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Blutwölfin
Saturday, July 23rd, 2005, 01:39 PM
Read here (http://www.boudicca.de/frisian1.htm)

Vanir
Saturday, July 23rd, 2005, 02:06 PM
Good find, a comprehensive little site.

Frisian Language and Runes are very close to Anglo-Saxon, our close ingvaeonic kinship is summed up in the rhyme...

Bûter, brea en griene tsiis Is goed Ingelsk en goed Fries
Bread, butter and green cheese is good English and good Friese

Even after all this time the similarities are evident. I have also read tales of English Commandoes operating in the Frisian speaking part of German Occupied Holland in WW2, and finding that they had not much trouble at all understanding the locals.

I planned to make a big post about it awhile back (haven't gotten around to it yet) here is an email from a very learned chap I received in my researching an essay on it


Frisian is very close to Dutch, but on a lexical level the similarity with English stands apparent. As a consequence that the province was able to remain until the 1550s quite independent from Holland, the Frisian language hardly evolved nor absorbed foreign elements, but stayed true to the common West Germanic linguistic characteristics dating from the eight century, hence why it is called Oudfries = Old Frisian.

The Frisian language was severely treatened by Hollandish expansion. Mixed marriages and migration degraded the position and strenght of Frisian, in administration and schooling its presence was lacking, replaced by Dutch. Even a Frisian literature was made obsolete.
Time has changed, though, and it has made a comeback but in an altered state.
People talk a Stadsfries = Urban Frisian, adapted to the Hollandish norm, so it's more accessible for non-Frisians.

I hope these links will proof helpful in your research:

http://lamar.colostate.edu/~eric13/frisian.shtml

http://www.drf.nl/business/history.htm

http://www.i-friesland.com/index.html

http://www.skiednis.org/

http://www.biermannfamilyhistory.com/Webpages/frisianlanguage.htm

http://www.i-friesland.com/links/links_%20index.htm

http://indoeuro.bizland.com/tree/germ/frisian.html

http://web.quipo.it/minola/frysk/language.htm

http://www1.fa.knaw.nl/mercator/regionale_dossiers/frisian_nl.htm

Aragorn
Thursday, August 2nd, 2007, 11:23 PM
The Frisian people are one of the eldest Germanic peoples. They existed even during the Roman times, they faced several attempts of assimilations, but they still survived as an unique ethnic group. Learn more about the history of the Frisian folk:

www.boudicca.de/frisian1.htm (http://www.boudicca.de/frisian1.htm)

www.boudicca.de/frisian2.htm (http://www.boudicca.de/frisian2.htm)

Dagna
Tuesday, May 13th, 2008, 06:09 PM
History of the Frisian Folk

The origins of the Frisians lie in an area that roughly covers South Scandinavia, Denmark and the Weser/Oder region. In the period between 1750 and 700 B.C. they were still part of a larger group of peoples called the Germanics. This larger group was of the mainly of the Nordic race (dolichocranic). (Among the Nordics there also lived a -smaller- group of brachycranics whom probably had the position of slave).


http://www.boudicca.de/fries-2.gif


Gold bracteate with runes (fozo gruoba), dating from 750 A.D. found in Hitsum (Fryslân).

After 1400 B.C. an expansion of the Germanics into southern Europe took place.

Around 800 B.C. the original Germanic group had split into a West-, East- (Goths and Vandals) and North Germanic group (Scandinavians). The differences can be traced in language and culture. At the end of the Bronze Age (700 B.C.) the expansion of the West Germanics had reached the coastal areas of northwest Germany (currently the province Hanover).

The West Germanics can be divided, along religious lines, into three tribegroups, the Inguaeones, Istuaeones and Irminones. The Frisians belong to the Inguaeones. The name Inguaevones is derived from the god Inguz; the Frisians believed they descended from him. Inguz is another name for the Germanic god Freyr. Other tribes belonging to the Inguaeones were, the Jutes, Warns, Angles, and the Saxons. Of these tribes the Saxons were closest in kin to the Frisians. All Inguaeones lived in the coastal areas along the North Sea. The Chaukians, also a tribe that lived along the North Sea, belong to the Irminones.

From north-west Germany, to be exact the coastal areas around the mouths of the rivers Eems and Weser, the Inguaeones colonized the coastal clay-districts of the current Dutch provinces of Friesland and Groningen (700 - 600 B.C.).

The Heathen period in Friesland (700 B.C. - 800 A.D.)

So between 700 and 600 B.C. the forefathers of the Frisians colonized the coastal clay-districts of the current Dutch provinces of Friesland and Groningen.


Fryslân in the 7th century B.C. (First settlers)

http://www.boudicca.de/fries-3.jpg


1. Clay: First Frisian settle in striped areas
2. Peat-moor/peat-bog: uninhabited
3. Sand: striped area is inhabited
4. Mud-flat: uninhabited
5. Peat formation locally: uninhabited (later known as West-Friesland)

* Current borders: dotted line


The largest group came from the Eems/Weser region. Later also people came from the higher sandy regions to the east of Friesland (currently called Drenthe).

Between 700 and 400 B.C. one can't speak of a separate Frisian group, since there is still one homogenic culture between Texel (Netherlands) and the Weser (Germany).
Between 400 and 200 B.C. significant cultural changes take place. From Leiden in the south to Delfzijl in the north a 'Proto-Frisian' culture was evolving. In 200 B.C. a distinctly Frisian culture can be found between the river Eems (Germany) and Wijk-bij-Duurstede (Netherlands). For the first time the Frisians are an ethnic entity!
To the north of the Eems lives a tribe called the Chaukians. An interesting fact is that the Chaukians belonged mainly to the Falian race (Dolichocranic with a broad face). The Frisians mainly to the Nordic race (Dolichocranic with narrow face). In the region currently known as the province of Groningen there was a melting together of both races.
There was also a small group of brachycranic people living among the Nordic Frisians, of a non-Germanic origin. They inhabited the Netherlands before the Germanic-invasion, and were probably of pre-Indogermanic origin.

Terpbuilders

Two centuries after the colonization of the clay-district the sea level stars to rise. To encounter the periodical flooding of their homesteads the Frisians built earth-mounds known as terps. There were several periodes of sealevel rising (they were accompanied by storm flooding), consequently there are several separate terpbuilding periodes that coincide with the periodes the sealevel rose.

There are three separate terpbuilding generations:
The first terp-generation dates from 500 B.C.; the second terp-generation dates from 200 B.C. till 50 B.C.; and the third terp-generation dates from 700 A.D..

In 250 A.D. the sealevel rising and the coinciding storm flooding was so dramatic that almost all of the Frisians left the clay district only to return in 400 A.D..

Contact with Romans

Julius Caesar conquered Celtic Galicia between 58 and 50 B.C. (these are the current countries France and Belgium). In doing so he moved the borders of the Roman Empire up to the river Rhine. At this point in history the Frisians still lived north of the Rhine, and thus fell outside the borders of the Roman Empire. Under Emperor Augustus (28 B.C. - 14 A.D.) the Romans wanted to make the river Elbe their most northerly border, instead of the Rhine. The consequences would be that the entire Frisian Folk would fall under the influence of the Romans. The Frisians chose to collaborate with the Romans. This happened when Drusus, and his army, arrived at the Rhine in 12 B.C. The Frisians and Drusus negotiated a truce by which the Frisians had to, regularly, pay taxes in the form of cowhides.

Under Emperor Tiberius the taxes became to high, and the Frisians could no longer comply with them. The result was that: first the Romans would take their cattle, after that their land and at last their women and children were taken to be sold in slavery. In 28 A.D. the Frisians rebelled, and hung the taxmen. To retaliate, the Romans sent their legions to punish and conquer Friesland. But the Roman army was slain in a battle at the Baduhennawood. The name of the Frisians was now a feared one in Rome.
There was no Roman reprisal, since Rome had its own internal problems. For the next 20 years Friesland was free.

In 47 A.D. the Frisians made another truce with the Romans. This time with Corbulo. An agreement was made in which their was a mutual understanding that the Rhine was to be the border that both parties had to respect. Friesland would fall under a Roman sphere of influence, but it would no longer be occupied.

In 58 A.D. Frisians colonized an uninhabited strip of land south of the Rhine, thereby breaking their agreement with Corbulo. Two Frisian leaders, Verritus and Malorix (these are Roman translations of their Frisian names), went to Rome to bid the Roman Emperor Nero if they could stay. Alas, the Frisians were violently extradited from the region below the Rhine.

In 69 A.D. the Batavians (a Germanic tribe situated in central Netherlands, and the southern neighbors of the Frisians) also rebel against the Roman occupiers. This region was the northwestern cornerstone of the Roman Empire. The Frisians and the Canninifats (also a Germanic neighbortribe of the Frisians in the west of the Netherlands) became the allies of the Batavians. Sadly the uprising fails. The Romans defeat the Batavians.
The Rhine remains the Roman border until the collapse of the Roman Empire in 410 A.D..

Around 250 A.D. almost all Frisians disappear from the Frisian coastal-clay districts. The rising of the sealevel makes it impossible to live in the coastal areas of Friesland for the next 150 years (250 - 400 A.D.). In this period a fraction of the Frisians and the Chaukians (a Germanic tribe neighboring north of Friesland) form a new tribal alliance called the Franks. This is the tribe that will emigrate south and form the Frankish Empire (currently known as France).

After 400 A.D. the rising of the sealevel halted. Frisian people and their nobility returned to the Frisian clay-district which, by then, had already been colonized by peoples from the Elbe and Sleeswick/Holstein region. These tribes assimilated and continued as the Frisian tribe we know today.

In 300 A.D. other smaller West Germanics tribes had also formed larger tribal-groups known as: Allemandes, Saxons, Thuringers, and Bayerns. The Chaukian tribe disappears altogether. It has assimilated in the Frisian- and Saxon-tribe.


Migration Period (350 - 550 A.D.)

For two centuries (350 - 550 A.D.) the tide of the Migration of Nations sweeps over Europe. Germanic tribes migrate all over Western Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire. Thereby forming new tribes in the newly conquered areas, and for the first time large organized Germanic states. In Europe the major Germanic states were the Jutish, Saxon, Anglo-Saxon, Frankish, Burgondish, West-Gothic, East-Gothic, Vandal and Frisian.

Around 450 A.D. Angles, Saxons, Jutes and a Frisian fraction cross the North Sea and establish the Anglo-Saxon empire (currently known as England). The Frisians colonized the county of Kent in southeast England.

Around 480 A.D. Clovis establishes the Frankish Empire (currently known as France). As said before the Frankish tribe originated from the Chaukans and Frisians.

Around 400 A.D. the Frisians started establishing their Frisian Empire. In 500 and especially 600 A.D. there was a fast expansion and a strong increase in trade. At its peak, in the 7th century, this empire consisted of the coastal areas from north Belgium to southern Denmark. And it controlled a large part of the North Sea traderoutes from Friesland to England, France, Scandinavia and northwest Russia.
The Migration Period seems to have had only a slight change in racial characteristics.


http://www.boudicca.de/fries-4.gif


In the sixth century the written sources begin to speak again about the Frisians. A 'Great-Friesland' (Magna Frisia) has been created. This historical Great-Friesland consisted of a long narrow strip of land along the North Sea, from the Swin (Belgium) in the south, to the Weser (Germany) in the north. This historic Frisian empire lasted from 500 A.D. to 719 A.D. It neighbored to the Saxons in the north and east, the Franks in the south and the Anglo-Saxons in the west across the North Sea.


Frisian expansion under Heathen kings (400 A.D.-719 A.D.)

Very little is known about this period in history. There are no historical documents of Frisian origin, and a few documents of Frankish and Anglo-Saxon origin. The Frankish writings do not always present a historically just picture of the Frisians. Ever since the Frankish convertian to Christianity under Clovis (496 A.D.) the Frisians had become their major antagonists, as a result the Frankish texts had become colored for political and religious reasons.
Clovis converted to Catholicism for power-political reasons. The Gallo-Roman aristocracy in France and the church in Rome, whose support Clovis needed during his empire-building period, were both Catholic. Other Germanic tribes in the former hemisphere of the Roman Empire (Goths and Vandals) had converted to a form of Christianity more suitable to the Germanic soul, called Arianisme.
The Germanic tribes in the north, including the Frisians, were still practicing the religious believes of there forefathers, currently known as Odinism or Asatru. In this article the term 'Heathen' will be used.
In becoming Catholic the Franks automatically became the greatest antagonists of the Frisians.

Around 500 A.D. Clovis had formed his Frankish Empire, which was to be the heir of the Roman Empire with blessings of the pope in Rome. The most northerly border of this empire was formed by the cities Utrecht and Dorestad, neighboring to the Frisians.
After the death of Clovis in 511 A.D. the Frisians took advantage of the internal Frankish power struggle and captured Utrecht and Dorestad. Both cities would stay Frisian for over a hundred years (511 - 628 A.D.). The capture of these cities was of very great interest to the Frisians, since they were the gateways of trade from the Saxon and Frankish hinterlands to the North Sea. In the sixth and the seventh century the Frisians were the major traders on the North Sea. The North Sea was even called 'Mare Frisicum' during this period.
From a religious point of view the Frisian heatenisme was no longer under threat of Frankish Christianity since there was no sally port (Utrecht).

In the year 628 A.D. the Frankish/Christian king Dagobert defeats a combined force of Saxons an Frisians (both Saxons and Frisians were Heathen). By doing so the city of Utrecht fell to the Franks. Dagobert erected a church in Utrecht and ordered a bishop to start converting the Frisians. Christianity had become a tool in the hands of the Franks to destroy the Frisian independence north of the Rhine.

King Finn Folcwalding (lived somewhere in the beginning of the 6th century)
King Finn may have been a Frisian king in the sixth century. He is only named in Anglo-Saxons epics (Widsith, Beowulf and Finnsburg-fragment) which have been written some 50 to 100 years later.

King Eadgils ( ? - 677 A.D.) King Eadgils is the first Frisian king known by name. Two Christian scribes, Beda and Eddius, name him in their works. Under the rule of Eadgils the Frisians and the Franks live in peace with one and other. There are two reasons for this: The Franks were still in internal division, as to whom was to be the heir of the Frankish empire Clovis built, and Eadgils let bishop Wilfried (a pawn of Rome and the Franks) preach Christianity freely in the Frisian regions. This peaceful time was to change drastically ten years later, when the Redbad had become king of Friesland and Pippin leader of the Franks.

King Redbad (679 - 719 A.D.) The heathen king Redbad is the greatest folk hero of the Frisians. He is the defender of the Frisian freedom against the invading Frankish armies and against the Church of Rome. Redbad was a devout heathen. So when the Franks were internally divided as whom was to rule, he attacked the Franks, conquered Utrecht and distroyed the church. Christianity was then forcefully removed from the Frisian empire.
In 689 A.D. Pepin II leads the Frankish conquest in the Frisian lands and he takes Dorestad. Between 690 and 692 A.D. Utrecht also falls into the hands of Pepin. Thereby controlling the important gateways of trade from the Frankish hinterland to the North Sea via the river Rhine.
In 714 A.D. Pepin dies. Redbad takes advantage of this and he beats the Frankish armies under Charles Martel in 716 A.D. at Cologne, thereby winning back the Frisian Empire. King Redbad dies in 719, leaving behind a Great and Heaten Friesland.


http://www.boudicca.de/fries-5.gif



King Poppa (Hrodbad) (719 - 734) Fifteen years after Redbad's death Charles Martel reached the peak of his power and he saw the opportunity to deal with Friesland. In 734 A.D. he sent his forces to Friesland. In the heart of the Frisian land, on the river Boorne ('Middelsea'), the decisive battle was waged, with Poppo (in full Hrodbad) at the head of the Frisian land- and sea-forces. Poppo was the son of Redbad, but not as successful as his father. He was killed in battle, and the Frisian forces (in disarray) were slain. Friesland, uptill the Lauwers, was incorporated in the Frankish Empire. It lost its freedom and the church got a foothold.
The son of Poppa, Abba (in full Alfbad), became the first Frisian count under Frankish rule (749 - 775 A.D.).

East-Friesland (east of the Lauwers) was conquered 50 years later. The East-Frisians had bonded with their Heathen neighbors the Saxons. Martel's son, Pepin the Short, was unable to defeat this coalition. Only under the leadership of Martel's grandson, Charlemagne (Charles the Great), is the Saxo-Frisian alliance defeated in 785 A.D.. The legendary Widukind led this Saxo-Frisian heathen alliance.

During the eight century the Frisian language is born. This birth can be traced by sound changes in the language. Thereby setting the Frisian language apart from other Inguaeonish languages.

Dagna
Tuesday, May 13th, 2008, 06:11 PM
The Frankish-period (785 A.D.- 925 A.D.)


ûleboerd (decoration on barntops)
http://www.boudicca.de/fries-6.gif

Charlemagne ruled his Frankish Empire in a strong centralized manner. Frisians had to serve in his armies. They served under the Franks in the war against the Wilts (789 A.D.) and against the Avars (791 A.D.). When in 800 A.D. the first Scandinavian Viking attacks upon Friesland under Carolinian rule start, the Frisians are discharged from military service abroad. Instead they are left to organize their defenses against the Heathen Vikings.
After Charlemagne defeated the Saxons in 785 A.D., the Frankish Empire bordered in the north to the Danish Empire.


The Danes were very well aware of the terrible atrocities Charlemagne, in name of the Church, had inflicted on their Heathen kinfolk the Frisians and the Saxons. The Danish/Viking raids on Charlemagne's empire and on the wealthy churches and monasteries in it, can be seen as a heathen reprisal.

Next to the Franco/Christian invaders, another enemy of the Frisians reared its ugly head. In the Christmas of 838 A.D. an enormous stormflood flooded nearly all of Friesland, drowning lots of people and livestock.


Friesland county of Frankish Empire (749 - 840 A.D.)

After Charlemagne victory in 785 A.D. the entire Frisian Empire became a county of the Frankish Empire. As seen before the grandson of the legendary Redbad, Abba, became the first Frisian count under Frankish rule (749 - 775 A.D.) over Friesland west of the Lauwers. The two main duties of a count were: to maintain the rule of law, and to organize the conscripts for the Frankish armies. From 734 until 1100 A.D. Frankish Emperors (and after them German Kings) have been represented by counts. These counts were feudal tenants. Very little is known about these counts. East-, West- and Middle Friesland have probably each had their own count.

The counts of Friesland we know by name:


754 count Abba (Boppa) is leader of the building of the Bonifatius Church in Dokkum
791 count Diderik (Durk) leads the Frisians in the Frankish struggle against the Avars
839 count Gerlof sides with the rebellious son of the Frank Louis the Pious
873 count Albdag defeats Vikings (Rudolf) in Westergo
885 count Gerlof and count Gerdolf are present at the murder of Godfried the NorwegianCount Gerlof is the father of Diderik I, the count of Holland, and of count Waltger in Teisterbant. The sons of count Waltger are named "Redbad" and "Poppo".
These names highlight the fact that the counts in Friesland are Redbadings (kindred of Redbad).

The counts of Middle Friesland:


966 count Egbert of the Brunoanen dynasty; which by marriage and inheritance get Middle Friesland
1038 count Liudolf of the Brunswik dynasty dies
1038-1057 Bruno count of Middle Friesland
1057-1068 Egbert I count of Middle Friesland
1068-1088 Egbert II count of Middle Friesland
The counts of West Friesland:
885 count Gerlof
922 count Diderik I (Durk I); for the first time this dynasty is called "House of Holland" count Diderik II (Durk II)
993 count Arnulf dies in battle with West Frisians, count Durk III beats the army of emperor Hendrik II
1049 count Durk IV is killed
1049-1061 count Floris I is killed
1076 count Durk V; County Holland is born (also trough Flemish influences), and Count Durk V and his County Holland become the antagonists of West- and Middle Friesland.
In East Friesland there is nearly no trace of counts.


Frankish Christianity (688 - 734/785 A.D.)


The convertian of Heathens to Christianity could only be realized in areas that were under Frankish rule.
West Lauwers Friesland became a Frankish county in 734 A.D. The entire Frisian Empire came under Frankish rule in 785 A.D.

The Christianization of Friesland started in 688 A.D. when Wigbert preached in Friesland and was completed in 800 A.D. when Friesland was firmly in the grip of Frankish ruler Charlemange.
In 800 A.D. the Friesians "seem" to be converted. But only the ruling elite (the counts and other Frankish vassals) has become Catholic. Large portions of the population are still heathen, and will remain for a long time.
But the voices of the Frisian Heathen priests and Frisian skalds of the epic poems (in the likes of Beowulf) are silenced. Thereby the chain of the oral tradition that connects the Frisians with their heathen past is broken, and Christianity -in the end- wins.

Some (tragic) dates:
688 A.D. Wigbert preaches in Friesland
690 - 754 Willibrord and Bonifatius preach
770-789 Willehad preaches
775 Liudger (a Frisian) preaches
800 A.D. Friesland has Christian social structures (diocese in Urecht) but ……, the larger part of the population remains heathen.Highlights in Heathen terms are:


in 714-719 A.D. when Willibrord flees Utrecht after Redbad conquers the city;
in when 754 A.D. Bonifatius is killed in Dokkum;
in 782 A.D. when Liudger flees for Saxo-Frisian uprising under Widukind.In 793 A.D. Liudger meets the only Frisian skald known by name "Bernlef". Bernlef sang epic songs of the Frisian Heroic Age (like Beowulf).


Viking raids and Danish rule (800 - 1014 A.D.)

In 807 A.D. a war starts between Charlemagne and the Danish king Godfried. Godfried raids Friesland with a fleet of 200 ships, mocking the Frankish defenses. Shortly after Godfried dies (810 A.D.). After Godfrieds death, the Danish raids concentrate mostly on the British Isles and less upon Friesland.

After the death of the Frankish emperor Lewis the Pious in 840 A.D., the Carolinian defense of Friesland had collapsed. Since there was no Frisian King to organize a defensive force, the Danish raids on this Carolinian outpost intensified. And in the rest of the 9th century the Frisians frequently lived under Danish rule and had to pay taxes to the Danish feudal-tenants.
The Danes forced the weakened Carolinian Kings to give them Friesland as a feudal estate.
Feudal tenants in Friesland were:


Harald (840 - 844 A.D.)
Rorik and Godfried (844 - 857 A.D.)
Rorik (a Christian) (862 -872 A.D.)
Godfried (881 - 885 A.D.)In 885 the last Scandinavian ruler of Friesland, Godfried the Norwegian, is murdered and the ruling Danes are evicted from Friesland by the Frisians. The great tidal waves of Heathenistic Viking raids (sometimes accompanied with occupation) in Friesland, had come to an end. Smaller raids still took place until 1014 A.D. when the Christian Knut the Great became king of Denmark, Norway and England.


The German-period (925 A.D. - 1498 A.D.)

In 843 A.D. Lotharius II became ruler of Friesland. In 925 A.D. most of the Lotharingian rulers accepted Henry I of Germany as king. Friesland became part of the "Heilige römische Reich deutscher Nation". The executive power was, until 1217 A.D., in hands of feudal tenants (counts).

After 1217 A.D. Middle-Friesland did not have a count, no feudal tenant, almost no knights, no slaves and a few cities. They were a people of farmers, fishermen and bargemen.
Since there was no overruling authority, everywhere indigenous administrative organs developed. It was a booming period; agriculture and trade flourished and raised it prosperity. Frisian cities joined the "Hanze" (West-European trade alliance). But already dark clouds were drifting over, which would eventually (1498 A.D.) end the Frisian Freedom.


Dyke Building (starts ± 1000 A.D.)

After the terpbuilding, which was in fact a defensive measure against the sealevel rising, the Frisians went on the offensive and started taking land out of the reach of the sea by dikebuilding. Around 1000 A.D. larger parts of land were surrounded by dykes. This happened in Friesland on both sides of the Lauwers.

Between 1000 and 1100 A.D. large parts of Friesland were protected by dykes, and there were extensive regulations concerning maintenance of dykes and wateringsluices.
These first dykes had a height of 1,50 meters above fieldlevel. Behind the dyke there were roads with a width of approximately 4 meters, so that in case of an emergency two wagons could pass one-and-other. In terms of total earth movement necessary for the dyke building one can speak of a worldwonder.
These large dykebuilding projects were first organized by so called 'skeltas'. In the 13th century the dykes became the responsibility of 'grietmannen' and 'asegas'.

Despite the dyke building there were frequently stormfloods that broke the dykes and flooded Frisianlands with all the tragic consequences.


Opstalboom (± 1000 - 1327 A.D.)

To the southwest of Aurich in East-Friesland, on a burialmound dating from the Bronze Age, lies a place called the Opstalboom (Opstalsboom; Upstallboom; Upstalesbame (Old Frisian)). In the 11th, 12th and 13th an alliance called the "Opstalboom" gathered on the burialmound. The alliance consisted of representatives of the 7 Frisian "Zeelanden" (lands by the sea). These representatives gathered once a year (on the Tuesday after Whit Sunday) and they drew up rules of law and. The alliance also joined forces if one of the individual of the 7 members was attacked.


Struggle against the Dutch counts (993 - 26 September 1345 A.D. ("Slag bij Warns"))

The end of the West-Frisian freedom .

After the period of the Scandinavian/Viking rule, the counts of the "House of Holland" become the ruling elite in the lands along the North Sea south of West-Friesland. These counts of the house of Holland were of Frisian origin. But after the birth of the province Holland in 1075 A.D. the Frankish influences dominated the Frisian. At this time a deep rift developed between the Frisians in West-Friesland and the counts of Holland. Several attempts were made by these counts to forcefully submit the West-Frisians.
Count Arnulf: undertakes a military expedition; he gets killed in 993 A.D.
Count Willem II:attacks West-Friesland in the winter of 1256 A.D., he falls through the ice while on horseback and is beaten to death by Frisians.

Floris V, son of Willem II, is bent on revenging his father's death and attacks and defeats West-Friesland. Around 1200 Frisians die in battle. The de-Friezing of West-Friesland starts.
After the death of Floris V the West-Frisians arise again against Jan I. His successor, Jan II, defeated the West-Frisian uprising, killing 3000 Frisians. Middle-Friesland set troops to abide the West-Frisians, but they came to late. West-Friesians lost their freedom, and in the coming centuries also the Frisian language (their mother tongue)


Battle of Warns

After the defeat of West-Friesland, the counts of Holland set their eye on Middle-Friesland.
In 1345 A.D. count Willem IV sets out on a military expedition to conquer Middle-Friesland. With a large fleet and with the help of French and Flemish knights he sailed over the "Zuiderzee". The approach of the aggressor united the Frisian fractions (the Upstallboom played a role in this unification). On 26 September 1345 A.D. Friesland had its finest hour. Willem IV and the cream of the Hollandish, Flemish and French knights were in the forefront of their army, and near Warns they were surrounded by Frisian landfolk and beaten to death. In disarray the rest of the army fled, leaving the body of Willem IV behind.
The 26 of September became an annual festive day in Middle-Friesland.


Schieringers en Vetkopers (1217 - 1489 A.D.)

In 1392 we first hear of the "Schieringers" and the "Vetkopers". These two infamous names indicate the end of the Frisian freedom. It came from the Frisian heart itself. The Schieringers and the Vetkopers were two rivaling parties of Frisian origin. They led Friesland into a civil war. Village fought against village, stins against stins and son against father.

It was Friesland darkest hour, and it started in 1217 A.D.. At this time the rule of Charlemagnian counts in Middle Friesland ends. This results in the lack of one overruling authority eventually resulting in a severe weakening of law and order. The power of the civil service no longer came from above, but out of the community itself. The result of this was that the Grietman (judge) did not have anybody of authority to support him in his actions against disobedient people. In the 14th century this resulted in the partisanship of the Schieringers and Vetkopers.
The Frisians remained in this stalemate because of a character trait; there strong individuality. Their personal freedom was more valuable than the freedom of the people as a whole.

In 1489 A.D. the aid of a foreign authority, Albrecht of Saxony, was accepted to end the catastrophic partisanship. Thus ending the Frisian freedom!


End of the Frisian freedom (1498 A.D.)

Albrecht of Saxony, on request of the Schieringers, created a centralist authority and installing Saxon civil servants. Law and order returned to Middle-Friesland, but culturally Middle-Friesland impoverishes. The language of civil service is German, which results in the de-Friesing of most cities. The de-Friesing was also hastened because after reformation in the 16th century the Bible and the preaching in churches was in Low German language only.


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Sources:
http://www.boudicca.de/frisian1.htm
http://www.boudicca.de/frisian2.htm

GermanWithGod
Wednesday, July 9th, 2008, 09:36 PM
There was a program on the history of the isles which stated ( i can't remember full details) that Frisian fisherman from the nederlands fishing off the southeast coast of England used to dock their ships and just walk into a pub for a afternoon lunch and continue talking as normal, and people would understand and be able to chat.

I don't know if this is still true today, but i remember it was up till like 100 years ago i think. Dutch women rule!

Also i remember reading somewhere that sometime in the not so distant past, maybe during old english 1000 years ago before the norman invasion, that scandinavian tribes who came across could have mutually intelligent conversations with englishmen.

BeornWulfWer
Wednesday, July 9th, 2008, 11:20 PM
There was a program on the history of the isles which stated ( i can't remember full details) that Frisian fisherman from the nederlands fishing off the southeast coast of England used to dock their ships and just walk into a pub for a afternoon lunch and continue talking as normal, and people would understand and be able to chat.




Would that be the "faces of Britain" T.V series?

johanpeturdam
Wednesday, July 23rd, 2008, 12:33 AM
In island of Suðuroy in the Faroes, they often refer to 'Frísarnir í Akrabergi'. Akraberg is the southernmost settled area on Suðuroy. According to 'legend', this place was inhabited by Frisians, but I know of no written or archæological sources (though not said that they don't exist).

Angelcynn Beorn
Thursday, July 24th, 2008, 11:29 PM
There was a program on the history of the isles which stated ( i can't remember full details) that Frisian fisherman from the nederlands fishing off the southeast coast of England used to dock their ships and just walk into a pub for a afternoon lunch and continue talking as normal, and people would understand and be able to chat.

I don't know if this is still true today, but i remember it was up till like 100 years ago i think. Dutch women rule!

I can imagine it being true in the past, but the languages aren't really that mutually intelligible any more. Hundreds of years being under Dutch rule has influenced Frisian away from English and more towards standard Dutch today than it was historically.


Also i remember reading somewhere that sometime in the not so distant past, maybe during old english 1000 years ago before the norman invasion, that scandinavian tribes who came across could have mutually intelligent conversations with englishmen.

Yes that bit is true, Old English, Frisian, and Old Norse would all have been mutually understandable back then, although there may have been some difficulty. It's the same with Danish and Swedish now, they can sort of understand each other if they speak slowly and listen hard, but it doesn't really flow very well unless they have a lot of experience with the other language.

Walders
Friday, July 17th, 2009, 03:19 PM
Stadsfries (city frisian) is more a Dutch dialect, but the Frisian language is still very similar to English. And because Frisian is a much older language, you could say that English originated from the Frisian, or a common Ingwine language.

BTW i noticed that old anglo-saxon is relatively similar to the Dutch language.

Before the nation states came to being there was a kind of grandient of dialect, so probably if you moved slow anouth, you could learn the change in dialect while traveling.

velvet
Friday, July 17th, 2009, 07:22 PM
BTW i noticed that old anglo-saxon is relatively similar to the Dutch language.

The book I'm reading right now often gives referencies in those old languages (old norse, anglo-saxon, etc), and I noticed that Anglo-Saxon is almost the same like today's Danish. The (only few) Frisian referencies are very similar to that.
However, I have much less problems to read Danish than Dutch, although it works to a certain degree.


What an interesting article. I didnt know all that, and since my (maternal) family stems from Friesland originally it was like reading my own history.

Oski
Friday, July 17th, 2009, 07:46 PM
[CENTER]

The West Germanics can be divided, along religious lines, into three tribegroups, the Inguaeones, Istuaeones and Irminones. The Frisians belong to the Inguaeones. The name Inguaevones is derived from the god Inguz; the Frisians believed they descended from him. Inguz is another name for the Germanic god Freyr. Other tribes belonging to the Inguaeones were, the Jutes, Warns, Angles, and the Saxons. Of these tribes the Saxons were closest in kin to the Frisians. All Inguaeones lived in the coastal areas along the North Sea. The Chaukians, also a tribe that lived along the North Sea, belong to the Irminones.

I know its off topic but... Its known that the frisians belonged to the inguaeones but does anyone know who the suebi belong to?

Walders
Friday, July 17th, 2009, 08:09 PM
velvet: Probably dutch has some more French influence, making it more alien to you. Probably the local dialects are as easy/difficult as understanding Danish to you.

oski: the Suebi probably mainly belonged to the Herminones (Elbe Germanics).

About the Frisians: it seems the Frisii encountered by the Romans where of other descent than the later Frisians. After times of floodings the Frisii moved away (maybe to Jutland). Maybe a new group repopulated Frisia, or a group of which the Frisii were a smaller part. But the skulls are more round, like the Saxon skulls.

Wurfaxt
Wednesday, November 4th, 2009, 12:35 AM
Pliny the Elder had this to say about the inhabitants of the Frisian Islands:

... what is nature and characterisations of living by people who live without trees or shrubs. We have indeed said that in the east, to the coasts of the ocean, a number of races in such needy conditions exist; but this also applies to the races of peoples which are called the large and small Ghaucen, which we have seen in the north. There, two times in each period of a day and a night, the ocean with a fast tide submerges an immense plain, thereby the hiding the secular fight of the Nature whether the area is sea or land. There this miserable race inhabits raised pieces ground or platforms, which they have moored by hand above the level of the highest known tide. Living in huts built on the chosen spots, they seem like sailors in ships if water covers the surrounding country, but like shipwrecked people when the tide has withdrawn itself, and around their huts they catch fish which tries to escape with the expiring tide. It is for them not possible to keep herds and live on milk such as the surrounding tribes, they cannot even fight with wild animals, because all the bush country lies too far away. They braid ropes of zegge and biezen from the marshes with which they make nets to be able to catch fish, and they dig up mud with their hands and dry it more in wind than in the sun, and with soil as fuel they heat their food and their own bodies, frozen in northern wind. Their only drink comes from storing rain water in tanks front of their houses. And these are the races which, if they were now conquered by the Roman nation, say that they will fall into slavery! It is only too true: Destiny saves people as a punishment.

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frisian_Islands

A list of 10th century Frisian names:
http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/frisianmasc.html (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/frisianmasc.html)

Pagan Frisia:
http://www.i-friesland.com/pagan.htm

Frisian law poem:
http://www.i-friesland.com/Frisian_law.htm

Ocko
Friday, March 25th, 2016, 07:00 PM
Battle of Finnsburg

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Battle of Finnburg)

This article is about the battle. For the Anglo-Saxon poem, see Finnesburg Fragment.

Battle of Finnsburg

Part of the legends of the Germanic heroic age

The Frisian lands, and neighbouring kingdoms, in the 5th century, showing an approximate territorial boundary within which the battle took place
Date c. 450 AD

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Britain.Anglo.Saxon.homelands.settlement s.400.500.jpg/250px-Britain.Anglo.Saxon.homelands.settlement s.400.500.jpg

short summary:

Location Finnsburg, Frisia[1]
Result Short lived peace treaty, followed by Danish victory
Belligerents
Frisians, and possibly Jutes Danish Hocings, with others such as a Secgan lord
Commanders and leaders
King Finn † of Frisia Prince Hnæf † of the Danish Hocings; Hengest
Strength
Unknown 60 men
Casualties and losses
Heavy losses in both phases Unknown, at least one death in phase one

The Battle of Finnsburg (or Finnsburh) was a conflict in the Germanic heroic age between Frisians with a possible Jutish contingent, and a primarily Danish party. Described only in later Anglo-Saxon poetry, if the conflict had an historical basis it most likely occurred around 450 AD.[2]

In the story, the young prince Hnæf, described as a Hocing, Half-Dane, and Scylding, was staying as an invited guest of the Frisian king Finn. For reasons unknown, a battle broke out between the two parties, probably started by the Frisian side,[3] and Hnæf was killed. Hnæf's retainer Hengest took command, and the sides engaged in a peace treaty; but Hengest and the Danes later avenged Hnæf's death and slaughtered the Frisians.

The primary descriptive sources of the events are the fragmentary Finnsburg Fragment, and an allusive section of Beowulf. Since the battle is well represented amongst such a small corpus of Anglo-Saxon heroic poetry,[4] it was probably significant and once widely known. Due to the fragmentary and allusive condition of the sources, however, the story is difficult to reconstruct.

Contents

1 Sources
1.1 Finnsburg Fragment
1.2 Episode in Beowulf
1.3 Other sources
2 Background
3 Battle phases
3.1 Phase One: The siege battle
3.2 Interim: Swearing of oaths
3.3 Phase Two: The Frisian slaughter
4 Eotena
4.1 Jutes or giants?
4.2 Arguments for giants
4.3 Good faith
5 See also
6 Notes and references
7 Bibliography
8 External links

Sources
Finnsburg Fragment
Main article: Finnsburg Fragment

In 1705 a fragment of Anglo-Saxon epic poetry discovered in Lambeth Palace by George Hickes was published. Because of the fragmentary state of the manuscript, the action starts in medias res. It describes a young prince called Hnæf spurring his 60 men into battle, besieged inside a great hall. Some of his men are then named and their actions in battle followed. Two characters from the attacking force are also named, and one of these dies along with others in his force.

The killed attacker is said to be of the Frisian Islands, hinting at a location for the battle, and the specific location is identified as Finnsburg. The action closes with prince Hnæf and his men having been besieged for five days of battle, without any fatalities on their side. The Finnsburg Fragment is short, at around 50 lines long, and almost entirely lacking in internal context. Most of the context must instead be derived from the parallel episode in Beowulf, which describes events that take place mainly after the action narrated in the Finnsburg Fragment.[5]

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/85/Wealhtheow.PNG/220px-Wealhtheow.PNG

Episode in Beowulf
Wealhþeow, who "came forth / in her golden crown" after the Beowulf scop was finished narrating the Finnsburg story in Beowulf.[6]

Beowulf as a poem primarily follows the exploits of its eponymous hero. After one of Beowulf's victories, a scop or court-poet narrates an old tale to the assembled guests. This tale narrates the events that follow after the story found in the Finnsburg Fragment.[5] The Beowulf poet, however, makes his scop give the account in an extremely compact and allusive way. The audience of the poem were probably expected to already know about the episode in some detail. Because of this, summarising the scenario described in Beowulf will necessarily involve an element of either fragmentation or interpretative reconstruction.

The scop's story of the Freswæle (English: Frisian slaughter) begins with Hildeburh, daughter of Hoc, lamenting the loss of her son and brother.[7] Both factions involved in the battle are said to have suffered heavy losses, but especially the þegnas (English: thanes or barons) of Finn. Because of this, Finn enters into a peace treaty with the besieged party led now by Hengest.[8] Finn was to honour the Danes with feasts and gifts of treasure.[9]

Hnæf and his unnamed nephew, said also to be Hildeburh's son, are placed on a funeral pyre. After this most of the Danish warriors leave, but Hengest and probably some of the Danes stay throughout winter. Eventually a figure referred to as the son of Hunlaf places a sword on Hengest's lap to remind him of his loyalties. Other Danes also return, and probably together they wreak havoc on the Frisians and slay king Finn. The Danes take the unnamed Frisian queen back to what appear to be her own people in Denmark,[10] identifying the Frisian queen as probably Danish.
Other sources

The Anglo-Saxon poem fragment Widsith mentions a Finn who is referred to by the patronymic Folcwalding,[11] probably explaining the patronymic allusion in Beowulf to "Folcwald's son" as a reference to Finn.[12] Widsith also mentions a Hnæf who is said to have ruled the Hocings.[13] Since Hildeburh is said in Beowulf to be the daughter of Hoc and the sister of Hnæf, and since Widsith mentions a Hnæf ruling the people of Hoc, it seems clear that Widsith refers to the same Hnæf of the Battle of Finnsburg. It also mentions a Sæferð or Sasferth who can be identified with one of Hnæf's men, Sigeferth.

The only other source to perhaps allude to the battle is the Skáldskaparmál, where Snorri Sturluson mentions a coat of mail called Finnsleif (English: Finn's legacy).[14] The names of some of the characters in the Battle of Finnsburg are mentioned in other sources, usually in genealogies such as the reference to Folcwald and Finn in the Historia Brittonum. Hengest is mentioned in several works, but his identity and exploits are unclear. One argument, still supported by some recent scholars, is that he is the same figure as the Anglo-Saxon founder of the Kingdom of Kent.


See also: Hildeburh

Since the unnamed Frisian queen in Beowulf is probably said to be of the Danish people, it seems very likely that Hildeburh is this Frisian queen. This means that Hnæf was probably staying as an invited guest of Finn at his home, Finnsburg (English: fortified stronghold of Finn), in Frisia, with Hildeburh connecting the two factions together:

She was clearly a Danish (or at least 'half-Danish') princess, who had married Finn, prince of the Frisians, doubtless a political move to secure peace between Danes and Frisians. Hildeburh had a brother, Hnæf, who apparently went to Finn with his Danish retinue in friendship.

Though the identification of Hnæf and Finn being brothers-in-law makes the situation much clearer, it shifts the emphasis of explanation onto the reason behind the subsequent battle. The battle may reflect a reoccurrence of the tensions which Hildeburh's marriage may have been a diplomatic move to quell. If the identification between the characters holds, moreover, then the son of Hildeburh and nephew of Hnæf who dies in the battle is probably therefore the son of Finn; he may even have been heir to the Frisian kingdom. In this respect it is especially notable that Hildeburh's son is laid on Hnæf's pyre.[17] Tolkien suggested that Hildeburh's son was raised by Hnæf, and was being brought back to Finn at his coming of age; even that Hildeburh's son was one of the party besieged with Hnæf inside the great hall. Such a theory would add an extra layer of complexity, of a feeling of possible responsibility for filicide, to the already complicated psychological motivations of Finn.

Battle phases

Phase One: The siege battle
“ But awake now, my warriors!
take up your shields, think of valor
fight in the vanguard, and be resolute! ”
— Liuzza (2000), Hnæf, Finnsburg Fragment, p.163

The siege is described primarily in the Finnsburg Fragment. Hnæf rouses his troops with a short but powerful speech. Two of his men, Sigeferth and Eaha go to one door (Door A), and another two of his men Ordlaf and Guthlaf go to another door (Door B) of the great hall in which they were trapped at Finnsburg. In Beowulf the pair "Guthlaf and Oslaf" are mentioned returning later to their home, so that Oslaf in Beowulf is probably to be identified with Ordlaf from the Finnsburg Fragment. Hengest follows Ordlaf/Oslaf and Guthlaf to Door B.

Outside the great hall, Guthere is planning to launch the first attack. Garulf counsels him not to do so, saying that Guthere's life is too valuable. Guthere proceeds anyway, and asks who holds that door. Sigeferth replies to Guthere's taunt from within, showing that the attack is being mounted at Door A. Sigeferth is said to be a lord of the Secgena; in Widsith a Sæferð or Sasferth is said to be lord of the Sycges or Secgan, apparently referring to the same character. The two sides fight at that door, and Garulf, the counsellor, and many of the attackers die. It is not clear what happens to Guthere whom he counselled. Garulf the counsellor is said to be Guthlaf's son; it is not clear whether or not this is the same Guthlaf who holds the door as a defender at Door B.

The battle continues for five days, and none of the besieged defenders of Hnæf and his men are killed. Then one of the defenders is wounded, and Hnæf asks the unnamed wounded defender how the other men are coping. There the Finnsburg Fragment ends. The narrative continues in Beowulf after the battle has ended; immediately Hnæf and his nephew are said to have been slain. On the attackers' side, the Beowulf scop says that "all of the thanes of Finn, except a few" were slain.[18] Hengest is now the commander of the defenders.

Interim: Swearing of oaths
“ They swore their pledges then on either side,
a firm compact of peace. With unfeigned zeal
Finn swore his oaths to Hengest ”
— Liuzza (2000), Beowulf, p.87

Since Finn had lost most of his thanes, he was unable to fight Hengest, and the Beowulf poet says that for this reason they drew up a peace treaty. Nicola Zocco clarifies that the "Frisians offer to come to terms with the Danes because they need to resolve the situation in a bloodless way, given that they cannot afford a military victory."[8] This gives the motivation for the attackers to enter into a peace bargain, but not for the motivation of the defenders. Perhaps the toll on them would also have been too large, that Hengest and his men would not have been able to break the deadlock of the siege. The peace treaty must have been reasonable to both commanders as the best way out of the stalemate.

The fact that the two sides did not fight to the death may indicate that Finn felt some remorse for the rules of hospitality having been broken against his brother-in-law Hnæf and his men. Seiichi Suzuki points out that the Beowulf poet implies twice that Finn was to blame and was blamed.[19] Still, Finn may not have been a primary belligerent, only responsible in the capacity of a figurehead; and the picture is made more complex by the role of the eotena (see below). The Beowulf poet seems to allude to Finn's sincerity about the peace treaty when he says that Finn swore oaths to Hengest "with unfeigned zeal".[20]

Not only were the peace terms probably offered by the Frisians to the Danes, but the Frisians were very submissive in the deal. Though under the treaty the Danes are not to complain about the death of Hnæf, Finn more extremely swears that any Frisian who provokes further violence would be, in the language of the poet, settled with the edge of the sword.[21] The defenders are also to be given half of a new building,[22] which, confusingly they are to share with Finn and the eotena sons (see below),[23] and also to be given feasts and treasure by Finn. The concessions by Finn may reflect his remorse at the events, or it may have been seen as a suitable weregild for the defenders not avenging the killing of Hnæf. The Beowulf poet describes how Finn stuck to his oath by giving treasure.

Meanwhile, Hnæf and his nephew are placed on the funeral pyre and Hildeburh laments. Later most of the warriors go home, "to seek their native lands, / bereft of friends, to behold Frisia, / their homes and high fortresses."[24] Hengest, and some retainers, stayed however with Finn over the winter; it is not clear why they do so. Donald K. Fry contends that Hengest stayed "by his own choice, by his own design."[25]

Phase Two: The Frisian slaughter
“ So he did not refuse the world's custom
when the son of Hunlaf placed a glinting sword,
the best of battle-flames, upon his lap ”
— Liuzza (2000), Beowulf, p.88

Eventually a man described as the son of Hunlaf, but given no more specific name or description, places a sword on the lap of Hengest. The sword, a hildeleoma (English: battle-light) which may either be the name of the sword or a description of it, is said to be renowned to the eotenum (see eotena below). Olivieri suggests that probably "Hunlaf had died in the fight at the castle — the sword had been used with the Jutes — and his son asked for revenge."[26] Meanwhile, Guthlaf and Oslaf/Ordlaf, presumably the same pair who held Door A in the siege, go back to the Danish people and tell them what has occurred.

The Beowulf poet says that as a consequence, without naming the antecedents, Finn and all the Frisians were slaughtered. Most likely the antecedents are both of the actions described above, that Hengest and a returning faction of Danes banded together in force to slaughter Finn and the remnants of his forces, avenge Hnæf, pillage Finnsburg, and return to the Danish people with Hildeburh. This is usually understood to mean that Hengest had been brooding over whether fealty or oaths were strongest, and that he and the Danes broke the terms of the peace treaty, though Zocco argues otherwise.[27]

Eotena
Jutes or giants?

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Stories_of_beowulf_grendel.jpg/220px-Stories_of_beowulf_grendel.jpg

Illustration by J. R. Skelton of the giant Grendel from earlier in Beowulf. See also a list of artistic depictions of Grendel.

The words eotena and eotenum in the Beowulf episode appear in several places to describe the opponents of the Danes:

At the beginning of the episode, Hildeburh is said to have "had no need to praise" the eotena good faith (lines 1071–2).
When a hall is cleared out for Hengest and his men to inhabit as part of the peace treaty terms, he is to share it with Folcwalda's son (Finn), and the eotena sons (line 1088).
Hengest broods on revenge against the eotena sons, wanting to remind them of his sword (line 1141).
When the hunlafing sword is placed on Hengest's lap, it is said to be "not unknown" to the eotenum (line 1145).

This has given rise to three basic theories about the term eoten- in Beowulf:

The term is a corrupted declension of *Eotan (English: Jutes).
The term is a pun, meaning eoten (English: giant) but referring to Jutes.[28]
The term is a metaphor, meaning eoten but referring to Frisians.

The first theory was held by Tolkien in the early 20th century, and is now widely accepted amongst scholars.[29] But the second and third theories have seen increasing popularity; more recent dissenters include Williams, Kaske, Stuhmiller, Gwara, Vickrey, and Slade.[30] As three Beowulf editors wrote in 2008:

The terms for Frisians and Jutes seem to be used interchangeably in the Episode (see Beo 1088 and 1093), but it is impossible to be certain, given the fragmentary and allusive nature of the evidence, and the alternate ways of construing the term eotenas that has been thought to designate the Jutes. Historically, scholarship has favored the assumption that MS eotena and eotenum refer to Jutes […], though quite a few scholars, especially in recent years, have seen here common nouns referring to giants[31]

Arguments for giants

The dissatisfaction with the first theory, of the Eotan or Jutes, can be perceived along two axes: morphological and semantic. Vickrey summarises the morphological evidence for a reading of giants, the numbers referring to Beowulf line numbers:

the form eotena, the expected genitive plural of eoten 'giant' (eotena 421, 883), is anomalous as a declensional form of *Eote, *Eotan 'Jutes'; and the form eotenum, along with eotenum 902, the expected dative plural of eoten 'giant,' a disyllabic masculine noun with a short first syllable, is, as a dative plural of *Eote, *Eotan 'Jutes,' without parallel elsewhere in the poem either in weak nouns or i-nouns. […] On philological grounds, then, it is more likely that eoten- meant 'giant' and not 'Jute' in the Finn Episode: if 'Jute,' eoten- is suspect and doubtful; if 'giant,' expected and normal.[32]

Vickrey's point about eotenum refers to line 1145, where the dative plural eotenum is used. The dative plural for Jutes would be eotum,[33] whereas eotenum is the correct dative plural for the sense of giants; despite this, the word in this line is still often translated "Jutes" in accordance with the first theory. Williams argued of eoten that "it is not fact but only possibility that the scribe confused therewith the tribal name, or that this tribal name had a dative Éotenum. A possibility cannot upset a fact!"[34] Benjamin Slade gives a summary of the semantic and contextual evidence, leaning towards the second theory, of a pun between giants and Jutes:

The reading of 'giants' is difficult for it is hard to imagine that Germanic 'giants' could have non-antagonistic relations with any human people. It seems likely that there is perhaps intentional ambiguity here between 'giants' and 'Jutes/Frisians'. […] Stuhmiller makes the keen observation that after the Finn Episode, no form of eoten or eotan occurs in the poem, ambiguous or otherwise. This is striking because 'giants' certainly do not disappear from the poem at this point […]. The poet's song of Finn occurs immediately Beowulf has slain Grendel, the eotan who has been tormenting the Danes[35]

Understanding whether the references are to Jutes or giants has a large bearing on the presented social dynamic of the battle. In a more cautious appraisal Fry summarises that "Whoever the eoten- are, they are probably not Danes and not subject to Hengest."[36]
Good faith

The eotena "good faith" referred to at the beginning of the Beowulf episode is puzzling, in any of the theorised senses of eotena. Though the peace treaty has not yet been mentioned by the narrator at that point in the text, this good faith may refer to the very submissive terms of the peace treaty. If so, this would indicate that it was not only Finn who swore the oath of peace "with unfeigned zeal" to Hengest, but that the eoten- force had good faith too. If so, then it is a particular disadvantage to have lost the description of what, and who, provoked the siege.

Thorbrand
Sunday, May 8th, 2016, 08:47 PM
I hope to visit Frisia soon, as an English and Afrikaans speaker it will be interesting to see how much I can understand and be understood.

Re: the reference to the Eotena, it brings to mind Tolkien's Ettenmoors (the Troll fells in Middle Earth) and Jack Lewis's Ettinsmoor from the Narnia chronicles (the giant realm).