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Vetinari
Friday, March 12th, 2004, 06:17 PM
Abstract:

The Saami are regarded as extreme genetic outliers among European populations. In this study, a high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of Saami genetic heritage was undertaken in a comprehensive context, through use of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and paternally inherited Y-chromosomal variation. DNA variants present in the Saami were compared with those found in Europe and Siberia, through use of both new and previously published data from 445 Saami and 17,096 western Eurasian and Siberian mtDNA samples, as well as 127 Saami and 2,840 western Eurasian and Siberian Y-chromosome samples. It was shown that the “Saami motif” variant of mtDNA haplogroup U5b is present in a large area outside Scandinavia. A detailed phylogeographic analysis of one of the predominant Saami mtDNA haplogroups, U5b1b, which also includes the lineages of the “Saami motif,” was undertaken in 31 populations. The results indicate that the origin of U5b1b, as for the other predominant Saami haplogroup, V, is most likely in western, rather than eastern, Europe. Furthermore, an additional haplogroup (H1) spread among the Saami was virtually absent in 781 Samoyed and Ob-Ugric Siberians but was present in western and central European populations. The Y-chromosomal variety in the Saami is also consistent with their European ancestry. It suggests that the large genetic separation of the Saami from other Europeans is best explained by assuming that the Saami are descendants of a narrow, distinctive subset of Europeans. In particular, no evidence of a significant directional gene flow from extant aboriginal Siberian populations into the haploid gene pools of the Saami was found.

http://home.ripway.com/2004-1/62802/saami.pdf

Frans_Jozef
Tuesday, November 15th, 2005, 02:17 PM
The Western and Eastern Roots of the Saami—the Story of Genetic
“Outliers” Told by Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosomes

Kristiina Tambets, Siiri Rootsi, Toomas Kivisild, et. al.




The Saami are regarded as extreme genetic outliers among European populations. In this study, a high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of Saami genetic heritage was undertaken in a comprehensive context, through use of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and paternally inherited Y-chromosomal variation. DNA variants present in the Saami were compared with those found in Europe and Siberia, through use of both new and previously published data from 445 Saami and 17,096 western Eurasian and Siberian mtDNA samples, as well as 127 Saami and 2,840 western Eurasian and Siberian Y-chromosome samples. It was shown that the “Saami motif” variant of mtDNA haplogroup U5b is present in a large area outside Scandinavia.

A detailed phylogeographic analysis of one of the predominant Saami mtDNA haplogroups, U5b1b, which also includes the lineages of the “Saami motif,”
was undertaken in 31 populations. The results indicate that the origin of U5b1b, as for the other predominant Saami haplogroup, V, is most likely in western, rather than eastern, Europe. Furthermore, an additional haplogroup
(H1) spread among the Saami was virtually absent in 781 Samoyed and Ob-Ugric Siberians but was present in western and central European populations. The Y-chromosomal variety in the Saami is also consistent with their European ancestry.

It suggests that the large genetic separation of the Saami from other Europeans is best explained by assuming that the Saami are descendants of a narrow, distinctive subset of Europeans.
In particular, no evidence of a significant directional gene flow from extant aboriginal Siberian populations into the haploid gene pools of
the Saami was found.

Full text (http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v74n4/40783/40783.web.pdf?erFrom=-4894310854852465742Guest)

Agrippa
Thursday, July 20th, 2006, 06:31 PM
From the text of the study:


Analyses of classic chromosomal marker variation have demonstrated that the genetic distances between the Saami and other European populations are significantly larger than between any other pair of European populations (Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1994 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF15)).



In contrast to the predominance of European mtDNA haplogroups observed among the Saami, nearly half of their Y chromosomes share a TatC allele (haplogroup N3, according to the nomenclature of the Y Chromosome Consortium [YCC 2002 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF116)]) with most Finno-Ugric and Siberian populations. This variant is found at high frequencies among Siberian populations, such as the Yakuts and the Buryats, but is virtually absent in western and Mediterranean Europe; even among the Norwegians and the Swedes, populations that have historically lived in close proximity to the Saami, it is found at frequencies of only 4%–8% (Zerjal et al. 2001 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF117); Passarino et al. 2002 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF72)). High frequencies of the TatC allele have also been observed in Baltic (30%–40%) and Volga-Finnic–speaking populations (20%–50%)



Another half of the Saami paternal lineages have primarily mutations M170, SRY-1532, or M173 (Semino et al. 2000 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF99); Raitio et al. 2001 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF80); Wells et al. 2001 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF113)) . Accordingly, they are identified as haplogroups I, R1a, and R1b (YCC 2002 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF116)) . Y chromosomes possessing those mutations are widely spread in European populations (Rosser et al. 2000 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF86); Semino et al. 2000 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF99)). Whereas SRY-1532 and M173 are present at moderate frequencies in some Siberian populations as well, M170 Y chromosomes are very rare there (Wells et al. 2001 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF113); Karafet et al. 2002 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF46)).


Table:
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943&rendertype=table&id=TB3

N3 position can be discussed, even if being present in Europe, its mainly a rather foreign marker which can be associated with Lappoid and Eastbaltid strains. But whereas the foreign influence was more diluted in other types and groups, its still present and strong in typical Lappids which could be defined as mixed (with Arctic) and reduced-borealised Cromagnoids.



At the current level of resolution, the phylogenetic reconstructions do not identify the geographic origin of haplogroup I in Europe. Nevertheless, its virtual absence among Samoyeds as well as among Ugric-speaking Mansis and Khants suggests that these populations have not shared a recent ancestry with the Saami.


Thats correct, as shown here the common ancestry goes back to Meso-Neolithic times:
http://forum.stirpes.net/showthread.php?t=7827

Its not present in the Arctic Finno-Ugrians because they dont mixed with Proto-Europid/Cromagnoid and Nordoid Europeans like Lapps and Baltic Finns did, with the later being dominanted by the European elements to a very high degree whereas the Lapps having still significant visible admixture (the unmixed Lapps/Lappids) and show the results of a "Borealising" selective pressure which favoured certain Mongoloid/Mongoliform traits. So crucial for a racial status is not just the presence of admixture, but also their expression in the phenotype. Honestly I dont really care for admixture which doesnt express itself in the phenotype and will not in future generations neither.

It must be noted that todays Samis being further mixed, so the Lappid rests being diluted and on the other hand Lappoid/Eastbaltid traits introduced into neighboring populations through the same mixture.

This being speculated by the author too:


Haplogroups J and E, found solely among Kola Saami (table 2 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943&rendertype=table&id=TB2)), may have arisen as a recent contribution from the neighboring northern Russian population, since these Y-chromosomal variants are present there (Wells et al. 2001 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF113)) .




All Saami subpopulations cluster together as a distinct group, but the distance between the Saami and native Siberians is much greater than between the Saami and other Europeans. Different distributions of the populations along the axis of the second PC arise primarily from the different proportions of haplogroups H, U5, and V in the populations. In addition, the lack of haplogroups J, U4, and A among the Saami plays a relatively important role here.


Sure, nobody ever said they are predominantely Mongolid, but their closeness to Europeans comes mostly from the European part (see above) they have.

The N3 marker is best described as "Uralic" or Eurasian in itself, since being not necessarily a clear Neo-Mongolid marker.



Eastern Eurasian mtDNA variants in the Saami are represented by a restricted set of lineages that belong to superhaplogroup M. In this respect, the Saami do not differ markedly from Finnic-speaking Karelians, Maris, Komis, Udmurts, or northern Russians, all of whom possess haplogroups of eastern Eurasian origin at similar frequencies (table 1 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943&rendertype=table&id=TB1)).


Obviously. We are speaking of a gradient of Lappoid influence from Lappid-Lappoid-Eastbaltid-Baltid with the latter being already "fully Europid" since the admixture is no longer of significance, Eastbaltids foreign-influenced but stil Europid, Lappid foreign influenced on a high level.


This minor part of the Saami mtDNA pool consists of two branches of the eastern Eurasian mtDNA tree—D5 and Z1. According to published data, the frequency of haplogroup D5 is relatively high in China (Yao et al. 2002 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF115)) . D5 is also present among Mongols and Siberians (Kolman et al. 1996 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF50); Derbeneva et al. 2002b (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF25)). However, the Saami haplogroup D5 lineages, with the HVS-I motif 16126-16136-16360 and its derivatives (defined as “D5b” by Derenko et al. 2003 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943#RF26)), have been identified only in some northern and eastern European populations (among Karelians, Finns, Estonians, North-Russians, and Komis) and in some Siberian populations but not in Samoyeds (table 1 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943&rendertype=table&id=TB1)). This suggests, again, the lack of gene flow from Samoyeds to eastern Europe.

So the admixture is not just present in the paternal but also maternal line, even if on a low level, this proves foreign influences. The author just tries to (for whatever reason) downplay it.


The predominant Saami Y-chromosomal haplogroup N3 has a nearly uniform circumarctic distribution in Eurasia (table 3 (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181943&rendertype=table&id=TB3)). The closely related N2 lineages are frequent in Siberian and Volga-Uralic populations. Thus, it is likely that haplogroup N variation represents a prehistoric link between the Siberian and eastern European/proto-Finnic populations via their paternal heritage.

Rather Eurasian/contact race or Mongoloid or Proto-Mongoloid might describe the respective original variants most likely, but one thing is quite sure, they were no typical Europids (!) and foreign to the European core groups and area.
Its always useful to read such articles in details since many "summaries/abstracts" dont really tell one whats important but only what the author made out of it even if ignoring many facts. F.e. the idiocy with "share no common origin because I is present", I mean if they mixed they will obviously have European markers the Eastern Eurasians dont have and concerning the absense of a certain Eastern Eurasian genetic variation: Well, the author spoke about bottlenecks and drift, should have considered that too. Its no strong argument against the idea of Mongoloid admixture in every case, but oh well, nothing new and something already classic physical anthropologists knew, since it happened from the Meso- to Neolithic times rather than even more recent...

I think contact race suits them best, at least if speaking about typical to extreme Lappids, which, that can't be stressed enough, not all Saamis of today are because of stronger recent mixture (!).