PDA

View Full Version : Barbary Pirate Slave Raids on Europe



Gladstone
Tuesday, March 16th, 2004, 02:58 PM
http://earlyamerica.com/review/2002_winter_spring/images/pirates.jpg

Synopsis: US scholar claims more than 1 million people were captured by African pirates
Source: Guardian (UK)
Published: March 11, 2004 Author: Rory Carroll
For Education and Discussion Only. Not for Commercial Use.


New book reopens old arguments about slave raids on Europe
US scholar claims more than 1m people were captured by African pirates
Rory Carroll, Africa correspondent

Thursday March 11, 2004

The Guardian


North African pirates abducted and enslaved more than 1 million Europeans between 1530 and 1780 in a series of raids which depopulated coastal towns from Sicily to Cornwall, according to new research.

Thousands of white Christians were seized every year to work as galley slaves, labourers and concubines for Muslim overlords in what is today Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria and Libya, it is claimed.

Scholars have long known of the slave raids on Europe. But American historian Robert Davis has calculated that the total number captured - although small compared with the 12 million Africans shipped to the Americas in later years - was far higher than previously recognised.

His new book, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800, concluded that 1 million to 1.25 million ended up in bondage.

Prof Davis's unorthodox methodology split historians over whether his estimates were plausible but they welcomed any attempt to fill a gap in the little-known story of Africans subjugating Europeans.

By collating different sources of information from Europe over three centuries, the University of Ohio professor has painted a picture of a continent at the mercy of pirates from the Barbary Coast, known as corsairs, who sailed in lanteen-rigged xebecs and oared galleys.

Villages and towns on the coast of Italy, Spain, Portugal and France were hardest hit but the raiders also seized people in Britain, Ireland and Iceland. According to one account they even captured 130 American seamen from ships that they boarded in the Atlantic and Mediterranean between 1785 and 1793.

In the absence of detailed written records such as customs forms Prof Davis decided to extrapolate from the best records available indicating how many slaves were at a particular location at a single time and calculate how many new slaves were needed to replace those who died, escaped or were freed.

To keep the slave population stable, around one quarter had to be replaced each year, which for the period 1580 to 1680 meant around 8,500 new slaves per annum, totalling 850,000.

The same methodology would suggest 475,000 were abducted in the previous and following centuries.

"Much of what has been written gives the impression that there were not many slaves and minimises the impact that slavery had on Europe," Prof Davis said in a statement this week.

"Most accounts only look at slavery in one place, or only for a short period of time. But when you take a broader, longer view, the massive scope of this slavery and its powerful impact become clear."

Prof Davis conceded his methodology was not ideal but Ian Blanchard, professor of economic history at the University of Edinburgh and an authority on trade in Africa, said yesterday that the numbers appeared to add up.

"We are talking about statistics which are not real, all the figures are estimates. But I don't find that absolute figure of 1 million at all surprising. It makes total sense."

The arrival of gold from the Americas and the shipping of slaves from west Africa squeezed the traditional business of the Barbary merchant fleet which was transporting gold and slaves from southern to northern Africa, so they turned their gaze to Europe, said Prof Blanchard.

Slaving

However David Earle, author of The Corsairs of Malta and Barbary and The Pirate Wars, said that Prof Davis may have erred in extrapolating from 1580-1680 because that was the most intense slaving period: "His figures sound a bit dodgy and I think he may be exaggerating."

Dr Earle also cautioned that the picture was clouded by the fact the corsairs also seized non-Christian whites from eastern Europe and black people from west Africa. "I wouldn't hazard a guess about the total."

According to one estimate, 7,000 English people were abducted between 1622-1644, many of them ships' crews and passengers. But the corsairs also landed on unguarded beaches, often at night, to snatch the unwary.

Almost all the inhabitants of the village of Baltimore, in Ireland, were captured in 1631, and there were other raids in Devon and Cornwall.

Reverend Devereux Spratt recorded being captured by "Algerines" while crossing the Irish sea from Cork to England in April 1641 and in 1661 Samuel Pepys wrote about two men, Captain Mootham and Mr Dawes, who were also abducted.

Last year it was announced that one of the richest treasure wrecks found off the coast of Devon was a 16th-century Barbary ship en route to catch English slaves.

Although the black Africans enslaved and shipped to North and South America over four centuries outnumbered Prof Davis's estimates of white European taken to Africa by 12-1, it is probable they shared the same grim conditions.

"One of the things that both the public and many scholars have tended to take as given is that slavery was always racial in nature - that only blacks have been slaves. But that is not true," said the author.

In comments which may stoke controversy, he said that white slavery had been minimised or ignored because academics preferred to treat Europeans as evil colonialists rather than as victims.

While Africans laboured on sugar and cotton plantations the European slaves were put to work in quarries, building sites and galleys and endured malnutrition, disease and maltreatment.

Ruling pashas, entitled to an eighth of all captured Christians, housed them in overcrowded baths known as baņos and used them for public works such as building harbours and cutting trees. They were given loaves of black bread and water.

The pasha's female captives were more likely to be regarded as hostages to be bargained for ransom but many worked as attendants in the palace harem while awaiting payment and freedom, which in some cases never came. Some slaves bought by private individuals were well treated and became companions, others were overworked and beaten.

"The most unlucky ended up stuck and forgotten out in the desert, in some sleepy town such as Suez, or in the Turkish sultan's galleys, where some slaves rowed for decades without ever setting foot on shore," said Prof Davis, whose book is published in the US by Palgrave Macmillan.

http://earlyamerica.com/review/2002_winter_spring/images/bainbridge.jpg

Gladstone
Tuesday, March 16th, 2004, 04:21 PM
http://www.nmm.ac.uk/mag/images/700/BHC0709_700.jpg
French Maritime Shipping Being Attacked By Barbary Pirates/Slavers (17th Century)

Excerpts From Above Article

"Scholars have long known of the slave raids on Europe. But American historian Robert Davis has calculated that the total number captured - although small compared with the 12 million Africans shipped to the Americas in later years- was far higher than previously recognised."

"Although the black Africans enslaved and shipped to North and South America over four centuries outnumbered Prof Davis's estimates of white European taken to Africa by 12-1, it is probable they shared the same grim conditions."

The presumably English writer of the article about slave raids conducted upon Europeons feels compelled (self-flagellation?) to twice compare it to African enslavement. It seems that amongs many of those we deal with Europeons must be perpetually kept in a state of guilt; the idea of resolution (ie resolving the past errors) is not what this about. These folks do not want this resolved but are using "guilt" as a weapon for political ends and will continue to use emotionalism for the obtainment of power as long as Europeons allow it.

Europeon(s) must in some way resolve that guilt and those who derive power from that guilt will almost certainly be the ones to fight most that radical idea. Try talking in a public manner some time about actually resolving the past problems between Europeons and non-Europeons in a manner fair to both parties. The one's most disturbed by that type of talk are our wonderful rad-lib/Marxists friends.

The brave writer of the book criticqued by the article, Robert Davis, gets it right

"One of the things that both the public and many scholars have tended to take as given is that slavery was always racial in nature - that only blacks have been slaves. But that is not true," said the author.

In comments which may stoke controversy, he said that white slavery had been minimised or ignored because academics preferred to treat Europeans as evil colonialists rather than as victims.

Those familair with modern Europeon "academics" will know that in many instances they are once more, the ever loveable multi-cultists/Marxists who literally feed off of conflict and where none or "not enough" exists, will artificially create it as has been done in many of our Europeon states by way of mass immigration. Why? A desire for raw power. :|

Additional links on the Barbary Pirates

http://websearch.cs.com/cs/redir?src=image&requestId=268785028754904e&clickedItemRank=1&userQuery=Barbary+Pirates&clickedItemURN=http%3A%2F%2Fearlyamerica .com%2Freview%2F2002_winter_spring%2Fter rorism.htm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/society_culture/protest_reform/white_slaves_01.shtml

old aryan
Tuesday, March 16th, 2004, 06:16 PM
http://www.nmm.ac.uk/mag/images/700/BHC0709_700.jpg
French Maritime Shipping Being Attacked By Barbary Pirates/Slavers (17th Century)

Excerpts From Above Article

"Scholars have long known of the slave raids on Europe. But American historian Robert Davis has calculated that the total number captured - although small compared with the 12 million Africans shipped to the Americas in later years- was far higher than previously recognised."

"Although the black Africans enslaved and shipped to North and South America over four centuries outnumbered Prof Davis's estimates of white European taken to Africa by 12-1, it is probable they shared the same grim conditions."

The presumably English writer of the article about slave raids conducted upon Europeons feels compelled (self-flagellation?) to twice compare it to African enslavement. It seems that amongs many of those we deal with Europeons must be perpetually kept in a state of guilt; the idea of resolution (ie resolving the past errors) is not what this about. These folks do not want this resolved but are using "guilt" as a weapon for political ends and will continue to use emotionalism for the obtainment of power as long as Europeons allow it.

Europeon(s) must in some way resolve that guilt and those who derive power from that guilt will almost certainly be the ones to fight most that radical idea. Try talking in a public manner some time about actually resolving the past problems between Europeons and non-Europeons in a manner fair to both parties. The one's most disturbed by that type of talk are our wonderful rad-lib/Marxists friends.

The brave writer of the book criticqued by the article, Robert Davis, gets it right

"One of the things that both the public and many scholars have tended to take as given is that slavery was always racial in nature - that only blacks have been slaves. But that is not true," said the author.

In comments which may stoke controversy, he said that white slavery had been minimised or ignored because academics preferred to treat Europeans as evil colonialists rather than as victims.

Those familair with modern Europeon "academics" will know that in many instances they are once more, the ever loveable multi-cultists/Marxists who literally feed off of conflict and where none or "not enough" exists, will artificially create it as has been done in many of our Europeon states by way of mass immigration. Why? Raw power. :|

Additional links on the Barbary Pirates

http://websearch.cs.com/cs/redir?src=image&requestId=268785028754904e&clickedItemRank=1&userQuery=Barbary+Pirates&clickedItemURN=http%3A%2F%2Fearlyamerica .com%2Freview%2F2002_winter_spring%2Fter rorism.htm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/society_culture/protest_reform/white_slaves_01.shtml
Yes, and even going back further, Arab & Middle Eastern potentates were often noted for having fair/blonde/blue-eyed women in their harems. White slavery is not new, but it is so often ignored by those academics who prefer to demonize the wites, as you mention earlier!