PDA

View Full Version : Jomon-Ainu (Caucasian?) X Yayoi (Mongoloid?) in Ancient Japan



Euclides
Friday, December 5th, 2003, 05:26 PM
Physically, the Ainu differed from Japanese and other nearby Asian peoples in language and especially in appearance; their eyes were deep-set, their bodies muscular and hairy.

www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/ainu/html/room01.html

http://digilander.libero.it/hogaku/storia/preistoria/politica.html

........................................ ........................................ .............

Satoshi Horai, a scholar, argues that modern Japanese are a mix of about 35 percent Jomon and 65 percent Yayoi. That would mean that Japanese are descended mostly from Chinese and Koreans but also have an important Jomon component.

"The recent DNA studies clearly indicate the close genetic relationship between the Japanese on the main islands and the Koreans in particular," said Keiichi Omoto, a leading scholar on the origins of Japanese.

Scholars note that despite the perception in Japan and abroad that Japanese are homogeneous, there is considerable regional variation in physical appearance. In particular, Japanese in northern provinces tend to have rounder eyes and more body hair and wider faces, traits that may suggest a bit more Jomon heritage.

A museum at the site in Aomori offers a computer screen to advise visitors on the proportion of their blood that comes from the Jomon, based on their eyes and body hair and other characteristics.

"People in northern Japan can be 60 to 80 percent of Jomon origin, while those from western or southern Japan are 40 percent Jomon or less," said Okada, the archeologist. He added: "The Jomon people were the real ancestors of the Japanese. They formed the base."

http://www.ishipress.com/aomori.htm
........................................ ........................................ ................


During the last century, anthropologists have fiercely debated whether the Jomon or the Yayoi were the true ancestors of the modern Japanese. For most of this debate's history, scientists have addressed the issue by comparing Asian languages, analyzing archaeological ruins, and measuring dental or other skeletal remains.

Over the last few years, another kind of evidence has begun to have an impact on the debate. By studying the genes of modern Japanese and of other Asians, and even the ancient DNA in the fossilized bones of the Jomon and the Yayoi, investigators hope to put together a genetic history of Japan. Researchers have recently examined, for example, the Y chromosomes of people throughout Asia

In conjunction with other historical evidence, the new work suggests that the Jomon did not originate in Southeast Asia, as one long-standing theory has it. but farther north. The research also sheds light on the extent to which the Jomon and the Yayoi have influenced the genetic makeup of modern Japanese.

"Our data clearly show that both Yayoi and Jomon genes have made a contribution to the contemporary gene pool," says Michael F. Hammer, who presented the Y chromosome research in October 1996 at the American Society of Human Genetics meeting in San Francisco.

http://www.pitt.edu/~annj/courses/notes/jomon_genes.html

........................................ ........................................ .................
THE AINU IN JAPAN

The Ainu are most commonly called an aboriginal people of Japan, occupying parts of the Japanese island of Hokkaido and the Russian islands of the Kurils and Sakhalin (which used to be Japanese territory).

The most striking thing about the Ainu is that they differ still to this day physically and linguistically from the rest of the Japanese population.

Although full blooded Ainu are scarce due to a large amount of intermarriage, the Ainu display in fact distinct traces of White ancestry - typical Ainu have a long skull, a light complexion, a heavy beard (facial hair is virtually unknown amongst the pure Mongolian races) and thick, wavy hair. The Ainu are famous amongst the Japanese for having body hair as well - so that they are derogatively called the "hairy Ainu". Only one other race on earth possesses body hair to this extent - the White Race.


"pure-blooded Ainu are easy to spot: they have lighter skin, more body hair, and higher-bridged noses than most Japanese." Brace studied the skeletons of about 1100 Japanese, Ainu, and other Asian ethnic groups and has concluded that the revered samurai of Japan are actually descendants of the Ainu, not of the Yayoi (original Mongolian) from whom most modern Japanese are descended. Brace said further that "...this explains why the facial features of the Japanese ruling class are so often unlike those of typical modern Japanese. The Ainu-related samurai achieved such power and prestige in medieval Japan that they intermarried with royalty and nobility, passing on Ainu blood in the upper classes, while other Japanese were primarily descended from the Yayoi."

http://www.white-history.com/hwr6a.htm
........................................ ........................................ .................



Two completely different theories are currently proposed concerning the origin of the Jomon people. According to the analysis of the skeletal remains, the Jomon people closely resembled the Wajak Man from Indonesia, and the dental characteristics are similar to Southeast Asians living today. Outwardly, the Jomon seems to have originated in the south. On the other hand, the Ainu people, considered to be a direct descendent of the Jomon were found to be genetically closer to the Northeast Asians than the people of the southeast. From a genetic perspective, the Jomon people seem to have arrived from the north. What then, do these paradoxical facts imply? The following is a virtual scenario to resolve the mysterious origin of the Northeast Asian people [Northern Northeast Asians].

People bearing resemblance to the modern-day Southeast Asians had flourished extensively over the Asian continent about 30 to 40 thousand years ago. These people were long-limbed and characterized by clear-cut facial features, double-edged eyelids and thick eyebrows. However, the people in the northeast seemed to have been genetically distinct from the people of the southeast. Then, the ice age set in about 10 to 20 thousand years ago. A band of the Northeast Asians ventured into Siberia during this period and their facial features and physique rapidly underwent a series of changes to survive in the harsh, cold environment. These people acquired flattened features, single-edged eyelids, thin eyebrows, and shortened limbs with longer trunks. Through this adaptation to the arctic climate, they became Northern Asians [Northern Northeast Asians]. Several thousand years ago, the Northern Asians began to advance southward from Siberia, eventually spreading to the entire Northeast Asia. The modern-day Northeast Asians are the descendents of these people. The outflow of Northeast Asians forced the previous residents of the region -- the people with clear-cut features [Southern Northeast Asians] to migrate to the south, and a group of such immigrants became the Jomon people.

This hypothesis can explain the conflicting facts about the Jomon people, an overall appearance and facial features resembling Southeast Asians and the genetic kinship to the Northeast Asians.


http://www.saitama-kenpaku.com/jinrui/special/english/number/11_E/column02.htm
........................................ ........................................ ........

morfrain_encilgar
Sunday, December 7th, 2003, 04:39 PM
As for the southern physical characteristics of the Jomon, I wonder about wether this has anything to do with the Austronesian influence in the Japanese language and the pre-Yayoi cultivation of crops in western Japan. Western Japan is situated at the northern end of the laurel forest zone characterizing southeast Asia, in which the conditions allow tropical East Asian agriculture to be widely distributed. It would be logical that Austronesians (or at least their crops) would arrive here with the Austronesian expansion that started at around 3000 BC.

Euclides
Monday, December 22nd, 2003, 12:13 AM
December 11, 2003
Differentials of Yayoi immigration to Japanas derived from dental metrics
HOMO, December 2001, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 135-156(22)

Matsumura H.

Abstract

A major influx of new people, today termed Yayoi, migrated from the East Asian continent into the Japanese archipelago during the Aeneolithic and Protohistoric periods and interbred with the preexisting Jomon people. This study classifies ancient and more modern Japanese into natives or immigrants using discriminant analysis based on dental measurements in order to reconstruct the initial impact of the immigrants and the temporal and geographical differentials of mixture with the preexisting people. The results suggest that the earliest immigrants diffused into central Japan, including the Kanto region. The proportion of immigrant origin in the protohistoric Kofun was less in eastern Japan (72%) as compared to western Japan (81%–90%). The proportion of the immigrants in the Kanto District decreased during the medieval period (63%) and increased again in the early modern Edo and later modern times (75%), which might indicate that the gene flow still was occurring from west to east even in these times. Assuming the estimated proportions of either group reflect the intermixture ratio, the recent Japanese people may be regarded as hybrid of the native and immigrant groups with the following approximate ratios: 1:3 for the Kanto Japanese, 2:3 for the Ryukyu Islanders and 7:3 for the Hokkaido Ainu. These estimations support the «dual structure model» formed by Hanihara (1991) for explaining the population history of Japan.

http://www.dienekes.com/blog/archives/000448.html

Razmig
Monday, December 22nd, 2003, 12:59 AM
I would say theres high posibility in the Mongoloids being derrivitive of the Caucasian, seeing as how they are more developed than some caucasoids who have longer limbs like monkeys, heh.

Euclides
Tuesday, December 30th, 2003, 05:45 AM
I would say theres high posibility in the Mongoloids being derrivitive of the Caucasian, seeing as how they are more developed than some caucasoids who have longer limbs like monkeys, heh.


Molecular genetic analysis of remains of a 2,000-year-old human population in China-and its relevance for the origin of the modern Japanese population.

Oota H, Saitou N, Matsushita T, Ueda S.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

We extracted DNA from the human remains excavated from the Yixi site ( approximately 2,000 years before the present) in the Shandong peninsula of China and, through PCR amplification, determined nucleotide sequences of their mitochondrial D-loop regions. Nucleotide diversity of the ancient Yixi people was similar to those of modern populations. Modern humans in Asia and the circum-Pacific region are divided into six radiation groups, on the basis of the phylogenetic network constructed by means of 414 mtDNA types from 1, 298 individuals. We compared the ancient Yixi people with the modern Asian and the circum-Pacific populations, using two indices: frequency distribution of the radiation groups and genetic distances among populations. Both revealed that the closest genetic relatedness is between the ancient Yixi people and the modern Taiwan Han Chinese. The Yixi people show closer genetic affinity with Mongolians, mainland Japanese, and Koreans than with Ainu and Ryukyu Japanese and less genetic resemblance with Jomon people and Yayoi people, their predecessors and contemporaries, respectively, in ancient Japan.

Aiko
Wednesday, March 17th, 2004, 03:24 AM
Satoshi Horai, a scholar, argues that modern Japanese are a mix of about 35 percent Jomon and 65 percent Yayoi. That would mean that Japanese are descended mostly from Chinese and Koreans but also have an important Jomon component. Modern Japanese have 26% Chinese blood, 24% Korean blood, 21% Polynesian blood, 16% Okinawan blood, 8% Ainu blood and 5% ancient Japanese blood.

cosmocreator
Wednesday, March 17th, 2004, 05:53 AM
Modern Japanese have 26% Chinese blood, 24% Korean blood, 21% Polynesian blood, 16% Okinawan blood, 8% Ainu blood and 5% ancient Japanese blood.


What do you mean by ancient Japanese?

Dr. Solar Wolff
Wednesday, March 17th, 2004, 07:30 AM
Years ago a girl of Japanese ancestry in a college class said her grandmother had grey eyes and, therefore, was suspected of having Ainu ancestry. Apparently the Ainu had lighter eyes than latter Japanese.

morfrain_encilgar
Wednesday, March 17th, 2004, 10:25 AM
The Yixi people show closer genetic affinity with Mongolians, mainland Japanese, and Koreans than with Ainu and Ryukyu Japanese and less genetic resemblance with Jomon people and Yayoi people, their predecessors and contemporaries, respectively, in ancient Japan.

Can you show me what a Ryukyuan loks like?

Euclides
Wednesday, March 17th, 2004, 01:50 PM
Can you show me what a Ryukyuan loks like?


The Ryukyan people resemble the Japanese closely





--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Yukio Dodo1, Naomi Doi2, and Osamu Kondo3


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai
2 Department of Anatomy, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa
3 Department of Biological Sciences (Anthropology), University of Tokyo, Tokyo



Abstract Following the method of Yamaguchi (1973), a series of facial flatness measurements were taken from crania from the islands of Amami, Okinawa and Sakishima of the Ryukyu Islands. These measurements were compared with each other and with measurements of cranial series from other Japanese Islands, insular and continental Northeast Asia and Europe. Among the three Ryukyuan samples, the facial skeletons of Sakishima are least flattened. Nevertheless, the Ryukyuans as a whole show far flatter faces than Ainu. The extent of Ryukyuan facial flatness is comparable to that of the so-called gNorthern Mongoloidh. In addition to the previous cranial nonmetric study (Dodo and others, 1998), the present study of facial flatness also does not give any indication of a close affinity between the Ainu and Ryukyuans.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Yukio Dodo1, Naomi Doi2, and Osamu Kond3

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai
2 Department of Anatomy, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa
2 Department of Biological Sciences (Anthropology), Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo



Abstract Eighteen cranial measurements including 6 flatness measurements of the facial skeleton were taken for crania from the Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands, which constitute the Ryukyu Islands. The data will be useful for future multivariate statstical analyses of Ryukyuan crania.


source : The Anthropological Society of Nippon

Euclides
Wednesday, March 17th, 2004, 02:00 PM
The Ryukyuan I posted looks very Jomon Type.

compair with the Yayoi type what is most common in western Japan

Pic 1 - Ryukyan man
Pic 2 - Jomon Type
Pic 3 -Yayoi Type

Euclides
Wednesday, March 17th, 2004, 02:15 PM
..........................

Euclides
Wednesday, March 17th, 2004, 02:19 PM
--------------------------

Euclides
Wednesday, March 17th, 2004, 03:35 PM
Years ago a girl of Japanese ancestry in a college class said her grandmother had grey eyes and, therefore, was suspected of having Ainu ancestry. Apparently the Ainu had lighter eyes than latter Japanese.


This Jomon I posted was represented with grey ( green ) eyes.

Razmig
Thursday, March 18th, 2004, 05:04 AM
Years ago a girl of Japanese ancestry in a college class said her grandmother had grey eyes and, therefore, was suspected of having Ainu ancestry. Apparently the Ainu had lighter eyes than latter Japanese.
grey eyes also finds itself common amongst people in yakutsk regions, and alaska...

Aiko
Thursday, March 18th, 2004, 04:30 PM
What do you mean by ancient Japanese?Aduma-hito and Yamato.

Agrippa
Thursday, March 18th, 2004, 04:57 PM
Aduma-hito and Yamato.

How can you distinguish the other groups from Yamato? I think the population in the Yamato periode was already mixed.

And what should that be ancient blood? Related more to the Ainu, Polynesians or to what group? If its something on its own (never heard about it) how might it be related?

Euclides
Thursday, March 18th, 2004, 10:01 PM
A face made in computer showing an hybrid Jomon - Yayoi type, looking typical japanese.

Razmig
Friday, March 19th, 2004, 08:10 AM
A face made in computer showing an hybrid Jomon - Yayoi type, looking typical japanese.
looks more like a nagasaki jap to me...

Loki
Saturday, March 20th, 2004, 11:35 PM
Modern Japanese have 26% Chinese blood, 24% Korean blood, 21% Polynesian blood, 16% Okinawan blood, 8% Ainu blood and 5% ancient Japanese blood.

It is this Polynesian blood that makes Japanese in general darker skinned than some mainland Chinese?

Aiko
Saturday, March 20th, 2004, 11:37 PM
How can you distinguish the other groups from Yamato? I think the population in the Yamato periode was already mixed.

And what should that be ancient blood? Related more to the Ainu, Polynesians or to what group? If its something on its own (never heard about it) how might it be related?Aduma-hito were the original people of Northeastern Japan. They were annected at the end of the 12th century by Yamato. They are North Mongolian and still speak with a different dialect. Their original language is not known.

old aryan
Sunday, March 21st, 2004, 12:16 AM
Aduma-hito were the original people of Northeastern Japan. They were annected at the end of the 12th century by Yamato. They are North Mongolian and still speak with a different dialect. Their original language is not known.
I am curious, though (maybe you have already addressed this, but I will ask anyway) do you see the Ainu as Caucasoid?

Aiko
Sunday, March 21st, 2004, 11:48 PM
I am curious, though (maybe you have already addressed this, but I will ask anyway) do you see the Ainu as Caucasoid?
Analysis of HLA genes and haplotypes from Hokkaido shows that they descent from Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia. They are not Caucasian, exactly, though they have some Caucasian features.

Euclides
Friday, March 26th, 2004, 01:32 PM
Aduma-hito were the original people of Northeastern Japan. They were annected at the end of the 12th century by Yamato. They are North Mongolian and still speak with a different dialect. Their original language is not known.

Pre-Rice Culture Era:

The Ainu People

In the Hokkaido islands and the northernmost part of Honshuu, there were the Ainu people. Biological study suggests that the Ainu people are closer to the people who form European nations. Linguistically, the Ainu language has similar syntax structure to Japanese, but differs in the use of pronouns used as verbal prefixes. Some linguists consider the Ainu language as a distant family of the Finno-Ugric subgroup of Ural-Altaic language group. Some archeological findings and anthropological studies suggest that the Ainu people are probably a branch of a group of people who originally came from the North Ural mountains, and spread from Finland to Northeast Siberia between 700 BC to 700 AD. This is from the cultural & religious similarity found in old ruins, but culture can be transfered by contact of people, so the origin of Ainu people is still not known for sure.


Aduma-hito, People of the Northeast region of Japan

There still remains a sharp distinction of people, culture, language (dialect) northeast and southwest of a line accross the Honshuu, the Japanese main land. The line is almost identical to the Southwest borders of Niigata, Nagano, and Aichi prefectures now. Northeast of this line, there lived people who probably called themselves Emchu, Enju, or Enzo as a word for man (human being). Probably this word was transformed to Emisi or Ezo in the Japanese language, which later just meant 'northern strangers', so the same word is used to name Hokkaido and the Ainu people a thousand years later. From this word "Ezo", some people wonder if the Ainu people lived in half of Honshuu before, but this wasn't the case. These people had a culture with beautiful earthen vessels, which normally are called "Joomon-style vessels". Joomon-style vessels were made in the Southern part of Japan, too, but the center of this culture was more in the north, and later, when the southern people started to use a more advanced style of vessels, these people continued to use Joomon vessels. Here we can see the continuity of the people to a later time.

Most of what are now the Hokuriku, Chuubu, and Kantoo regions were under the Yamato people's control until the late 6th century. Natives of the seized land were then called 'tori-no saezuru Aduma-hito' or "Bird-song Easterners", who spoke Old Japanese with strange accents. (/Adzuma/ in modern Japanese means "East", as does the word /higashi/, but East as direction in Old Japanese was /himugashi/ "the wind to the sun", /Aduma/ was used to refer to the region). Many males of the Aduma region were sent to Kyuushuu as a guard force.

From the 10th century, the Yamato people tried to seize the Northern part of Honshuu, Michinoku, but here the native people, then called Ezo, maintained their autonomy until the end of the 12th century.

The origin of these people (for prehistory they are called Joomon- jin) is not well known. They seem to be a Northern branch of the 'Mongolian' race, and their language is more consonant oriented than the languages of their Southern neighbors. But the language they spoke before contact with the Yamato people is not known. Someone has suggested that Mt.Fuji meant "Fire Mountain" in their language, but we don't have any evidence.

People of the Southwest Coastal Region

The rest of Japan, before the wet rice culture, was populated by people who probably came from the South by sea. Some cultural characteristics of the Japanese are thought to be from these groups of people. Males had tattoos on their faces, and there was a widespread custom of removing the canine teeth. Women's teeth were dyed black when they married. Marriage and families followed maternal lines, the husbands visiting their wives. The young members of the society were organized into groups of same generations, etc.

Their language, though we don't know what syntax structure it had, must have had the open vowel syllables which remain in the Japanese language today. Modern Japanese still conserve many of the words for body parts from this time.

As a conclusion, these people probably belong to the Malay-Indonesia- Polynesia group, and their closest relations are now found on some islands in Polynesia and Micronesia. I'm interested, but I don't know where these people originated, or how they spread over the Pacific Ocean.


Rice Culture, Shock Wave from Korea : (The Yayoi)

The fact that rice culture didn't came directly to Japan, but it was buffered in Korean peninsula, is an important thing. The rice as southern culture didn't came alone, but it was imported to Japan with many factors of Northern Tungusic cultures together. This mixing of North and South occurred in southern Korea just before it started to move to Japan.

Northern factors: They had a paternal family system. (ul, kara in Korean, udi, kara in Japanese), "5" as a religious number, a three- layered idea of the universe: Heaven(ama)-Middle(nakatu)-Earth(ne), the belief that gods descended from Heaven to a mountain, etc. These factors are common to Tungusic culture and Japanese Shintoism. Many linguistical characteristics of Japanese, common to most of Altaic language groups, are of course among those we count as Northern factors.


Yamato:

Yamato is the name of a place where the people settled who later seized all of Japan. When these people came to the Yamato region (in Nara prefecture), is not yet known clearly, but their orally inherited myths talk about the war when they came east to settle in Yamato. I think these people were the last wave from the Korean peninsula, who organized politically and started to conquer people who had wet rice culture from former waves.

http://users.tmok.com/~tumble/jpp/japor.html

Euclides
Tuesday, March 30th, 2004, 05:39 PM
''Ht6, a derivative of Ht5 found only in Japan, Taiwan,
Cambodia, and Africa (Pygmy, Bantu, and Khoisan), has an
intriguing geographic distribution, reminiscent of YAP, a Y
chromosome Alu insertion believed to have originated in Asia
and returned to Africa (22). The limited Asian distribution of
Ht6 may reflect the settlement of aboriginal Jomon in Japan
from Southeast Asia''

http://www.forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=9390

Euclides
Thursday, April 22nd, 2004, 07:50 PM
Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages
Atsushi Tajima1, Masanori Hayami2, Katsushi Tokunaga3, Takeo Juji4, Masafumi Matsuo5, Sangkot Marzuki6, Keiichi Omoto7 and Satoshi Horai1

(1) Department of Biosystems Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193, Japan
(2) Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
(3) Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
(4) Japanese Red Cross Central Blood Center, Tokyo, Japan
(5) Division of Pediatrics, Department of Development and Aging, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
(6) Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jakarta, Indonesia
(7) St. Andrews University, Osaka, Japan

Received: 10 November 2003 Accepted: 13 January 2004 Published online: 2 March 2004

Abstract The Ainu, a minority ethnic group from the northernmost island of Japan, was investigated for DNA polymorphisms both from maternal (mitochondrial DNA) and paternal (Y chromosome) lineages extensively. Other Asian populations inhabiting North, East, and Southeast Asia were also examined for detailed phylogeographic analyses at the mtDNA sequence type as well as Y-haplogroup levels. The maternal and paternal gene pools of the Ainu contained 25 mtDNA sequence types and three Y-haplogroups, respectively. Eleven of the 25 mtDNA sequence types were unique to the Ainu and accounted for over 50% of the population, whereas 14 were widely distributed among other Asian populations. Of the 14 shared types, the most frequently shared type was found in common among the Ainu, Nivkhi in northern Sakhalin, and Koryaks in the Kamchatka Peninsula. Moreover, analysis of genetic distances calculated from the mtDNA data revealed that the Ainu seemed to be related to both the Nivkhi and other Japanese populations (such as mainland Japanese and Okinawans) at the population level. On the paternal side, the vast majority (87.5%) of the Ainu exhibited the Asian-specific YAP+ lineages (Y-haplogroups D-M55* and D-M125), which were distributed only in the Japanese Archipelago in this analysis. On the other hand, the Ainu exhibited no other Y-haplogroups (C-M8, O-M175*, and O-M122*) common in mainland Japanese and Okinawans. It is noteworthy that the rest of the Ainu gene pool was occupied by the paternal lineage (Y-haplogroup C-M217*) from North Asia including Sakhalin. Thus, the present findings suggest that the Ainu retain a certain degree of their own genetic uniqueness, while having higher genetic affinities with other regional populations in Japan and the Nivkhi among Asian populations

--------------------------------------------------------------


Discussion
The present comparison of 1,154 mtDNA sequences from 16 Asian populations clarifies maternal genetic uniqueness of the Ainu because of the presence of 11 mtDNA sequence types (types 5, 7, 9–13, 20, 21, 24, and 25) that are specific to this ethnic group. These unique sequence types account for about half of the maternal gene pool of the Ainu, suggesting a certain degree of their genetic isolation from the surrounding human populations. Because the 11 sequence types have one polymorphism at position 16223 (16223T) in common, they are likely to be included in Eurasian super-haplogroup M at the mtDNA haplogroup level (Kivisild et al. 2002; Yao et al. 2002). It should be noted that complete mtDNA sequences of the unique lineages are needed to understand further their phylogenetic affiliations in mtDNA phylogeny.

On the other hand, the shared mtDNA types 3, 4, 15, 22, and 23 in the Ainu imply genetic contacts between the Ainu and North Asian populations. In particular, the Ainu seem to have higher genetic affinity with the Nivkhi in Sakhalin among the North Asian populations studied, as shown in Fig. 3. Analysis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and haplotypes (Tokunaga et al. 2001) has also revealed the genetic link between the Ainu and Nivkhi, both of which are geographically neighboring ethnic groups. The shared sequence types (types 3 and 4) between these two populations possess a unique combination of five transitional mutations (16126C-16189C-16231C-16266T-16519C), which is regarded as the motif sequence for mtDNA haplogroup Y1 (Kivisild et al. 2002). Recent studies have shown that this haplogroup is mostly distributed in North Asian and native Siberian populations (Schurr et al. 1999; Kivisild et al. 2002). Because of higher frequencies of the shared mtDNA types in the Nivkhi than the Ainu (Table 1), this sharing is plausibly attributed to gene flow from the Nivkhi to the Ainu.

In view of the shared mtDNA types, furthermore, we also detect possible involvement of other East Asians including other regional Japanese (types 1, 2, 6, 8, 14, 16, and 19) and Southeast Asians (type 18) in the formation of the Ainu gene pool. This must be partly due to the sharing of genetic history (such as common ancestry and genetic interactions between populations), although it is not easy to determine what is the major cause of such genetic involvement. In any case, North, East, and Southeast Asian populations may have separately contributed to the maternal gene pool of the Ainu, suggesting maternal multiple origins of the Ainu.

On the paternal side, we observe no Y-haplogroups specific to the Ainu, but predominant distribution of Asian-specific YAP+ lineages (Y-haplogroups D-M55* and D-M125) among the Ainu males. The Asian-specific YAP+ lineages (Y-haplogroup D) are infrequently distributed throughout Asia except for Japan, Tibet (Underhill et al. 2000), and the Andaman islands of the Indian Ocean (Thangaraj et al. 2003). Therefore, this unusual distribution is one of the major paternal genetic characteristics of the Ainu. Moreover, the Ainu and other regional Japanese populations possess these paternal lineages (D-M55* and D-M125) in common. These paternal lineages (Y-haplogroup D) are considered to have contributed to the formation of the Neolithic Jomon males or their ancestral groups in prehistoric Japan (Hammer and Horai 1995; Tajima et al. 2002), although the migration route of the YAP+ lineages into Asia is still puzzling (Jin and Su 2000; Underhill et al. 2001). Thus, all the modern Japanese populations including the Ainu may genetically share varying degrees of the Jomon (or pre-Jomon) ancestry.

On the other hand, the present study reveals paternal genetic differences between the Ainu and other Japanese, because three Y-haplogroups (C-M8, O-M175*, and O-M122*) common to the three Japanese populations are absent in the Ainu. This observation reflects the unique paternal genetic background of the Ainu and/or their independent genetic history. Notably, Y-haplogroup O-M122* (belonging to haplotype lineages defined by M9-G allele) is thought to be the genetic trace of recent range expansions from China (Su et al. 2000; Underhill et al. 2001). Thus, the lack of O-M122* in the Ainu implies that subsequent dispersals of this haplogroup were overlaid on earlier paternal lineages (such as Y-haplogroup D) in the Japanese Archipelago. This agrees with the view that the Ainu are considered to be the modern descendants of the aboriginal people of the Neolithic Jomon Age.

It is also important to note that the Nivkhi exhibit no Asian-specific YAP+ lineages (Y-haplogroup D) that are frequent in the Ainu males (87.5% of the population), whereas one Y-haplogroup (C-M217*) is shared by the two ethnic groups. Taking into consideration the northern distribution of C-M217* in Asia (Karafet et al. 2001), these findings suggest no apparent paternal gene flow from the Ainu to the Nivkhi. This is compatible with the above-mentioned maternal view that the genetic communication between these two populations may have been unidirectional to the Ainu. One explanation is that human migrations to northern Japan including Hokkaido from North Asia throughout prehistoric and historic times (Omoto and Saitou 1997; and references therein) might have brought the northern genetic elements into the Ainu.

In conclusion, the present combined phylogeographic analyses both for mtDNA sequence types and Y-haplogroups provide new insights into the genetic backgrounds of the Ainu. Unique maternal and paternal genetic features of the Ainu clearly represent their own genetic characteristics, although the Ainu have some degree of genetic affinity with the geographically neighboring populations: other regional populations in Japan and the Nivkhi in Sakhalin. Thus, this study elucidates the maternal and paternal genetic compositions of the Ainu, whereas it is still uncertain when the respective genetic lineages were brought into the Ainu. Further genetic studies for dating mtDNA- and Y-haplogroups in Asia should be necessary to infer their temporal origins. These extensive analyses will also help us to have a firm grasp of the genetic relationship between the Neolithic Jomon people and the contemporary Ainu.

Euclides
Thursday, April 13th, 2006, 01:57 PM
'' The results also support the hypothesis of a Central Asian origin of Jomonese ancestors, and a Southeast Asian origin of the ancestors of the Yayoi, contra previous models based on morphological and genetic evidence.''


-----------------------------------------------------------


J Hum Genet. 2006;51(1):47-58. Epub 2005 Nov 18.

Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes.

Hammer MF, Karafet TM, Park H, Omoto K, Harihara S, Stoneking M, Horai S.

Division of Biotechnology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. mfh@u.arizona.edu

Historic Japanese culture evolved from at least two distinct migrations that originated on the Asian continent. Hunter-gatherers arrived before land bridges were submerged after the last glacial maximum (>12,000 years ago) and gave rise to the Jomon culture, and the Yayoi migration brought wet rice agriculture from Korea beginning approximately 2,300 years ago. A set of 81 Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to trace the origins of Paleolithic and Neolithic components of the Japanese paternal gene pool, and to determine the relative contribution of Jomon and Yayoi Y chromosome lineages to modern Japanese. Our global sample consisted of >2,500 males from 39 Asian populations, including six populations sampled from across the Japanese archipelago. Japanese populations were characterized by the presence of two major (D and O) and two minor (C and N) clades of Y chromosomes, each with several sub-lineages. Haplogroup D chromosomes were present at 34.7% and were distributed in a U-shaped pattern with the highest frequency in the northern Ainu and southern Ryukyuans. In contrast, haplogroup O lineages (51.8%) were distributed in an inverted U-shaped pattern with a maximum frequency on Kyushu. Coalescent analyses of Y chromosome short tandem repeat diversity indicated that haplogroups D and C began their expansions in Japan approximately 20,000 and approximately 12,000 years ago, respectively, while haplogroup O-47z began its expansion only approximately 4,000 years ago. We infer that these patterns result from separate and distinct genetic contributions from both the Jomon and the Yayoi cultures to modern Japanese, with varying levels of admixture between these two populations across the archipelago. The results also support the hypothesis of a Central Asian origin of Jomonese ancestors, and a Southeast Asian origin of the ancestors of the Yayoi, contra previous models based on morphological and genetic evidence.

Digitalseal
Friday, April 14th, 2006, 01:01 AM
All that Modern genetic research made on the Ainu people that i have seen showed no Caucasoid ancestry and their closest relatives where the other Japanese groups.

celticviking
Tuesday, August 16th, 2011, 01:03 AM
In the late 20th century, speculation arose that people of the group related to the Jōmon may have been one of the first to settle North America. This theory is based largely on skeletal and cultural evidence among tribes living in the western part of North America and certain parts of South America.

It is possible that North America had several peoples among its early settlers—these relatives of the Jōmon being one of them. The best known evidence that may support this theory is probably Kennewick Man

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ainu_people


The term jōmon means "cord-patterned" in Japanese. This refers to the pottery style characteristic of the Jōmon culture, and which has markings made using sticks with cords wrapped around them. Recent Y-DNA haplotype testing has found that the Jōmon are the genetic ancestors of the Ainu and partly of modern Japanese people
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C5%8Dmon



Kennewick Man

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_507mpMuxPpU/TU8UujzdbkI/AAAAAAAABLw/ymFdHw3FphI/s320/kennewickman.jpg

Kennewick Man - Were Whites in North America B.C.?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bhr8TaMmE90