Homogeneity and distinctiveness of Polish paternal lineages revealed by Y chromosome microsatellite haplotype analysis

Rafal Ploski, Marcin Wozniak, Ryszard Pawlowski, Dorota Monies, Wojciech Branicki, Tomasz Kupiec, Ate Kloosterman, Tadeusz Dobosz, Elena Bosch, Magdalena Nowak, Rüdiger Lessig, Mark A. Jobling, Lutz Roewer, Manfred Kayser

A1 Human Molecular Genetics Lab, Department of Forensic Medicine, Warsaw Medical Academy, Poland
A2 Forensic Medicine Institute, L. Rydygier's University School of Medical Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
A3 Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical University Gdañsk, Poland
A4 Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical University Lublin, Poland
A5 Institute of Forensic Research, Krakow, Poland
A6 Netherlands Forensic Institute, Rijswijk, The Netherlands
A7 Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical University Wroclaw, Poland
A8 Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, United Kingdom
A9 Institute for Legal Medicine, University of Leipzig, Germany
A10 Institute for Legal Medicine, Humboldt-University Berlin, Germany
A11 Department for Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Inselstrasse 22, 04103 Leipzig, Germany


Abstract. Different regional populations from Poland were studied in order to assess the genetic heterogeneity within Poland, investigate the genetic relationships with other European populations and provide a population-specific reference database for anthropological and forensic studies. Nine Y-chromosomal microsatellites were analysed in a total of 919 unrelated males from six regions of Poland and in 1,273 male individuals from nine other European populations. AMOVA revealed that all of the molecular variation in the Polish dataset is due to variation within populations, and no variation was detected among populations of different regions of Poland. However, in the non-Polish European dataset 9.3% (P<0.0001) of the total variation was due to differences among populations. Consequently, differences in RST-values between all possible pairs of Polish populations were not statistically significant, whereas significant differences were observed in nearly all comparisons of Polish and non-Polish European populations. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated tight clustering of Polish populations separated from non-Polish groups. Population clustering based on Y-STR haplotypes generally correlates well with the geography and history of the region. Thus, our data are consistent with the assumption of homogeneity of present-day paternal lineages within Poland and their distinctiveness from other parts of Europe, at least in respect to their Y-STR haplotypes