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Thread: The Younger Futhark

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    The Futhark of 24 letters is called "Elder Futhark", and was used mostly before the 9th century CE. But as languages changed and more Germanic groups adopted it, Futhark changed as well to suit the language that it came to write.

    In England, the Anglo-Saxons brought Futhark from continental Europe in the 5th century CE and modified it into the 33-letter "Futhorc" to accommodate sound changes that were occurring in Old English, the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxons. Even the name "Futhorc" is evidence to a phonological change where the long "a" vowel in Old English evolved into a later "o" vowel.

    In Scandinavia, Futhark also evolved around the 9th century CE. Instead of 24 letters, the Scandinavian "Younger" Futhark had 16 letters. Scandinavian runic scholars dropped nine letters of the original Elder Futhark (g, w, æ, p, z, e, ng, d, and o), and created a new one (Yr).

    The cause of this reduction of letters in Younger Futhark is tied to very complex phonological changes that occurred in the Old Nordic language. As many old letters were removed from the alphabet, several of the remaining letters were overloaded to represent multiple sounds: th was used for "þ" and "ð"; u for "u" and "o"; k for "k", "g", and "ng"; i for "i" and "e"; t for "t" and "d"; and b for "b" and "p". The new letter, Yr, was originally used for a "er"-like sound in Old Nordic but became "y" in later Scandinavian languages.

    Even though Futhark continued to thrive as a writing system, it started to decline with the spread of the Latin alphabet. In England, Anglo-Saxon Futhorc started to be replaced by the Latin alphabet by the 9th century CE, and did not survive much more past the Norman Conquest of 1066. Futhark continued to be used in Scandinavia for centuries longer, but by 1600 CE, it had become nothing more than curiosities among scholars and antiquarians.



    Sound: "f"


    Ur
    Sound: "u", "o", "y", "w"


    Thurs
    Sound: "th", "dh"


    Óss
    Sound: "o" as in "oh"


    Raeidh
    Sound: "r"


    Kaun
    Sound: "k", "g"



    Hagall
    Sound: "h"


    Naudhr
    Sound: "n"


    Is
    Sound: "i", "e", "j" as in the "y" in "year"


    Ar
    Sound: "a" as in "ah"


    Sól
    Sound: "s"


    Tyr
    Sound: "t", "d", "nt", "nd"


    Bjarkan
    Sound: "b", "p", "v", "mb", "mp"


    Madhr
    Sound: "m"


    Logr
    Sound: "l"


    Yr
    Sound: "z", "r", "y"
    Lík börn leika best.

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    World's longest runic text

    Rökstenen in sweden contains the worlds longest text carved in stone. The rune stone is not older than year 970.





    Runtext:

    aft uamuþ stonta runaR þaR n uarin faþi faþiR aft faikion sunu sakum| |mukmini þat huariaR ualraubaR uaRin tuaR þaR suaþ tualf sinum uaRin| |numnaR t ualraubu baþaR somon o umisum| |monum ' þat sakum onart huaR fur niu altum on urþi fiaru miR hraiþkutum auk tu miR on ub sakaR raiþ| |þiaurikR hin þurmuþi stiliR flutna strontu hraiþmaraR sitiR nu karuR o kuta sinum skialti ub fatlaþR skati marika þat sakum tualfta huar histR si kunaR itu| |uituoki on kunukaR tuaiR tikiR suaþ o likia ' þat sakum þritaunta huariR tuaiR tikiR kunukaR satin t siulunti fiakura uintur at fiakurum nabnum burnR fiakurum bruþrum ' ualkaR fim ra=þulfs| |suniR hraiþulfaR fim rukulfs| |suniR hoislaR fim haruþs suniR kunmuntaR fim (b)irnaR suniR * nuk m--- (m)-- alu --(k)(i) ainhuaR -þ... ...þ ... ftiR fra sagwm| |mogmeni (þ)ad hOaR igOldga OaRi gOldin d gOonaR hOsli sakum| |mukmini uaim si burin| |niþR troki uilin is þat knuo knati| |iatun uilin is þat (n)(i)(t) akum| |mukmini þur sibi uiauari ul niruþR

    Nusvensk text:
    Till minne av Vämod står dessa runor. Men Varin skrev dem, fadern, till minne av den döde sonen, Jag säger de unga det, vilka de två stridsbyten var som tolv gånger blev tagna som krigsbyte,båda på en gång från man efter man. Det säger jag som det andra vem som för nio släktled sedan miste livet hos reidgoterna och han dog hos dem till följd av sin skuld. Då rådde Tjodrik den dristige, sjökrigarnas hövding över Reidhavets kust. Nu sitter han rustad på sin gotiska häst, med sköld över axeln, den främste av Märingar. Det säger jag som det tolfte var Gunns häst ser föda på slagfältet, där tjugo konungar ligger. Det säger jag såsom det trettonde, vilka tjugo konungar satt på Själland under fyra vintrar, med fyra namn, födda åt fyra bröder. Fem med namnet Valke, Rådulfs söner, fem Reidulf, Rugulfs söner, fem Haisl, Hards söner, fem Gunnmund, Björns söner. Nu för de unga säger fullständigt envar ... eftersporde... Jag säger de unga det, vem av Ingvaldsättlingarna som blev gäldad genom en hustrus offer. Jag säger de unga, åt vilken kämpe en ättling är född. Vilen är det. Han kunde krossa en jätte. Vilen är det. Nit. Jag säger de unga: TOR Sibbe viets väktare avlade nittioårig (en son).



    English text:

    In memory of Vémóðr/Vámóðr stand these runes. And Varinn coloured them, the father, in memory of his dead son. I say the folktale / to the young men, which the two war-booties were, which twelve times were taken as war-booty, both together from various men. I say this second, who nine generations ago lost his life with the Hreidgoths; and died with them for his guilt. Þjóðríkr the bold, chief of sea-warriors, ruled over the shores of the Hreiðsea. Now he sits armed on his Goth(ic horse), his shield strapped, the prince of the Mærings. I say this the twelfth, where the horse of Gunnr sees fodder on the battlefield, where twenty kings lie. This I say as thirteenth, which twenty kings sat on Sjólund for four winters, of four names, born of four brothers: five Valkis, sons of Hráðulfr, five Hreiðulfrs, sons of Rugulfr, five Háisl, sons of Hôrðr, five Gunnmundrs/Kynmundrs, sons of Bjôrn. Now I say the tales in full. Someone ... I say the folktale / to the young men, which of the line of Ingold was repaid by a wife's sacrifice. I say the folktale / to the young men, to whom is born a relative, to a valiant man. It is Vélinn. He could crush a giant. It is Vélinn ... I say the folktale / to the young men: Þórr. Sibbi of Vé, nonagenarian, begot (a son).
    Lík börn leika best.

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    I see at the top of the first foto, Code Runes (the ´X´s). I will try to find the meaning unless you already know. I read about these Code Runes in a few books, quite interesting though. Edred Thorsson elaborates about these a bit in one of his books; I'll try to find out.

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    These secret runes are called Lønnruner. The inscription of Rökstenen says "[s]akumukmini" and "þu" and "r" (both 3. Ættir) and can be translated as "I tell a folktale" and "Thor".

    More information about this here.
    Lík börn leika best.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Blutwölfin
    These secret runes are called Lønnruner. The inscription of Rökstenen says "[s]akumukmini" and "þu" and "r" (both 3. Ættir) and can be translated as "I tell a folktale" and "Thor".

    More information about this here.
    Thanks for getting that before I do; amazing stuff, I sure learned allot!

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    Senior Member Rehnskiöld's Avatar
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    I stopped by the Röksten and got some shallow info by unmotivated course-mates this summer,although it is a impressive messenger,imagine the toil for the people to carve it out of the mountain and
    move it,the total height of the stone is something like twice that above ground.

    Cursed be my senile head but isn't this runestone non-intact? I can't recall distinctly... but I recall runes being cut off at edgdes and so on,also something said about it being either damaged when plown up from the ground by farmers or damaged already when found..: I might have messed Rökstenen up with some other Runestone.

    Note that's the Omberg to the right,in the background of the seconed picture. That mountain and that area has a really exciting and dynamic history, I'll throw in some material about it when I get the time.

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    English Dictionary of Runic Inscriptions of the Younger Futhark

    There are over 6,000 inscriptions carved in runes on various materials, from Scandinavia, its North Atlantic colonies (Faroe, Iceland, Greenland), Britain and Ireland, and occasionally elsewhere. The overwhelming majority of these are in the runic alphabet known as ‘the younger futhark’, dating from c.AD 750-1500.

    This website is the homepage of a newly-established project which will produce an English dictionary of the vocabulary of inscriptions in the younger futhark.

    This work of reference will provide both a basic introduction to the language of the runic inscriptions and a foundation for the further study of its lexicon. The aim is to make the rich resources of Viking Age and medieval Scandinavian runic inscriptions more accessible to a variety of end-users.


    Link
    Lík börn leika best.

  8. #8
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    English Dictionary of Runic Inscriptions of the Younger Futhark

    There are over 6,000 inscriptions carved in runes on various materials, from Scandinavia, its North Atlantic colonies (Faroe, Iceland, Greenland), Britain and Ireland, and occasionally elsewhere. The overwhelming majority of these are in the runic alphabet known as ‘the younger futhark’, dating from c.AD 750-1500.

    This website is the homepage of a newly-established project which will produce an English dictionary of the vocabulary of inscriptions in the younger futhark.

    This work of reference will provide both a basic introduction to the language of the runic inscriptions and a foundation for the further study of its lexicon. The aim is to make the rich resources of Viking Age and medieval Scandinavian runic inscriptions more accessible to a variety of end-users.


    Link
    Lík börn leika best.

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    Thank you for that link, BW. That is going to be very interesting and useful. Also nice to see they are finally doing something about our own heritage preservation.

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    I've been studying up on the Younger Futhark lately here are some links I've found useful.

    http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/pbrough/stav/

    http://www.geocities.com/irminenscha...ientRunes.html

    From what I've read on these and in a few other books. The YF was an attempt to make the Elder Futhark more... compactable (for lack of a better word) but still able to retain all the meanings. Its said that YF was developed primarily for magical reasons while its function as a script would be secondary in importance.

    The sixteen runes was the minimum number from which a working system can be formed. Each rune has many associations on many different levels.
    I always wondered why the Scandinavians would have reformed the futhark in such a way to make it seemingly more limited than the Elder. There has to have been a reason for this. I think the runic reformation which led to the YF was more planned out though, compared to the Anglo-Frisian futhorc which simply added new runes to the row when needed.

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