Y-chromosome STR markers are not widely used in forensic case work in South Africa. To begin assessing the forensic value of these markers in South Africa, samples were collected from 100 English-speaking Caucasian males and 99 Xhosa males, living in the Cape Town metropolitan area. Allele and haplotype frequencies were determined for nine Y-chromosome STR loci
(DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, and the duplicated locus DYS385). Unique haplotypes were obtained for 47 Xhosa males and 66 Caucasians.