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Thread: Kurgan and Corded Ware People's Anthropological Dimensions

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    Kurgan and Corded Ware People's Anthropological Dimensions

    The following pages were taken from the Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture edited by J.P. Mallory and Douglas G. Adams; Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, London & Chicago 1997.

    The following is their chapter on the Corded Ware folk and in another thread I will post their chapter on the Kurgan culture.

    They are jpeg images and to get them below 1 MB and within the pixel limitations, I had to reduce them from their original size. For reading, I would recommend using Photoshop, Paint Shop or some such program and then zoom in. They were scanned at 300 DPI.

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    Post Re: Corded Ware

    In general a good summary of the important facts in theories.
    I would just tend to prefer the idea of a combined early Corded/Kurgan culture of later IE, already apart in a early stage and that the Kurgan people were ancestoral to the Indoiranian and some other ethnic groups of the IE the corded as the authors say for the Western/European branches of the IE, at least for all Kentum speakers.

    About the question of continuity of the TBK to the corded ware I'm not sure, who influenced whom and if the TBK was IE already, even before it turned into the corded ware.
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    Kurgan folk and Corded Ware

    The movements of the Aisto-Nordics of the Corded Ware culture must have originated from northern Central Europe, while it makes it appearance much later in Northeastern Europe, where they would have undergo some alteration due to contacts with Ladogan-like groups, attaining lower and less profiled faces(Bunak: "Es ist danach anzunehmen, dass der ursprunglche schnurkeramische Typus der Fatjanovo-Gruppen durch osteuropaeische Typen modifiziert wurde").

    Principal component analysis of 39 series of the early Bronze Age and Neolithic puts the CW of Central Germany, Poland and Czechoslowakia together in one cluster opposite to the Yamna series(=Kurgan culture), which sufficiently denies an alledged origin of Kurgan signature on the CW, btw, CW have high and narrow crania and a narrow face, on the other hand, the Yamna group sets apart by low and broad crania and a broadish face. In fact, CW shows continuity with the series corresponding with the Early Neolithic of Central Europe , especially east German and Czech CW are particularly close to LBK.

    Though, deviation diagrams putting CW in relation to LBK and Yamna suggest that CW doesn't fit well between those two and with exeption of orbital height and orbital index, the Kurgan contribution to CW is quite rightly contested. Corded Ware is divided in an earlier A-horizon and later B-horizon, whereby A deviates more strikingly from Yamna for its higher, narrower and longer crania, but geographically closer to the Kurgans located CW show some similarities, the same parallel have to be drawn from a comparison between Yamna and Catacomb Culture series with later Central German CW, which hints on Kurganisation after the beginning of
    CW and by entering groups from the East.

    Other correlations with the Baalberg-complex in Central Germany and Bohemia, next to the Baden complex in the Carpathian Basin insist, despite Kurgan-influence(steppe groups entered Central europe as far as Eastern Hungary), on cranial and metric continuity with local predecessors, though facial flatness and skeletical robusticity crop up in the Baden series, nevertheless the eastern series give evidence that their roots must lie in the local population before any Kurgan invasion can be attested, since they resemble more the Central European Roessen complex and even LBK:

    CRANIAL BREADTH:

    Kurgan Baalberg LBK-Roessen
    141,4 137,1 136,5


    BIZYGOMATIC BREADTH:

    Kurgan Baalberg LBK-Roessen
    137,3 126,4 129,2


    Anyway, the effect of Kurganisation decreases from East to West. The Globular Amphora complex folowing a tract from East Germany to Rumania was according to Gimbutas kurgan-influenced and "a decisive factor in the formation" of CW, but multivariate comparisions offer a beguiling result to her statement in bringing a closer relationship into light with the Trichterbecher series from Central Europe and Sweden, TRB predates btw GA; they are closer to CW and clearly distant to Kurgan, while the breadth measurements increases towards the east, aligning with the Kurgan series.

    The crania for the early and late Neolithic in the Baltic area are dolichocranic, with broad and high faces, low orbits and sharp horizontal profiles, thus CW are akin to Central european CW, but with broader faces, where they're mixed with naive Pamariu or Haff complex. Pamariu in Lithuania provides in mesocranic crania, with low and broad faces and sharp facial profiles, in Prussia, however, thye're high with fracile features and their crania varies from dolicho- to brachycrany; the series from Pamiriu lies smewhat between the indiginous Nemunas series and the incoming CW/BA series:

    Nemunas CW Pamariu


    Cr. lenght 184 199,5 188

    Cr. breadth 148 141,2 145

    Cr. height 145 137 139

    Bizygomathic breadth 131 136 141,2

    Upper Facial height 62 76 70

    Nasal breadth 25,5 25,2 25,5

    Nasal height 47 53,2 51,5

    Cr.Index 80,4 70,8 77,2

    UPI 47,3 59,1 51,28

    NI 54,2 47,4 49,5


    This defines Pamariu as a genuine hybrid culture from which some Westbaltics very well may descend from.

    Finally, Fatyanovo despite nearing the Kurgan stretch remains principally closer to the Cw from Poland and the Baltic than ever to
    the Yamna series, but altered by absorbing Comb Ware elements. "Cluster analysis does show that Fatyanovo series stand very close to Corded Ware series from Lithuania, Prussia and Estonia(...), bolstering the hypothesis that much of the Fatyanovo people migrated
    from the west."

    Source: John V. Day, Indo-European Origins: The Anthropological Evidence (2001).

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    What puzzles me is on what criteria one distinguishes so immediately a Corded from a Danubian type, since the Danubian type who some reckons as Nordic(Reche), while others rank it as Proto-Mediterrenean (Vallois, et.al.), interesting would also be the validation of the Danubian in relation to the Corded type.

    How would one be expected to seperate them properly, since deviation diagrams of several series of Corded and Central European LBK series allow for biological continuity, hence in the course of centuries some Danubians evolved into the Corded Ware type; not all Danubians were small build, some like the Genay type attained an average of 175cm and the Corded is as a rule tall.

    The Danubians were medium to high-vaulted and this characteristic is repeated in the Corded, albeit, that Kossinna very interestingly, describes them as flat-topped and the raised vault would be the consequence of mingling with restants of Danubians and in a later phase with the Bell Beaker folk, another effect are the nevertheless exceptional shorthening of the cranium.

    Both Danubians and Corded, and you may count in the Aunjetitzer Nordics, have a rounded ellipsoid head form, with flattened parientals, the so-called "Kokonform".The main difference lay in the head dimensions, the Corded is much more longer-headed, but the Danubian tends to narrower head breadth. The Danubian has a very narrow face, but the Corded is higher; both, however, are mesorhine.

    One is to believe that the Corded perpetuals the incipient Nordic strain in the Danubian LBK- population, while the smaller version mayhave gone through a processus of alpinisation to a virtual high-headed, infantilized but blondish Gorid type which permeates part of the Slavonic population in Central and East Europe in the Alpine and Carpathian mountain range and thus as far as deep into Massif Central of France!

    Alledged to be responsable for the expansion of Proto-Baltic and Proto-Slavic, the Corded, anthropologically related to the Early Neolithic LBK folk, may vouch for the "Altindogermanisch" nature of the Danubians, the more since the area occupied by them show in terms of hydronomy not one single trace of some non-IE substrate and are fully in accordance to the linguistic laws pertaining to the IE languages; hence, most of Continental Europe has been "Indogermanisch" for about 7000years.


    Literature:

    Lothar Killian, De l'origine des Indo-Européens, Paris (2000)

    John V. Day, Indo-European Origins: The Anthropological Evidence,
    Washington D.C., 2001.

    Gustaf Kossinna, Ursprung und verbreitung der Germanen in vor -und
    fruehgeschichtlicher Zeit
    , Leipzig, 1936.

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    In studying the neolithic populations in the Elbe-Saale, A. Raache denies on the grounds of osteological comparisons that the Danubian make-up was distinctively gracile and thus foreign to the mesolithic stocks, but undoubtly Nordic, despite heterogentity. Von Eickstedt mentions a Alpo-Cromagnoid form as second important pilar of the Danubians.

    If the Corded descend or have been mixed with the later, it explains the brachycephaly of the Baltic race in Eastern Europe, since the Cromagnoids are by Schliz and Schuchardt acknowledged as conveying the strain of broadheadedness over to new, either succeeding types or in blends, as well the uncannyly un-Nordic broad nose of the Corded and the shorter snub-noses of some Baltics. Lothar Killian in his turn that the Corded Folk contained low-orbit Phalian types, while Rach stresses the anthropological concordance between different archaeological groups, like Trichterbecherkultur (TRB) and Corded-Danubians. Examinating the population of Walternienberg-Bernburg(TRB) and the Corded similarities were thrown into light which vouch for connections with the Danubians in terms of sifnificantly reciprocal indices.

    Killian dismisses in a further note Lundman's claim of an East Nordic subrace, because with exception of the high-headedness, which as I previously in an article asserted was not the rule, TRB and Corded people are genuinely alike, and Corded merit to be both culturally and in physical aspects as so-to-speak standard-bearer of the TRB- Indo-european wave over Europe.

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    It's a clincher repeatedly flaring up to concoct some dubious and unmistakenly deliberate biased theory to retrieve the Nordids from
    some Med origin and put in some old-fashioned lamarckism in place about the environmental factors affecting for instance pigmenattion
    of skin, hair and eyes.

    The Nordid skull is prolific for its "Keilform", term applied by Schliz and Kossinna: the forehead recedes but is also broad and levelled , sideways faintly arching, while the skull grows behind in a projecting but tapered occiput, unlike the "Kokonform" or ellipsoid shape of the Central German and Austrian neolithic long-heads, either Corded or Danubian,or even the Aunjetitzer Nordids and thus also sharply distinctive from the ovoid skull of the West Mediterranid with narrow forehead and broadening occipital area.

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    Danubian seems to mean different things to different people and to mean different things at different times in history. Corded seems fairly consistant and the word Kurgan, I think, should be left as a cultural term. The term "Eastern Cromagnon" or "gracile Cromagnon" or "gracile eastern UP" still are the best words to describe Corded people. It looks more likely that Danubians mixed either with Cordeds or Northern Forest People or both and some of these mixed peoples became isolated enough to become Nordics.

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