PDA

View Full Version : Brief Typology of Mesolithic West Europeans


Frans_Jozef
Thursday, November 17th, 2005, 10:57 AM
The main six anthropological groupings as documented by Raymond Riquet in his Anthropologie du Néolithique et du Bronze Ancien patterned along geographical areas:


1. the Northeuropean or Danish-Scandinavian group
2. the Central or Bavarian-Wurtembergian group
3. the Jurassian group
4. the Brittanic group
5. the Midi group
6. the Portuguese of Mugem-Tage group

1. the Northeuropean or Danish-Scandinavian group

Considered are the finds of Bleivick(Norway), Koelbjerg, Ravnstrup,
Vedbaek, Korsor Nor(Denmark) and Stängenäss and Hyllekroken(Sweden).
The Northeuropean Mesolithics possess the largest skull.
Although the lenght of cranium does not exceed much those of the
French Midi and the Jura, they do outclass clearly the people of
Ofnet, Mugem and Téviec.
Only for the breadth they are unable to maintain the lead, the Ofnet
are broader in this aspect.
The basion-bregmatic height in absolute figures has only two rare
matches in the Midi(Lot, Alpes Maritime).
Still, the overall picture is not an uniform one.While mesoprosopy
and chaemaprosopy rules(Bleivick:52.2,Korsor Nor: 51.3, Koelbjerg:
50.4), Bleivick's skull is but moderate in size and the orbits
diverge in indices; Korsor Nor(81.8) is intermediary to Vedbaek
(72.7) and Bleivick(87.9).
Stature is below average to medium height(155-166cm), except
Stängenäss(181cm).

2. the Central or Bavarian-Wurtembergian group

They cover the well-known finds of Nördlingen and the environs of Ulm
(Ofnet, Kaufertsberg and Hohlestein), as well the Polish site of
Janoslawice.
Typical are the lower vault height(flattened at Ofnet) and the
broadness of the skull, the remarkeable rise of brachycephaly is
linked to this central group.
Their face is of a resounding broadness, leaving the Jurassians and
population of the Midi far behind, only in regard to Téviec they
take a step back.
Leptorhinity is common.
Like the Northeruropeans, some subjects'traits dont accodomate to
the general picture.
Bottendorf and Kaufertsberg tie stronger with Téviec, the former
shows also a relationship to the Danish-Scandinavian group, however
the Dolichocephals of Ofnet, despite dissimilarities, are somehow
connected to the Northerners.


3. the Jurassian group

The Jurassian group comprises the sites of Laufon-Birstal(Bâle),
Sous-Sac(Ain), la Balme(Savoie), Culoz(Ain), la Colombière(Ain) and
la Genière(Ain).
La Colombière inclines to rounded skulls and issues one fully
brachycephalic skull, the others are very dolicephalic.
Culoz has a short face, Laufon nearly long, none attain the gros
largeness of Téviec.
Overall the cranial dimensions are in juxtaposition to the
Northerners.
Sous-Sac appears close to the Loess-Bruenn race and siding with the
Ofnet series.
Greater affinity exists with the Midi group.

4. the Brittanic group

The Brittanic necropoles of Téviec and Hoëdic contain a population
which cranial dimensions are reduced in comparison with the
Scandinavians and Ofnet, but the facial measures and particulary the
bizygomatic breadth remain unparalleled by any other group.
There is a compulsive tendency to mesocephaly, less widely achieved
than in Ofnet but in striking contrast still to the situation North
Europe and Portugal.
On the other side, Téviec allies with Mugem in having a higher vault
than Ofnet.
Mugem has a greater intra-orbital distance than Téviec, but again in
this aspect opposite to Ofnet.
The forehead recedes stronger than elsewhere, the vault is rounded,
high and continius to the inion,the top being more careened in norma
occipitalis; the nose is large, the orbits low and the profile
mesognath.
The Téviec site delivered also some individuals with more southernly
affinity.


5. the Midi group

This group displays the same heterogenious plasticity as the
Northeuropeans.
The Rastel(Alpes Maritime) "couple" is tall and dolichocephalic),
elsewhere the stature is under average(160-164cm) which is
nonetheless greater than for the Brittanic group with a mere mean of
159cm.
Téviec and the Midi surpass in stature however the Portugese samples.
Liguria, Aquitania and the Provence are predominantly
dolichocephalic but initiating a orientation towards mesocphalic
means.
One individual, an adolescent from Poeymaü(Basses-Pyrénées)nearly
achieves bracycephaly and his vault is low, whereas the entire
region is high-vaulted.
Rastel and Poeymaü taken as sideliners,the Midi has individuals
whose traits propels to Téviec or Mugem or show some bi-polarity.


6. the Portuguese of Mugem-Tage group

The finds of Cabeço de Arruda, Cabeço de Amoreira and Moita do
Sebastiao have the feeblest means of all WE mesolitics.
Dolichocephalic, narrow-faced but prognatious, high orbits,
generally gracile profile with rounded/steep forehead and a weak
glabella and a concave nose, nasion depression is nearly absent and
the parientals are paralleled:these characteristics outlines the
Mugem-Tage group.
Unlike the other groups, this one seems to introduce a foreign
element, associated tentatively with the Proto-Mediterreneans of the
Levant and North Africa.
Few individuals have a more brutal countenance and relate more to
Téviec(natives?).