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Thread: Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Uncovers Population Structure in Northern Europe

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    Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Uncovers Population Structure in Northern Europe

    The German and British population appear to be less differentiated than the Swedes, Western Finns and especially the Eastern Finns. This is likely caused by the later founding of the northern populations, together with subsequent founder and bottleneck effects, and a smaller population size. Furthermore, research data suggest a small eastern contribution among the Finns, consistent with the historical and linguistic background of the population.

    The settlement of the Baltic Sea region advanced rapidly after the Ice Age, beginning about 14,000 BC in Northern Germany and 10,000 BC in Finland. All the populations have their roots mainly in Central Europe, although some eastern influence has been observed among the Finns. The early settlement in Finland covered almost exclusively the coastal and southwestern regions until a major settlement wave starting from central eastern Finland (the province of South Savo) led to the settlement of northern and eastern Finland from the 16th century onwards. Even then, the population size throughout the country remained small, causing extensive genetic drift which, together with local and regional founder and bottleneck effects, led to the characteristic features of historical settlement of Finland: heavily drifted and isolated small breeding units.

    Y-chromosomal studies have shown a strong genetic borderline between Western Finland and Eastern Finland, also supported by some studies of autosomal variation. Several studies have shown a longer range of linkage disequilibrium among the Finns, especially among the late settlement population of Eastern Finland, compared to the more outbred European populations.

    In Germany, only a minor degree of population structure between the northern and southern parts of the country has been detected by studies of autosomal markers, and some local differences by Y-chromosomal analysis. Additionally, the German province of Schleswig-Holstein analyzed in this study has Y-chromosomal evidence as well as historical records indicating substantial admixture with the Danes. Genome-wide analysis of the British population has indicated only a slight genetic gradient from Southeast to Northwest, and the lack of strong substructure has been considered to be consistent with the multiple migrations that have affected the population.

    http://www.plosone.org/article/info:...l.pone.0003519

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    Interesting aspects of the study are the Northern and Eastern Eurasiatic influences especially in Finns, but the absense in British and Germans, very low level in Swedes first, and secondly that there is a significant division inside of the Finnland between the (South-) West and (North-) East, reflecting genetically the racial distances to a certain degree in my opinion.

    Otherwise its also interesting that the authors relate to "reference groups" for a proper analysis of the substructures inside of a population - f.e. Finns, which were considered largely homogeneous before. For the British it would be interesting to compare them with Basques on the one and German as well as Swedish populations on the other hand, for Germans the same plus a comparison with Eastern and South Eastern Europe I guess.

    Additionally they also support the generally strong distinctiveness of the major race populations of the Europid, Mongoloid and Negroid sphere.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Agrippa View Post
    Interesting aspects of the study are the Northern and Eastern Eurasiatic influences especially in Finns, but the absense in British and Germans, very low level in Swedes first, and secondly that there is a significant division inside of the Finnland between the (South-) West and (North-) East, reflecting genetically the racial distances to a certain degree in my opinion.

    Otherwise its also interesting that the authors relate to "reference groups" for a proper analysis of the substructures inside of a population - f.e. Finns, which were considered largely homogeneous before. For the British it would be interesting to compare them with Basques on the one and German as well as Swedish populations on the other hand, for Germans the same plus a comparison with Eastern and South Eastern Europe I guess.

    Additionally they also support the generally strong distinctiveness of the major race populations of the Europid, Mongoloid and Negroid sphere.
    Suuch research wasn't encouraged under social-Darwinism. The Germans and English were the ''master races'', and it would had been contrary had they researched Mongoloid or Congoid influence in these two groups.
    A British Anthropologist would had scoffed at the idea, laughing at a so called "Biritsh connection" to a bunch of mountainmen in Northern Spain.


    Although we are living in different times. There seems to be a surge of academics who are interested in Sppain's Celtic background

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