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Euclides
Monday, October 25th, 2004, 12:04 AM
'' The Mongoloid Race is believed to be adapted to a cold climate, windy, sunny climate, as may have existed north of the Himalayas during the Ice Age. Here is some interesting information from PREHISTORIC MONGOLOID DISPERSALS, edited by Takeru Akazawa and Emóke J.E. Sathmåry. New York, Oxford University Press, 1996.

Chapter 11 "The Mammoth Steppe and the origin of Mongoloids and their dispersal" by R. Dale Guthrie

Pages 175-176:

"In the 1950s authors began concluding that the characters which distinguished Mongoloids were an adaptive response to cold (e.g. Coon et al. 1950), but this emphasis became unfashionable in the counterculture mood of the 1960s and 1970s, when the first stage of antiracism was to deny all differences. But times have changed, and I would like to revive that view and re-portray it in a more complex light as an explicit suite of evolutionary responses to the rigors of a particular landscape, the Mammoth Steppe."

Eskimos and Mongoloids have many adaptions to cold, such as Lewis waves. The peripheral capillary beds are flushed with warm blood in a cyclic pattern of vasoconstriction and vasodilation. This both minimizes heat loss and avoids freezing. Nordics do not have this adaption. Why not? One reason is that northern Europe is not as cold as central Asia. Another reason is that Cro-Magnons seem to have had better technology for warm clothing, housing, and fires.

Other Mongoloid adaptions to cold are short limbs, short noses, flat faces, epicanthic fold over the eyes, and a smaller surface-to-mass ratio.

Yellow skin. Page 179:

"Even skin structure can be a significant adaptive factor to the north. The light skin of northern Mongoloids allows crucial vitamin D synthesis even when most of the skin is clothed during winter when UV levels are low. Yet the thick skin cuticle and abundant carotene [yellow pigment] (Edwards 1953; Szabo 1975) help screen UV damage at high altitudes and in intense sun, whether from reflective surfaces or direct sun rays." Northern Europe, by contrast, is very cloudy and farther north. Excessive sunlight and snowburn are not much of a problem. I have seen maps of annual hours of sunlight of the world. Denmark, Britain, and northern Germany are some of the least sunniest places on earth.

The absence of facial and body hair simplifies cleaning and insect removal when there is no bathing or removal of garments for months at a time. Cro-Magnons
had better-designed clothes and houses and would have been able to keep clean more easily.

Page 180:

Mongoloid teeth are adapted to eating large amounts of meat and grisle. The first incisors are reinforced by shovel shaped patterns, unique to the Mongoloid race, although it also existed in Neanderthals. The incisors and premolars are robust compared to Europeans. The anterior molars are exceptionally large. At the same time, the back teeth are reduced and the third molar is usually absent. This indicates a diet of meat and not much plant eating.

Page 183:

Neo-Mongoloids include Buryats, Eskimo, Chuckchi, and north Chinese. They have extreme Mongoloid, cold-adapted features. Paleo-Mongoloids are less Mongoloid and are less cold-adapted. They include American Indians, Filippinos, Polynesians, and Burmese.
At one time people who were intermediate between whites and Mongoloids lived in northern Asia, Japan, and the Americas. They have been called proto-Nordics and paleo-mongoloids. They included the Jomon People of prehistoric Japan and their descendants, the Ainu, some of which look Caucasian. Japan has a much milder climate because it is near the sea and at a lower altitude. Also, the Jomon people were technologically advanced; they invented the world's first pottery around 11,000 BC. Historically, Mongoloid peoples moved into southeast Asia and mixed with Australoids to form the modern neo-Mongoloids.

Mongoloids probably originated in what is now the deserts of Xinjiang, north of Tibet. During the Ice Age, this area was very cold and wet. Caucasoids once extended halfway across Siberia and into Mongolia, Manchuria, and Japan. Some of these areas may have been very cold, but the Caucasoids came from warmer areas in Europe and had warmer clothing.

Caucasoids spread a macro-language family known as Eurasiatic, which includes the languages of Europe, Korean, Japanese, Turkish, Mongolian, most Siberian langauges, and Eskimo. The linguist Joseph Greenberg wrote a book about this called INDO-EUROPEAN AND ITS CLOSEST RELATIVES, THE EURASIATIC LANGUAGE FAMILY. Among language families in his Eurasiatic family are Indo-European, Uralic-Yukaghir, Altaic (which includes Turkish, Mongolian, and the Siberian languages in the Tungusic family), Gilyak (eastern Siberia and Sakhalin island), Chukotian (eastern Siberia), Korean-Japanese-Ainu, and Eskimo-Aleut.
The geneticist Luca Cavalli-Sforza, in HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY OF HUMAN GENES, confirmed that these people all are genetically related as well as linguistically related.
The Mongoloid race originated further south and spread north. Meanwhile, languages spread in different directions. Chinese, Burmese, and Tibetan all originated in Mongolia or nearby areas occuppied by Caucasoids, proto-Nordics or paleo-mongoloids or something in between or mixed between them. Surprisingly, according to Cavalli-Sforza, northern Chinese are genetically more related to Europeans than they are to southern Chinese.
I think he exaggerates, but there are Caucasoid genes in northern China and northern Asia. Southern China is more mongoloid, with some Australoid thrown in. ''

Euclides
Monday, October 25th, 2004, 12:08 AM
An interesting theory about race and prehistory is presented in PREHISTORIC MONGOLOID DISPERSALS, edited by Takeru Akazawa and Emöke J. E. Szathmáry. New York, Oxford University Press, 1996. Chapter 5 "Modern human origins and the dynamics of regional continuity" by C. Loring Brace. Pages 96-97:

It suggests that the white race has been forming for 200,000 years in an area stretching from Iraq to Britain. It suggests that these changes started with the Neanderthals and continued into modern Europeans.

Fire was first used about 200,000 years ago to prepare food in Europe and the Middle East. This caused a reduction in tooth size which has continued to the present day. Today, Europeans have the smallest teeth of any race. The modern Norse have the smallest teeth of any living group of people, but their skulls retain some Neanderthal features. The largest teeth are found among Australian Aborigines and African Negroids. They have been using fire for cooking for the smallest amount of time. That's why their teeth are larger.

White skin was an adaptation to living in northern areas while wearing hides. It was a way to absorb vitamin D. Europeans have the whitest skins because their ancestors have been living in Europe for 200,000 years.

Mongoloids began cooking with fire, wearing skins, and living in northern areas later than Europeans. That is why they are intermediate between Europeans and Negroids-Australoids in skin color and tooth size. Australian Aborigines have the world's largest teeth. Unlike other races, who have two sets, they have three sets, one for early childhood, another for late childhood, and another for adulthood. Many Europeans do not grow wisdom teeth. This is part of the process of having less teeth.

Page 97:

"By the end of the Middle Pleistocene, the cultural means of handling frozen foods and surviving glacial cold had diffused to those parts of eastern Asia that are equal in latitude to the Mousterian area in the west. The in situ consequences for the inhabitants of eastern Asia were the same as those of the inhabitants of the west except that they have had less time to accumulate. Dental reduction followed the use of cooking, but not to the same extent. Depigmentation followed the permanent occupation of the northeast aided by the necessary use of protective clothing, but, again, it has not had the time to proceed as far as in the west."

Test
Friday, November 19th, 2004, 07:05 PM
Mongoloids probably originated in what is now the deserts of Xinjiang, north of Tibet. During the Ice Age, this area was very cold and wet. Caucasoids once extended halfway across Siberia and into Mongolia, Manchuria, and Japan. Some of these areas may have been very cold, but the Caucasoids came from warmer areas in Europe and had warmer clothing.

Caucasoids spread a macro-language family known as Eurasiatic, which includes the languages of Europe, Korean, Japanese, Turkish, Mongolian, most Siberian langauges, and Eskimo. The linguist Joseph Greenberg wrote a book about this called INDO-EUROPEAN AND ITS CLOSEST RELATIVES, THE EURASIATIC LANGUAGE FAMILY. Among language families in his Eurasiatic family are Indo-European, Uralic-Yukaghir, Altaic (which includes Turkish, Mongolian, and the Siberian languages in the Tungusic family), Gilyak (eastern Siberia and Sakhalin island), Chukotian (eastern Siberia), Korean-Japanese-Ainu, and Eskimo-Aleut.
The geneticist Luca Cavalli-Sforza, in HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY OF HUMAN GENES, confirmed that these people all are genetically related as well as linguistically related.
The Mongoloid race originated further south and spread north. Meanwhile, languages spread in different directions. Chinese, Burmese, and Tibetan all originated in Mongolia or nearby areas occuppied by Caucasoids, proto-Nordics or paleo-mongoloids or something in between or mixed between them. Surprisingly, according to Cavalli-Sforza, northern Chinese are genetically more related to Europeans than they are to southern Chinese.
I think he exaggerates, but there are Caucasoid genes in northern China and northern Asia. Southern China is more mongoloid, with some Australoid thrown in. ''The italicized seems to be your own post, and it contradicts both the book as well as itself.