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Agrippa
Tuesday, July 4th, 2006, 03:55 PM
A map, unfortunely just with German terms, which shows the different climatic zones on which I added the more important racial types in their centres or basic, original areas of distribution:

http://img193.imageshack.us/img193/1382/klimata4fc.th.jpg (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fimg193.i mageshack.us%2Fmy.php%3Fimage%3Dklimata4 fc.jpg)

Compare with the racially progressive tendencies in Homo sapiens:
On "Progressiveness" - Active and Passive Adaptation
(http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=44767)
Map:


I tried to point to some of the spots and main racial types of progressive development in this map:

http://img391.imageshack.us/img391/1045/proradist0uz.th.jpg (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fimg391.i mageshack.us%2Fmy.php%3Fimage%3Dproradis t0uz.jpg)


Plates and maps of the mentioned racial types:
Pictures of the Human Races of the World and Useful Maps (http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=36081)

Basic racial typology for Europe in detail:
What Does a Basic Racial Typology Describe in Europe? (http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=43330)


Specialisations-trends which go more beyond climatic adaptation in Europe:

Dinarisation:
The Habitat for Dinarisation (http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=44114)

Dinarisation and Alpinisation compared with growth and maturation patterns:
Importance of Height in Sub-racial Type? (http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=48678)

Alpinisation:
Difference between Cromagnid and Alpinid (http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=58376)
Anthropology of Brittany (http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=59864)
Where Does the Alpinid Subrace Come From? (http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=58375)

Baltisation:
Racial Types of Finno-Ugrians, Baltisation and Eastbaltids (http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=55890)
Difference between Baltid/East Baltid/West Baltid? (http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=54765)

Impact of the Little Ice Age which changed the climatic scenery of Europe:
Impact of The Little Ice Age in Europe (http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=44948)

Agrippa
Tuesday, July 11th, 2006, 04:21 PM
Could you reasume here (in short) the typical "habitat/climatic condition", for the principal European subtypes, please ?[/quote]

They are not just specialisations for a climatic zone but for a certain nutrition, socio-economic/subsistence pattern, general way of life etc. too. However, in general one could say just compare with this map:
http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=60131


Nordid

CromagnidCool temperate climate zone with Cromagnids being better adapted for the colder areas inside of that zone, so already more continental climate adapted, whereas Nordids being better suited for the Oceanic and transitional climate areas.


DinaridMore for the mountainous climate and otherwise same as Nordid-Cromagnid but already transitional to the Mediterranean, warm-temperate zone of the Mediterranoid spectrum.


AtlantomedThey being simply the "de luxe edition" of the Mediterranid, being more versatile, needing more energy, better in the group selection, more often in the social elite and in every way closer to the Nordid.

Fitting into the Oceanic and Mediterranean climate. Its typical that this form is more common under Mediterraneans in the Oceanic climate, because he is better cold resistant simply because of larger size and being usually lighter pigmented (though that must not be a rule for every local variant which still falls into the Atlantomediterranid category).

The reason I write so long about this type is mainly because if speaking about him, its impossible to just argue with climatic zones only since they sit on some islands because they migrated there and/or conditions being favourable, individuals can be even found beyond Europes borders, whereas in some Oceanic areas Mediterranid-Alpinid being already more dominant, mostly for other reasons than climate though.


AlpinidSame as Dinarid but being less adapted for the mountainous, better for more protected areas of retreat, mountainous or not, in which deficiency and sedentary farmer cultures (or before that gatherers) dominate.


GracilmedVersatile form for the warm-temperate climate, relatively heat and UV-resistant, can deal with colder weathers too, but not as good with a really cold climate (low average temperature).


Baltid Like Atlantomediterranid is in a certain way the "de luxe edition" of Mediterranids, Northern Cromagnids having the same "de luxe" status in comparison to Baltids, which being in comparison a saving variant. Cromagnids can stand cold too and having a higher performance, but they need more energy and being still not as adapted as Baltids. So under sedentary farmers with a lower energetic base and the absense of positive selection, Baltisation must have taken place one could argue for making the Cromagnoid base cold resistant in the situation of deficiency, similar to Alpinids, but for Alpinids the cold resistance was not as crucial as in Baltids.

So one could argue: Baltid zone with or without good nutrition and positive selection? With good nutrition and positive selection, most of what is now more Baltised would be more clearly dominated by Nordoid-Cromagnid namely the continental climatic zone of Eastern Europe which is still not that Baltised anyway, if, more in the areas in which a poor peasantry had to survive for many hundreds of years already.

However, their primary habitat is the continental Boreal-climate zone, for which one could argue again: With good nutrition and positive selection or not? Because with they would most likely dominate all of it, without they would have to share it with more Borealised forms like Eastbaltids, for them the same is true and the next step is Lappid and Westsibirid.

They are a whole spectrum with the more favourable areas being Baltid territory primarily, the worst Lappoid, Westsibirid being outside of the European spectrum though as or even more extreme.

In general all favourable coastal, fluvial and low areas being primarily Nordid-Mediterranid territory.

Agrippa
Wednesday, January 16th, 2008, 09:28 PM
Basic Climatic Rules


Bergmann's rule: body height

Within a warm-blooded species, the races in the colder zones are usually bigger than those in warmer zones. There's a negative correlation between the average weight of a population and the average annual temperature of its living space; the higher the average annual temperature, the lower the average weight.

The Indianids show a gradation of measures (height; head size) from the two cold zones up to the equatorial zone. Interpretation of this result of selection:

Heat emission of the body is proportional to the surface, but heat production proportional to the volume of bodies. At bigger bodies the surface is in relation to the volume smaller.

In colder climates the genetically bigger variants of a warm-blooded form survive better, as they can resist because of their relatively small surface (in relation to their volume) better against chilling through.


Allen's rule: body extremities

Allen's rule is in close connection to Bergmann's rule. Within a species, at the groups which live in a colder climate the distant body parts have a less share of the total surface than at those in colder climates.

To make the relation between heat emission and production conveniant, those groups who are in colder climates tend to be rather
stocky, while those who are in warmer climates tend to be rather slimm. An indicator is here the leg length, and this seems first as a contradiction to Bergmann's rule, as the leg length is in a relation to the total body length. A reducing of the leg length leads to a minor surface in relation to the volume, but also to a reducing of the heigth.

The explanation is that when a small body is made bigger, but the parts keep the same proportions, the bigger body has less surface in relation to the volume than the smaller one had. But when a small body is made bigger through a lengthening of the legs, the parts of the bigger body show among themselves other proportions, and the surface of the body needn't become smaller in relation to the volume.

So when in contrary to Bergmann's rule,populations are small in cold zones, they have relatively short legs, and when they are high in hot zones, they have relatively long legs (certain Negrid groups!).

Allen's rule can be taken as a rule of proportion, the relation of body length to body mass. Allen's rule could also give an explanstion of the Mongolid facial flatness (which already Kant interpreted in 1775 as an adaption to cold climate):

a) Reduction of facial surface to a minimum through flattening of all projections as much as possible.

b) Padding of the surface with fat to prevent the loss of heat.

c) Narrowing of the nasal passages, to give the air a maximum of heat at the way to the lungs.


Gloger's rule: pigmentation

In wet-warm climates the melanin production is more intensive than in dry-cold ones, and so darker shades appear in those more often than in these. Melanin is produced through the occidation of tyrosin with the influence of ultraviolet rays and vitamin D. A strong pigment accumulation in the skin makes the UV radiation to a great extent inefective and therefor protects the organism from an oversupply of it. In zones o not much UV radiation a sparsely pigmented skin lets give the body enough UV radiation because of it being more pervious for UV radiation.

As compensation of the danger of an overheating of the body,which is intensified because of that, strong pigmented populations like the Negrids have a good thermo-regulation through a higher number of sweat glands per skin surface and a higher intensity of sweat secretion.

The intensity of UV radiation depends of the distance from the equator, sea level, clouds, humidity, air pollution, vegetation and reflexion capability of the ground. It is less intensive at the west coasts of the continents and in the temperate zones. It is more intensive in equator-near, dry zones, high mountain regions and in the arctic.


Thomson-Buxton's rule: nasal breadth

The nasal breadth plays also a role for thermo-regulation: Generally, the nasal index, the relation of nasal breadth to height, gets bigger from dry-cold to wet-warm climates. When the instreaming breath pillar passes a wide channel,it floods better and is less influenced by the warm mucous membranes; when the passage is narrow, the breath volume is devided in smaller streams, the flooding occurs slower, and it absorbes more heat from the surface which it passes.

The nasal index is an indicator of the relation between the size of the nasal mucous membranes to the diameter of the breathing channel. Rather important than the warming is the moistening of the air. Very narrow noses are in dry-cold polar regions, narrow noses in the temperate zones and in dry-hot regions, very broad noses, very broad noses in wet-hot tropical zones.

Based on information from:

- Kenntner, Georg: Rasse aus Erbe und Umwelt. Der Mensch im Spannungsfeld seines Lebensraums, Berlin 1975.
- Schwidetzky, Ilse: Rasse, in: Anthropologie (Fischer-Lexikon 15), ed. by Gerhard Heberer / Ilse Schwidetzky / Hubert Walter, Frankfurt a. M. and Hamburg 1970 (new edition), p. 187-215.


Further explanation of the "Bergmann Rule", from a discussion I had on Stirpes:

I means neither height nor width in general, but means primarily size, mass. So in general mammals in colder regions are just "bigger", usually taller as well. Just in extreme cold, it CAN lead to the form of a ball, simply because of two things: greatest volume with minimum surface and because the extremities are in danger to get frostbites - shorter extremities, rounder body. In mammals in general this depends on other methods of keeping the heat as well, f.e. the ice bear is bigger, but has as long or longer extremities, he just developed another method to keep the heat, only things which stand our are reduced (ears), whereas the arctic fox is generally, if compared with the European one, rounder. In fact fox variants are very good for a general comparison animal - human with a similar tendency with arctic, European and desert fox.

But if looking just at the trunk both Mongolids and Europids have a relatively long-big one, especially those Europids (Cromagnoids) which were more cold adapted, whereas in warmer areas more surface is better to get rid of the heat - and the body form is generally more efficient and attractive as well. A leptomorphic is a very good compromise for both heat and cold, but once a certain grade of cold is reached, things topple over and stronger pyknomorphy is more advantageous (Lappoids, Eastbaltids, Sibirids, Tungids, Eskimids etc.). I wrote about that bill for Mongolids in another thread - finally its always advantages vs. disadvantages, cost - benefit calculation in a natural evaluation. Before the cold is too extreme, extremities stay longer in mobile and active, unreduced groups, as long as possible. But in extreme cold the way of the blood and the ability to keep the heat with less calories (calories are being lost faster even with the roundest body in the cold anyway) are more important than longer extremities.

But in general, overall size, especially of the trunk and weight increases if going into colder areas - as do the calories - because to keep the heat more calories are needed. In fact thats the only way more leptomorphic-efficient types can survive in cold before modern techniques occured and better protection was available. If two people are doing nothing, the one which has a "rounder physique" will survive the one with a more longilinear one in the cold - the difference is really significant. Usually such "boreal types" are heavier, interestingly not just heavier than their leptomorphic counterparts, but also than their tropical pyknomorphic cousins which are of a totally different kind of adaptation - good sweating and good, reduced saving variants - only the saving, just more of calories in the tropics and more of the heat in the boreals, they share.


So, again:

Dry heat - leptomorphic body, varying height, long extremities, long thin muscles, weak subcutaneous fat.

Colder - more volume, more robust and more muscles.

Extreme cold - more volume and reduction of extremities, more (especially subcutaneous) fat.