have found that Ng in the final position in Chinese frequently marks a word as masculine, such as Yang. We have also seen that N in the final position often marks a word as feminine, such as Yin. The phonetic principle, the sound Gn or Jn relating to the feminine and its metathesis Ng or Nj relating to the masculine, must be very ancient indeed, preceding both Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Chinese.

Were the Gnostics a carrier of this tradition? Gnostic means 'the knowledge of spirituality according to the Gnostics'. This standard dictionary gnome or axiom is not very enlightening. Did the Gnostics gnow the relationship between gnaw and jaw, jaw being descended from Genu, and of the jawbones of asses so decried by Deacons from before the Flood? Perhaps they are descended from the druids who are associated with that most remarkable gnomon, Stone Henge. In any case, these Yin-Yang consonant clusters, representing the voiced-velar nasal, act like a radio-active tracer that goes back to a subset of language that essentially stopped evolving and started to degrade in the postdiluvian, Iron-Age world.

Parallel to the legendary tradition is another cultural artifact that supports and augments myth, a story that can be reconstructed from the logographic language. Following the characters that have the name Wu we can read the progress of a Proto-Chinese or Sinitic wisdom tradition from the Neolithic, through the Bronze Age, to the Iron Age. The Wu tradition starts at the center of Chinese philosophy: the five directions including the center, the five senses, the five elements, the five virtues. The rudimentary Wu pictograph is X and it means 'five'. With the two principles Yin and Yang added as horizontal strokes above and below are begot the five basic elements of life.

Wu rotated 90 degrees making it an equal-armed cross that is now called by the name Shih meaning 'ten'. When Wu meaning 'five' has a mouth added below it means 'one's self', 'I', or 'me'. When Shih meaning 'ten' has a mouth added below it means 'the words of a sage', Chi. Another derivative of Shih means 'someone who calculates', again Chi. The Wu character that establishes the antiquity of the tradition is the character associated with the five-season, lunar calendar of ten paired months. The fifth circumpolar constellation of the so-called Ten Stems is Wu represented by a primitive pictograph showing the inverted bowl of heaven supported by a pole in the middle with a mark at the center of the arch probably referring to the pole star, Polaris. The five-season, ten-month lunar calendar is a common element of Eurasian culture going back to Paleolithic culture. This Wu pictograph references the May Pole traditions still practiced by the matriarchal Manchu tribes.

The more recent logographic Wu character for this cyclical position of the Ten Stems shows a halberd or spear with the character for 'cliff', or 'steep slope', or 'the top of a mountain'. This was likely the shining mountain under the pole star. It is preceded by the character Ting meaning 'nail'. This may be the pole star. There is a tradition in the Eastern Mediterranean that identifies Polaris as a nail or pin. This is a reflection of an early metallurgical culture. The spear confirms that the Wu logograph reflects an early stage of Sinitic metallurgical evolution. The shining mountain involved here may have been Wu-T'ai Mountain in Shansi province just below Inner Mongolia, just across the river from the traditional home of Fu-Hsi.

Although we may be sure that some violence attended the major cultural changes going on at this time - established prerogatives being disturbed, old habits dying hard - the violence was not sufficient to cause the new age to disinherit the old and to abominate it to hell and gone - yet. Greek legendary history contains an incident that illuminates further the sort of change that is happening here. Apollo bedded the mortal woman Coronis, daughter of the King of the Lapiths and sister to Ixion.

Apollo was the chief of the new age in Greece, the Lapiths were Centaurs, that is to say, the not quite human rustics of past age. Not being guided by the strictures of the new patriarchy Coronis admits Ischys to her couch even while she was with child by Apollo. Apollo discovers, what was to him, Coronis's infidelity. He has her shot full of arrows. While still on the funeral pyre Apollo is suddenly filled with remorse. He has Hermes, the old snake-handling, medicinal god, cut the still living child from Coronis's womb. Apollo names the child Asclepius and carries him off to the mountain cave of Chiron. Chiron, meaning 'hand', from which the word 'surgery' comes, teaches Asclepius the arts of medicine and the chase. He would eventually be elevated to the stars by Zeus as the new snake-handling, medicinal god. This is an evergreen theme with variations: the ever increasing role and responsibility of the male in human culture, often realized through invasions from without followed by revolutions from within, that fall short of their ideals requiring the older feminine tradition to be ushered back in through the rear door.

If we examine legend with the tools of etymology we fine that one possible meaning of Fu-Hsi is 'Western Father'. There are two Fu characters leading to the sense of 'husband', 'master', or 'father' in Chinese. One Fu character depicts a mature person wearing a hair pin meaning 'husband' and 'master'. This character has the compounded derivatives meaning 'to sit cross-legged', 'an axe', 'wheat bran', and 'a tempest'. Wheat was a contribution that blew in from the western steppes to the China. Sitting cross-legged is what someone in a tent or a yurt might do, but it is also proposed that Yogic practice as well as acupuncture were imported from the West. Just as the tribal matriarchies of Starãevo would be absorbed by the Kurgans who imposed palisaded chiefdoms on Eastern Europe, the Yangshao were replaced by the patriarchal Longshan (2,500-2,000 B.C.).

In the Lower Yellow River Basin the Shandong Longshan built towns surrounded by pounded-earth walls and made use of copper and bronze tools. A dramatic distinction between social classes begin to play an important role as evidenced by the different levels of elaboration in grave sites. Another Fu character shows a hand holding a rod or a stick. Derivations from this include a character for 'axe' and another for 'cauldron'. Copper and bronze metallurgy came into China from the western steppes, through the Tarim basin, by way of the western Hsia or Xia dynasty. We recall that the Ossetic myth of the cauldron Amonga that supplied an unending supply of food and drink. Victory Mair suspects that the Mandarin word for cauldron is cognate with the Indo-European Kelh meaning 'a large cooking pot' or a 'cauldron'. This stems, by poetic analogy and phonetic association, from Kaul meaning 'the caul and umbilicus' that enclose and feed the fetus. The bronze cauldrons of the Shang dynasty would come to hold a ritual value to that culture equal to the Holy Grail in European culture several thousand years later. If there was a Bronze-Age equivalent in Europe we are not aware of it. Fu-Hsi clearly represents a composite of traditions including Neolithic Yangshao, Early Bronze-Age Longshan, with a sizable contribution from the Western barbarian.

Understanding the wand of power in the hand in the Fu character meaning 'father' sets us on the track of another connection between the Orient and the Occident. The most literal grapheme in Chinese that is a single vertical stroke is the primitive pictograph Kun. The character Chüeh that means 'a crooked stroke' is either a straight line or a straight line with a curl at the bottom like a J. The difference between the two strokes is explained by the method of creation. The simple straight line is thought to have been normal to scratching onto oracle bones. The J stroke is thought to be normal to a brush stroke. Whether this is true or not both forms are still used. Sometimes they are used together, sometimes they are used interchangeably. Kun is found interchangeably with Chüeh as the trunk of the 'tree' in Mu, and either may be the arrow in Chung meaning 'center' that is part of the name Middle Kingdom. Derivations are prolific when the two strokes Kun and Chüeh are combined to form the contracted radical Tao meaning 'knife', or 'sword'. As the 18th radical Tao combines with other characters giving the meanings, 'a cooper's adze', 'a two-edged sword', 'scissors', 'a chisel', 'a scythe'.

There are four different compounded characters under Tao referring to castration including a specific reference to the castration of the mature human male with the name Yen. Curiously the character Yen is listed as a phonetic even though its logograph is quite literal and coherent. The 18th radical combines with two other characters, a variant of Jên meaning 'humanity' and Pao meaning 'a fetus', to give the character Kou meaning 'a sickle' or 'billhook'. Doubtless this refers to an obstetric instrument given a secondary or perhaps a bowdlerized definition as an agricultural tool. Further abstractions include Lieh meaning 'to divide', or 'to place according to rank'; Tsai meaning 'law' and 'penalties, fines and mutilations'; and Li meaning 'to cut corn', 'the harvest', hence 'gains, profit, and interest on money'. The pictograph Fu meaning 'father' shows a hand holding a Kun rod; the more elaborate character Shou meaning 'mandarin' shows a hand in which the long middle finger is the Chüeh or J stroke, compounded with a dot representing rule, all under the roof of the ancestral hall. The wand of power that is commonly recognized in more modern Chinese tradition is the Kuei that shows the doubling of the character for land. The character refers to the jade sceptre.

Cronos was reputed to be the son of Uranus the progenitor of the Bronze-Age Titans in Europe. Cronos was often depicted carrying a castration sickle in his hand or in other cases he is naked carrying a spear. Cronos's sickle was the sceptre of power. It was a metaphor for power through knowledge. Cronos can be found in the heavens as the Bear Watcher. Wu of the Ten Stems carried a spear. We should not be distracted by the differences between spears and sickles. What is more appropriate here is to see the metal implements as ikons for a blacksmith tradition and to see their role rather like the blacksmith clans in the tribal cultures of black Africa. They have their own tradition, dance, mask, and often their own language. They may buried within the seats of power practicing white magic or beyond the pail as black magicians, dangerous but necessary. What we are dealing with here is a tradition at least as old as Neolithic culture, that extended well into the Bronze Age and even the Age of Iron. It was only after the impact of Typhon that ikons referring to ancient matriarchal tradition would begin to be abominated with the revulsion of taboo, and largely forgot; and the talk would turn from gelding to geld.

It is supposed that the idea of the domesticated pig may have gone from East to West since domesticated pig remains have been found earlier in China. The wild pig is found throughout Eurasia, however, and it is relatively easy to domesticate. The boar and the sow must be killed. The piglets are then given to a wet nurse. The relevant question here would have been: is it better to leave the pig wild and risk injury in the hunt, or is it better to have the pig at hand, but always in need of food and cleaning. It is easy to see how pig domestication might have been put off for centuries. Although the question of pig domestication remains unsolved, in general there was clearly a greater influence flowing from the West to the East at this time. Wheat, sheep, and the copper axe can be traced as coming from the West although they receive no particular commendation in Chinese legendary history. Oracle records do mention the entry of heavenly horses, but Bos Taurus came with the highest honors and celestial elevation. Niu is the Chinese name for cattle.

It was the herdsman Niu Lang who joined with the weaver woman Chih Nü. They had become become separated by the River of Heaven and it is only on the evening of the seventh of the seventh moon that the ravens and the magpies formed a bridge to carry Chih Nü over to spend the night with Niu Lang. Since Chih Nü goes to Niu Lang we have formal conformation of the shift from matrilineal inheritance to patrilineal inheritance that comes with cattle culture. In the words of Kwang-Chih Chang, "Wang Hai, a predynastic ancestor of the Shang, is credited in Shih pen with being the originator of cattle breeding, and Wang Kuo-wei characterized him as a true cultural hero who civilized the Shang people. Yi Ching mentions his death at the hands of the Yu Yi Shih, a northern tribe, probably as a result of a dispute over grazing grounds." It is the Ox that is important here, and, as we have already seen, creating the Ox was no mean trick and something for which experience was essential. Wu tradition resurfaces again at this point.

The pictograph that has the name Niu meaning 'cattle' looks like the equal-armed cross meaning 'ten', Shih, with horns added. The conventional explanation is that it is an image of the animal from the rear with the bottom arm of the cross being the tail. This is strange since most of the old logographs for large quadrupeds such as bear, horse, and so forth show four marks indicating legs. Perhaps the original Niu was actually Niu Lang whose wisdom tradition is marked by the wearing of antlers or horns, a tradition that goes back to the Ice Age 'Sorcier'. This is a widespread Eurasian tradition during the Neolithic and Bronze Age, the Celtic fertility-god Cernunnos is an example. The second of the legendary Chinese male trinity, the Red Emperor Shen-nung, was reputed to have been born with a bovine head. He was instructed in agriculture, magic, and medicine by Zi Songze. He is depicted as living in a cave wearing leaves for cloths. Even Fu-Hsi is depicted with a rather more civilized pair of cerebral protuberances. In European occult tradition nearly the same symbol is an ikon for Jupiter and for tin. The curved bovine horns or lunar symbol are displaced to the side. The cross surmounted by a circle is the ikon for Venus, a solar sign and the sign for copper. Tin and copper married gives bronze.

The combination of the ikons for Jupiter and Venus, a cross surmounted by a circle surmounted by horns, gives the ikon for Hermes or Mercury. Hermes was the eunuched, celibate, or hermaphroditic shaman in the goddess tradition. Jupiter was the sexual consort to the ancient goddess. The calendar based upon a lunar zodiac with twelve months entered the culture at this time probably with the knowledge of the domestication of cattle. The sign of the Ox would be one of the twelve signs of the lunar zodiac just as it was in Sumeria where the twelve month calendar had its origin. In the Chinese calendar it would be followed by the weaver woman. There is also a Wu character that is part of this twelve month calendar and it is no less than the seventh constellation, the constellation of the Horse. The constellation associated with this sign is arrow shaped. The sign of the Horse is consonant with the sign of Sagittarius that is identified by an arrow. In the Indian twelve month calendar, also stemming from the Sumerian calendar, the Sagittarius position is occupied by a horse-man or Centaur holding a bow and arrow. This is the month that marks the beginning of the winter season. It is the season of Diana goddess of the hunt and of childbirth. It is the season when the estrus female must turn from leafy greens to meat to avoid iron-deficiency anemia. Apollo's son by his Centaur wife Coronis, Asclepius, was elevated by Zeus into the constellation Ophiuchus Serpentarius that also covers the winter season. We may infer from these elaborations of the ancient Wu tradition an evolution from the matriarchal shaman of oral tradition to the status of a rather more literate patriarchal sage.

Western influence on Chinese culture continued after the destruction created by the Black Dragon, or the Typhon impact, and evidence for it has been found within the inner sanctum of the Shang and Zhou courts. These were the royal magicians or fortune tellers. The Mandarin word for such a magician is Wu that has been reconstructed as being pronounced Mag in the days of Shang. Victor Mair states, "That people of a Causasoid physical type became priest-magicians to the nascent Chinese state finds support from unexpected quarters. Several figures depicting what are widely regarded as Caucasoid physical types have been unearthed in both Shang and Zhou contexts. The two from the Zhou dynasty, recovered from the excavations of a palace in Shaanxi province, are small heads carved from shell. They display large deep-set eyes, wide mouths, thin lips, large noses and narrow faces....Their conical headgear has also been compared with that of some of the steppe tribes." These small carved images were originally to be fitted in the ends of hair pins as shown in the character Fu meaning 'husband', 'a man', or 'master'. On the top of one of them is the cruciform Chinese character for Wu. Or perhaps it is the Wu character rotated, Shih, that is part of the evolving Wu tradition.

These Mag were found in the courts of nearly all of the contending states of the Eastern Zhou interpreting dreams, practicing divination, explaining omens, chanting hymns and prayers, making astrological calculations, and carrying out sacrifices on the sacred alters. The Caucasoid X people are thought by Mair to have come from the West, the region between the Urals and Lake Baikal, a people identified by their remains unearthed by anthropologists and called the Andronovo culture. They seem to have been an Indo-Iranian speaking people who had a wisdom tradition under the heading of the magus that stems from the Proto-Indo-European root Magh. These were a fully accomplished bronze-using people with the advanced horse and chariot martial arts that were developed on the Central Asian Steppes. These Indo-Iranians arrived in Shang-dynasty China about the same time as the Indo-Aryans who were sweeping into India on horseback. These invasions mark the outer limits of the inland Indo-European centrifugal diaspora that followed the Typhon impact and the destruction of Atlantis. The Dravidian Indians were conquered by the northern Aryans.

The Chinese were able to absorb their wild western invaders. As to whether the magus tradition absorbed and displaced an indigenous sage tradition giving it a new imported name, or simply reinforced a preexisting western influence from an earlier time - perhaps Fu-Hsi was such a magus - are matters that are still debated. Mair proposes that "it is time to consider to what extent the development of Chinese civilization itself was stimulated by Western 'barbarians'."

In early Chinese culture the god of literature resided in Ursa major known as K'uei in Chinese. He was extremely ugly, according to the Chinese, having two long crooked horn-like projections and he is depicted as standing on a fish. But at some point, probably swept out of office after the Typhon impact, he was removed to the celestial provinces, to a distant star know by a similar name, Kuei, where there lived another ugly individual who reputedly had power over the spirits of evil. This character had committed suicide by drowning himself in a river. Those in the gnow would take it on the chin following the catastrophe of 1,500 B.C. (radio-carbon date).

From the Wu character that showed the hand reading the oracular bone meaning 'to awake', 'to apprehend', 'to become conscious', and 'intelligence' to the Wu character that combines the character for 'witch', 'sorceress', and 'magic' with speech meaning 'to slander' we have come full cycle from science to superstition. The various traditions of medicine would iterate into two main branches. There would be a literate, settled, upper-class tradition that was non invasive and had a low failure rate, and there would be a back-alley migrant tradition that would handle the difficult chores such as breach birth, castration, and cutting for the stone. In the West the moral of new age concerning wisdom tradition of the Magus came with the curse visited upon the family of Oedipus. Those who could solve the riddle of the Sphinx (4 the ignorant man on four legs, 2 the intelligent man, 3 the spiritual or wiseman with a staff) must kill their father and marry their mother. The change in the role of the male in the human culture is a main theme in human evolution.

Regular progress in the direction of increased responsibility is seen over the past 50,000 years. Motivation, like blood out of a stone, has been inspired by blaming the aspirations of the past and the raising up of new gods. The oldest aspirations of humanity are identified by their largely feminine nature. The antediluvian world is marked by mixed-gender aspiration and responsibility across the Eurasian domain. At times of great stress this gender evolution leaps ahead. In the postdiluvian world a rather ungainly, but apparently necessary demonization of the female has motivated the continued survival of the juggernaught of civilization. The role of the woman in classical Han Chinese civilization would be to kowtow to men, polygamy would be the norm for those who could afford it, woman would have no voice. As has been the case with all the great civilizations the Chinese have blamed the messenger for the message.

With the coming of Buddhism in the Han dynasty we also find the birth of a purely Chinese Bodhisattva by the name of Monju. Monju was the personification of supreme wisdom. His special place of worship was Wu-t'ai Mountain in Shansi just across the river from the home of Fu-Hsi. He is depicted in yellow sitting on a blue lion with a red jaw. He is shown with books, but also with a sword, or a sceptre with a curved end. This is clearly a reincarnation of the northern shaman of old, but now in the polite garb of a Buddhist.

We may presume that he had never disappeared, but lived an occult life in some distant refuge. A Taoist hermit, Zhang Daoling, was visited by Lao Tzu in 142. Calling himself the Celestial Master he instructed the devout hermit to reject sacrifice and the old gods and spirits who accepted sacrifices. In their place was a new pantheon of gods and goddesses including Dipper Mother. Sitting on a lotus, probably a reference to Arundhati who resides in a small star in Ursa Major, Dipper Mother is the mother of the stars of Ursa major. She is associated with healing and childbirth. She has a third eye in her forehead. Resembling Kuan Yin, in her18 arms she holds a variety of sacred weapons and vessels. In her name a sacred dance is performed pacing out the seven stars of the Northern Dipper. In spite of the role that Buddhism played in civilizing and restoring ancient Chinese tradition, or perhaps because of it, Buddhism would be brought under heavy persecution and by the Song dynasty (960-1279). Ch'an Buddhism is all that remains in China coming from Tibet carrying the message of no message.

In his paper entitled Old Sinitic Mag, Old Persian Magus, and English "Magician", Victor Mair makes a correlation between the Wu wisdom tradition and the traditions in the European Middle Ages marked by the equal-armed cross or the Cross Potent. These included pure pagan tradition such as that stemming the vestiges of Western-European, Bronze-Age culture as well as Central Asian, Sarmatian tradition summated in the early stages of the Arthurian myth cycle and later occult or gnostic Christian traditions such as the Rosicrucian movement. The Arthurian tradition was fully converted to Catholic Christianity by the 14th century, the occult or gnostic traditions were extirpated root and stem by the 17th century as the Peopleís religion cleansed itself of all corrupt and foreign practices. The only intellectual tradition that was tolerated was that of Golden Age Greece, especially that represented by Aristotle.

By the 19th century the Chinese, with assistance from the Jesuits, had correlated the Greek concept of Ursa major with the Chinese asterism now called 'the Government', or 'Heavenly Reason', or 'Emperorís Chariot'. In the West Ursa major was Thorburnís wagon before Christianity. As late as the 15th century Dürer's Planisphær Cúleste shows Boötes the Bear watcher, centered around the star Arcturus just outside of Ursa major, carrying the ritual sickle or naked with a spear. Ursa major is now commonly known as the Big Dipper.

I have a prayer paper from the last Chinese Dynasty, the Qing dynasty that ended in 1912. The prayer paper shows the Emperor's splendid court with its attending women, eunuchs, scribes, and musicians, and one oddly discordant performer who is the center of attention. The ugly performer has horns or pointed ears and hairy goat-like legs. This tragopan is dancing and carries the most primitive form of pandean pipes, the double flute tuned a fifth apart, a yin pipe and a yang pipe. Derivations of the character for pandean pipes, Yao, include meanings such as 'a sacrifice in an ancestral temple', 'to cry', 'to evoke', and 'to implore'. He is the image of the goatish Pan. Is this that same Arcadian primitive said by the Greeks to have been born of Cronos and Rhea; said to have pursued the chaste Syrinx who became a reed that he cut in order to invent the pipes? It was Apollo, it was also said, that wheedled the art of prophecy from the rustic Pan and purchased the Pan Pipes from Hermes.

Rumor has it in the West that the Great God Pan is dead, yet he is still discovered in the white-washed fleeces that cover his hairy, black goatishness at the Feast of Jajouka in North Africa. In Morocco Bou Jeloud continues his timeless mission. The relationship to Pan marks a profound difference between Chinese and Western European culture. Although abominated in public culture the rustic could still find a stage in Chinese Imperial culture within the heart of the Forbidden City. The ancient continuing thread of Njörthern-European tradition is now only found outside the pail in North Africa. With the advent of Peopleís politic in China, however, has come a cleansing of all the corrupt and foreign practices including the abominations of the Forbidden City as well as ancient Buddhist and Taoist traditions. The practitioners of these ancient traditions have moved to the West where there is a sympathetic audience.

The Chinese labor under the same general amnesia about the details of their ancient traditions, but, whereas Judeo-Christian European tradition can only go back 3,000 years or so, Chinese traditions are now showing their archeological roots for at least as far back as 7,000 years. For the period up to the impact of Typhon the general movement in the Eurasian cultural domain was from the West to the East. The damage caused by Typhon, particularly in Western Europe, was such that any attempt to restore Western-European, Bronze-Age culture has been substantially aided by learning about early Chinese culture. After about a thousand years of recovery time the general movement of influence, beginning with the Han Chinese culture, was from East to the West. The technological and scientific legacy of China at this time is so massive that, in some instances at least, one marvels not so much at the precociousness of the Chinese as the slowness of the Europeans.