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Thread: Indo-European Root Words and Verbs

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    Post Indo-European Root Words and Verbs

    Since reconstructed Proto-Indo-European, or 'PIE', is considered Linguistic History, I decided to put this post in the History Forum.

    Here's a link to a PIE root verb: *bhel-: white, clear; to shine, to be white.

    http://www.geocities.com/indoeurop/p...cs/word11.html

    Now, this link at the bottom links to a verb-conjugation page at Verbix.com. It has the reconstructed verb inflections of all the verb tenses that existed in PIE.

    http://www.verbix.com/languages/prot...european.shtml

    Enjoy!

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    Senior Member Stríbog's Avatar
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    Here is another good example:
    English: Mother
    German: Mutter
    Swedish: Moder
    Dutch: Moeder
    Russian: Mat
    Polish: Matka
    Latin: Mater
    Spanish: Madre
    French: Mère
    Italian: Madre
    Portuguese: Matriz

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    Also,

    Croatian: majka
    Icelandic: móðir
    Welsh: mam, or fam
    Hungarian: mama

    Compared to nonwhite languages:

    Turkish: ana
    Chinese: Niàng
    Zulu: UMAMA
    Swahili: nina

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    More examples:
    English: Sun
    German: Sonne
    Swedish: Sol
    Dutch: Zon
    Russian: Sonn or Sonna, I believe
    French: Soleil
    Italian: Sole
    Spanish: Sol

    English: Cat
    German: Katze
    Dutch: Kat
    Swedish: Katt
    Russian: Kot
    French: Chat
    Spanish: Gato
    Italian: Gatto

    I will try and think of some more tomorrow, but this is enough for tonight....

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    Proto-Indo-European Root/Stem: *sneigwh- (Snow)

    Greek: niks, niphos (snow), neiphei (it snows)

    Latin: nix, nivis (snow), ninguit (it snows)
    French: neige
    Sardinian: nie
    Ladin: naiv
    Italian: neve
    Catalan: neu
    Spanish: nieve
    Occitan: neu
    Portuguese: neve

    Common Celtic: *snig-
    Old Irish: snigid (it snows), snechta (snow)
    Irish: sneachta
    Scottish: sneachtadh

    Gothic: snaiws
    Old High German: snîvit (it snows)
    Old English: snâw
    Old Norse: snâer
    Swedish: sno
    Danish:sne
    Norwegian: sne
    Icelandic: snjór
    German: Schnee
    Frisian: snie
    Dutch: sneeuw
    Africaans: sneeu

    Avestan: snaez'aiti (it snows)
    Sanskrit: snihyati (he gets wet)

    Common Baltic *snég-
    Lithuanian: sniega (it snows), snigti (to snow)
    Latvian: snigt
    Old Prussian: snaygis
    Sudovian: snaigas

    Common Slavic: *snegü-
    Old Church Slavonic: snegü
    Ukrainian: snig
    Bulgarian: sniag
    Macedonian: sneg
    Serbo-Croatian: snijeg
    Slovene: sneg
    Czech: snih
    Slovak: sneh
    Polish: s'nieg
    Upper Sorbian: sneh
    Lower Sorbian: sneg
    Polabian: snêg
    Russian: sneg, snezhit' (to snow)

    I hope it doesn't snow tonight. x_p

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    Rain

    Latin: pluvia
    Spanish: Lluvia
    Latvian: lietus
    French: Pluie
    Italian: Pioggia
    Portugese: chover
    Slovenian: dež
    Belorussian: doždž
    Czech: d隻
    Polish: deszcz, or padać
    Romanian: ploaie
    Serbian: padati
    Croatian: padati, or lijevati
    Finnish: vuodattaa or sadella

    German: regnen
    English: rain
    Swedish: regn
    Danish: regn
    Dutch: regen, neerslag, hemelwater (sky-water literally)
    Norwegian: regne
    Icelandic: rigning

    (Note: You can see a distinct separation between the Slavic, Germanic, and Latin Languages)


    Non-white languages:

    Turkish: yağmur
    Swahili: mvua
    Indonesian: hujan
    Seneca: ustáá'
    Filipino: umulan
    Potawatomi Indian: kmowen

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    Tree

    Danish: træ
    English: tree
    Icelandic: tré
    Swedish: träd
    Latin: nemus, or arbor
    German: Baum
    Dutch: boom
    Spanish: árbol
    French: arbre
    Italian: albero
    Polish: drzewo
    Czech: dřevo

    Interesting how they break up into separate entities again........

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    Indo-European had many derivatives for the same thing or idea.

    For example, the verb "to be"; Indo-European had two of them. One for animate objects and another for inanimate objects.

    (? = Not sure yet.)

    Animate Used for people, animals, Gods, and Deities.
    *Es-, To be

    Eg esmi (I am)
    Tu essi (You are)
    Ki esti (He is)
    Ko esti (That is)
    S(w)e esti (Oneself is)
    We esmés (we are)
    ? esthé (You all are)
    ? esént (They are)

    Inanimate Used for objects that did not move, such as trees, rocks, ground, etc.
    *bhe-, To be

    Eg bhemi (I am)
    Tu bhesi (You are)
    Ki bheti (He is)
    ko bhete (That is)
    S(w)e bheti (Oneself is)
    We bhemés (we are)
    ? bhethé (You all are)
    ? bheént (They are)

    Apparently, *bhe-, became used for all things animate and inanimate in Common Germanic. Whereas, *es-, became used for both animate and inanimate objects in Common Italic.

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    Very similar to the Sanskrit grammar:

    Bhava (To be or have a meaning/sense)
    Asti (Is, simply to exist)

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    very very very interesting.... guys just wanted to say, sun in russian is actually Ñîëíöå (Solntsye)

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