View Full Version : Who are/were the inhabitants of Pomerania?

Sunday, January 4th, 2004, 08:51 AM
Who are/were the inhabitants of Pomerania?

Brief History of Pomerania

The earliest inhabitants of Pomerania were Germanic tribes that migrated southwards from Scandinavia prior to 100 B.C. By the fifth century A.D., these tribes, known as the Goths, Vandals, Germanii, and Teutoni, had migrated westward and the area was settled by Slavic tribes that entered from the east. The Slavic tribes included the Pomerani and Polani, who settled in the areas that became Pomerania and Poland. The German name Pommern comes from the Slavonic word, Po more, meaning "along the sea". The Pomeranian Slavs were later referred to as the Wends. In about 995, Pomerania was conquered by Boleslaus I, the first King of Poland

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, tens of thousands of immigrants from the Rhineland, Westfalen, Niedersachsen, Holstein, Mecklenburg and Holland colonized Pomerania, establishing German villages among the Wend inhabitants and introducing trade.

Eventually, the German language and culture dominated the country and by the 1400's the Wends of Pomerania disappeared completely as a result of intermarriage.



The Kashubs were a slavic tribe whose history can be traced back to 1000 A.D

The present day Kashubs are a Slavic people whose language is closely related to those of the Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, and Sorbs. Together these languages comprise the western group of slavic languages, which, combined with the South and East Slavic Languages, form the Slavic branch of Indo-European


The Slavs, who for a few centuries after their westward expansion occupied much of the lowland country of central and eastern Germany, were at that time dolichocephalic or mesocephalic for the most part, and resembled the earlier Kelts in their usual physical type, while falling into the general Nordic category. For this reason the subsequent brachycephalization of much of this area cannot be attributed, at least wholly, to them.

Northeastern Germany, from Mecklenburg over to East Prussia, is a region of great blondism, in which northwestern German types, especially the Borreby, gradually merge into the racial forms found in Lithuania and White Russia. Von Hindenburg, an East Prussian par excellence, was an ideal example of a Borreby-East Baltic combination typical of his own class and country.

The northeastern Germans are for the most part blond brachycephals, varying in type from Borreby to East Baltic, and especially the latter.

Carleton S. Coon (The Races of Europe) - Chapter XII, section 5

However, inMecklenburgia and Western Pomerania it was another story. Both were defeated by the Saxon duke Henry the Lion, but neither was conquered. [026] As a result of 1166 agreement between the Saxon duke, the Obodrite prince Przybys aw and the Pomeranian princes, both principalities became Saxon vassals.As a part of the deal, Przybys aw's son, Boriwoj married Matilda, an illegitimate daughter of Henry the Lion.Soon both principalities became duchies of the Empire.So, the Slavic population there was treated as were other imperial subjects. There were no evictions there and local princes and nobility remained in charge of local affairs. [027] Consequently, the slow stream of colonists from Saxony and Flanders settled peacefully on vacant land next to the Slavs.There were some attempts to calculate the number of people that moved from west to east.One such calculation, by German scholar Walter Kuhn, puts the number of German rural settlers in the twelfth century at 200,000.According to Bartlett:



see also :
( posted by norda )

European Nordish Regions – Kociewie/Poland

The Kashubian-Pomeranian folk

The Kashubian-Pomeranian average village school


Monday, February 9th, 2004, 01:03 PM
By Dr. Jozko Savli

The term "Elbe Slavs" is not characterizing correctly a historical situation in the territories east of the River Elbe (Laba), as we have seen in the article about Abodritia, where already in the Early Middle Ages several Vendic State formations encountered. Apart of the well-known Abodritia (Mecklenburg) of Abodriti or Obodriti or Bodrici, and of Luitici, there was also of great importance the state of Pomerania (Pommern, in German; Pomorze, in Polish).

Unfortunately, these states were ignored as a historical formation of the Vends by both the pan-German and the pan-Slav ideological movements, which influenced historians in the 19th century, when history began to be written as a scientific discipline at universities and other institutions. The conception of ignorance has been preserved until today. Thus, the aim of this article is to present in a sketch Pomerania, i.e., the second Vendic State, which was stretching alongside the Baltic coast, and which was preserved as a historical province until today.

It is said, the Goths were living in what was to become Pomerania during the time of Christ, and that other Teutonic tribes also lived in this territory. Further, it is said, during the 5th and 6th centuries, the Slav tribes of Pomerania and Kashubi moved westwards into this sparsely populated area on the shores of the Baltic Sea. Such is the explanation given by the German part.

Polish scholars, however, are giving a somewhat different explanation. The presence of the Goths there has not been denied. But they originated from Scandinavia, and after a certain period they continued their way to the Ukraine and then to Italy and Spain. Thus, their settlement in Pomerania was only a temporary one, and such could have been also the settlement of several Germanic tribes.

Between the 2nd and 6th century AD, the Venedic Culture, pertaining to the Vends, was spread in the present-day Polish and Pomeranian territory. One of the groups of this culture was the Przeworsk group, from which descend the people of Poles. In my opinion, the Celts left behind a considerable cultural influence on the group of Poles. It is not perceivable so much in the Polish language, because the (continental) Celts and the Vends spoke practically the same language, but they were of different ethnical tradition. Therefore, in the Polish popular tradition, beside the (Vendic) linden, the (Celtic) oak also appears. In the south of Poland many Celtic graves were also found(...)

Another group of the Venedic culture was even the Oksyvie Group, whose presence is attested in the territory alongside the Baltic coast. From this group descend the Pomeranians. (...)


Monday, February 9th, 2004, 03:00 PM
In the period between the Wars and after the World War II, Polish ethnographers and anthropologists widely discussed the so-called ethnographical border-lands and whole Slavic ethno-genesis. Reacting to Germanic claims they distinctly marked Slavic presence in the Bronze Age Oder bassin, in the period of expansion of Lusatian Culture (1400-300 B. C.) which incorporated the Proto-Slavonic group. Presence of Celts in southern Poland and Bohemia was rather omitted. Long medieval wars between pagan Pomeranians against Christian Poles and Germans, moreover still present language difference of Kassubians were also difficult problem for both German and Polish ideological movements. Well documented presence of Goths in Poland, later discovered Venedic or proto Slavic presence in Scandinavia and ongoing liberalization of “sensitive” sciences caused separation of archeological cultures with strict language and ethnographic borders.
It seems archeology is almost powerless without fossils DNA researches in later approach to where really was situated in Europe the homeland of the early Indo-europeans, who lived somewhere in Europe some 4000 years BC and spoke a so-called Proto-Indo-european family language, from where a lot of branch languages originated. Anyway here you can find some interesting information of latest archeological discoveries. http://www.archeointernet.pl/wystawa/tresc.html