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Euclides
Monday, March 15th, 2004, 05:54 PM
Pattern of mtDNA Variation in Three Populations from São Tomé e Príncipe
M. J. Trovoada1, L. Pereira2, L. Gusmão2, A. Abade1, A. Amorim2,3 and M. J. Prata2,3,*

Summary

We have analysed the matrilineal genetic composition of three self-reported ethnic groups from São Tomé e Príncipe (Gulf of Guinea), an African archipelago whose settlement begun in the late fifteenth century. Sequence data from the hypervariable segments I (HVS-I) and II (HVS-II) were obtained for 30 Angolares, 35 Forros and 38 Tongas. The repertory of mtDNA lineages in São Tomé e Príncipe denoted a fully African maternal pool, primarily arisen from a Central/Southwestern substratum. The absence of any lineages of putative European descent means that the European impact at the mitochondrial pool was virtually nil. Angolares showed a clear reduction of mtDNA diversity and a slight genetic differentiation relative to Tongas or Forros, whereas the latter two groups did not present any signs of genetic boundaries between each other. The data obtained here reinforce the depiction of genetic substructuring in São Tomé e Príncipe previously derived from Y-chromosome STRs. In addition, the crossing of mtDNA and Y-STR information led to the inference that the female mediated gene flow within the archipelago was less restricted than the male, a pattern that could be framed in the cultural traditions and socio-historical interactions among the groups.

Euclides
Monday, March 15th, 2004, 05:56 PM
Evidence for population sub-structuring in São Tomé e Príncipe as inferred from Y-chromosome STR analysis
M. J. TROVOADA1, 2, C. ALVES2, L. GUSMÃO2, A. ABADE1, A. AMORIM2, 3 and M. J. PRATA2, 3
Seven Y-chromosome STR loci, DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393 have been analysed in population samples of Angolares, Forros and Tongas, three ethnic groups from the African archipelago of São Tomé e Príncipe (Gulf of Guinea). Complete typings were obtained for 103 chromosomes, which belonged to 79 different haplotypes. The mean heterozygosity per locus in the overall São Tomean sample was 0.566, with the highest value found among Forros and the lowest among Angolares. Angolares also showed the lowest level of haplotype diversity. On average, the mean pairwise difference between two random haplotypes from Angolares, Forros and Tongas was 4.69, 6.74 and 6.23 repeats, respectively. The genetic distances were found to be statistically significant between Angolares and Forros or Tongas. In accordance, AMOVA revealed that the percentage of variation attributable to differences among groups was only significant when we distinguished between Angolares and non-Angolares. Globally, these results indicate that, with respect to the pool of male lineages of São Tomé e Príncipe, some genetic sub-structuring does exist, basically determined by the Angolares ethnic group.