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Thread: West European Mesolithics

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    West European Mesolithics

    Not so much a typological analysis, this thread ventures in surveying briefly the main lines of six anthropological groupings as documented by Raymond Riquet in Anthropologie du Néolithique et du Bronze Ancien; later installments will contain tabels of anthropometric means of each of the named samples.

    The geographical emsembles which may be distinguished for West Europe are:

    1. the Northeuropean or Danish-Scandinavian group
    2. the Central or Bavarian-Wurtembergian group
    3. the Jurassian group
    4. the Brittanic group
    5. the Midi group
    6. the Portuguese of Mugem-Tage group

    1. the Northeuropean or Danish-Scandinavian group

    Considered are the finds of Bleivick(Norway), Koelbjerg, Ravnstrup,
    Vedbaek, Korsor Nor(Denmark) and Stängenäss and Hyllekroken(Sweden).
    The Northeuropean Mesolithics possess the largest skull.
    Although the lenght of cranium does not exceed much those of the
    French Midi and the Jura, they do outclass clearly the people of
    Ofnet, Mugem and Téviec.
    Only for the breadth they are unable to maintain the lead, the Ofnet
    are broader in this aspect.
    The basion-bregmatic height in absolute figures has only two rare
    matches in the Midi(Lot, Alpes Maritime).
    Still, the overall picture is not an uniform one.While mesoprosopy
    and chaemaprosopy rules(Bleivick:52.2,Korsor Nor: 51.3, Koelbjerg:
    50.4), Bleivick's skull is but moderate in size and the orbits
    diverge in indices; Korsor Nor(81.8) is intermediary to Vedbaek
    (72.7) and Bleivick(87.9).
    Stature is below average to medium height(155-166cm), except
    Stängenäss(181cm).

    2. the Central or Bavarian-Wurtembergian group

    They cover the well-known finds of Nördlingen and the environs of Ulm
    (Ofnet, Kaufertsberg and Hohlestein), as well the Polish site of
    Janoslawice.
    Typical are the lower vault height(flattened at Ofnet) and the
    broadness of the skull, the remarkeable rise of brachycephaly is
    linked to this central group.
    Their face is of a resounding broadness, leaving the Jurassians and
    population of the Midi far behind, only in regard to Téviec they
    take a step back.
    Leptorhinity is common.
    Like the Northeruropeans, some subjects'traits dont accodomate to
    the general picture.
    Bottendorf and Kaufertsberg tie stronger with Téviec, the former
    shows also a relationship to the Danish-Scandinavian group, however
    the Dolichocephals of Ofnet, despite dissimilarities, are somehow
    connected to the Northerners.


    3. the Jurassian group

    The Jurassian group comprises the sites of Laufon-Birstal(Bâle),
    Sous-Sac(Ain), la Balme(Savoie), Culoz(Ain), la Colombière(Ain) and
    la Genière(Ain).
    La Colombière inclines to rounded skulls and issues one fully
    brachycephalic skull, the others are very dolicephalic.
    Culoz has a short face, Laufon nearly long, none attain the gros
    largeness of Téviec.
    Overall the cranial dimensions are in juxtaposition to the
    Northerners.
    Sous-Sac appears close to the Loess-Bruenn race and siding with the
    Ofnet series.
    Greater affinity exists with the Midi group.

    4. the Brittanic group

    The Brittanic necropoles of Téviec and Hoëdic contain a population
    which cranial dimensions are reduced in comparison with the
    Scandinavians and Ofnet, but the facial measures and particulary the
    bizygomatic breadth remain unparalleled by any other group.
    There is a compulsive tendency to mesocephaly, less widely achieved
    than in Ofnet but in striking contrast still to the situation North
    Europe and Portugal.
    On the other side, Téviec allies with Mugem in having a higher vault
    than Ofnet.
    Mugem has a greater intra-orbital distance than Téviec, but again in
    this aspect opposite to Ofnet.
    The forehead recedes stronger than elsewhere, the vault is rounded,
    high and continius to the inion,the top being more careened in norma
    occipitalis; the nose is large, the orbits low and the profile
    mesognath.
    The Téviec site delivered also some individuals with more southernly
    affinity.


    5. the Midi group

    This group displays the same heterogenious plasticity as the
    Northeuropeans.
    The Rastel(Alpes Maritime) "couple" is tall and dolichocephalic),
    elsewhere the stature is under average(160-164cm) which is
    nonetheless greater than for the Brittanic group with a mere mean of
    159cm.
    Téviec and the Midi surpass in stature however the Portugese samples.
    Liguria, Aquitania and the Provence are predominantly
    dolichocephalic but initiating a orientation towards mesocphalic
    means.
    One individual, an adolescent from Poeymaü(Basses-Pyrénées)nearly
    achieves bracycephaly and his vault is low, whereas the entire
    region is high-vaulted.
    Rastel and Poeymaü taken as sideliners,the Midi has individuals
    whose traits propels to Téviec or Mugem or show some bi-polarity.


    6. the Portuguese of Mugem-Tage group

    The finds of Cabeço de Arruda, Cabeço de Amoreira and Moita do
    Sebastiao have the feeblest means of all WE mesolitics.
    Dolichocephalic, narrow-faced but prognatious, high orbits,
    generally gracile profile with rounded/steep forehead and a weak
    glabella and a concave nose, nasion depression is nearly absent and
    the parientals are paralleled:these characteristics outlines the
    Mugem-Tage group.
    Unlike the other groups, this one seems to introduce a foreign
    element, associated tentatively with the Proto-Mediterreneans of the
    Levant and North Africa.
    Few individuals have a more brutal countenance and relate more to
    Téviec(natives?).

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