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The Black Prince
Sunday, January 1st, 2006, 11:51 PM
http://img454.imageshack.us/img454/4985/fryskkarte1fy.gif


Development of the Frisian language

Frisian is a West Germanic language which is spoken by about 400,000 people in the province of Friesland in the Netherlands. It is closely related to Dutch but also shows a number of striking similarities to English, especially at the lexical level.

Dutch is, however, the most important language for the development of Frisian. In the course of history the two languages kept coming into contact with each other. This linguistic contact was determined by the power relationship in the Low Countries and has been a great influence in the development of the present language situation in Friesland.

It is difficult to determine the time from when it is meaningful to speak of "a Frisian language", just as it is with Dutch. In about the 8th century the Germanic languages Old Saxon, Old Franconian, Old Frisian etc were still close to each other.

In the 5th century the tribe of the Frisians inhabited the whole North Sea coast from the Rhine to the Elbe, and probably exercised some influence on the languages of the other tribes in that area. Not until the 8th century were the Frisians driven back, and finally subjugated by Charlemagne. After his death the regions he had conquered fell apart again.

During the whole of the Middle Ages Friesland was monolingual and autonomous, under the leadership of frequently changing tribal chiefs. Old Frisian was not only the spoken language but also the official language of government and judicial power. Old Frisian legal documents have survived from the 13th century.

In the course of the 16th century Friesland lost its independence - in 1579 it became part of the Republic of the United Netherlands. The government passed into Dutch hands and standardised Dutch became the language of writing, government, school and church.
Influential Hollanders settled in the Frisian towns - Frisian and Dutch came into contact with each other and what was later to be known as "Stadsfries" ["Town Frisian"] arose.

There are two explanations today for this language variant. On the one hand it is claimed that Town Frisian is the language of the Frisians who tried to adapt themselves to the new Dutch upper echelons (ie they spoke a "Hollandised Frisian"; see Boelens, 1982: 41). On the other hand it is also thought possible that Town Frisian is a further development of 16/17th century Holland dialect, under influence of Frisian (ie it is really a variant of the dialect of Holland province; see Jonkman, 1993).

As a result of the polderisation of the "Middelzee" in the 16th century farmers from Holland province settled on the new land. Here too there was language contact - the Bildt dialect arose.

Until the 19th century Frisian developed further only as a spoken language. It was driven back to the interior and there underwent hardly any influence from Dutch. The language of the upper social levels (in towns) was Dutch, that of the middle classes was Town Frisian, which managed to preserve its relatively high status until the 1950s. Written Frisian hardly existed in this period.

One exception was formed by the 17th century poet Gysbert Japiks who wrote his poems in Frisian. Not until the 19th century, with the rise of romanticism, did anything arise that could be called a Frisian language consciousness - "people's poets" such as Joost Hiddes Halbertsma wrote in Frisian.

However, there was no question of Frisian having a place in government, school and church in the 19th century. In schools the teachers were even advised "Friesch Boers niet te gedogen" ["not to tolerate rustic Frisian"] (De Jong/Riemersma, 1994: 15). Moreover Frisian had still not become standardised - not until 1879 did it get its first official spelling.

The 20th century brought gradual improvements for Frisian. Frisian took over more and more domains. Since 1937 Frisian could also be taught in elementary schools and since 1955 it could also be used as the medium of tuition. Since 1980 it has been a compulsory language in elementary schools, and since 1993 also in secondary education. Since the 1950s Frisian may be used in courts, official documents may be drafted in Frisian and there is also the possibility for bilingual place name signs.
The first bible translation dates from the 1940s.

At the same time, however, Dutch was also invading the old Frisian domains (country community matters and the family), primarily as a result of migration and mixed marriages. The language situation in Friesland changed in this way from a stable diglossia (Frisian for the country and informal domains, Dutch for the town and formal domains) into a sort of informal (and receptive) polylingualism.

Attitudes to Frisian have become ever more positive, and it has become acceptable to use it in more and more domains (radio, newspapers etc) and a growing number of people know Frisian, at least passively.
"Stedsk" in general, and Leeuwarden dialect (a version of Town Frisian) in particular, increasingly lost status. The Leeuwarden dialect became a sociolect that is now only spoken by the lower classes (see Jonkman, 1993).In recent years, however, there have been "action" to encourage people to use their "Leeuwarders" dialect.

In principle Dutch is naturally still the dominant language in Friesland, and Frisian is therefore strongly influenced by it, particularly at the lexical level. More and more people say, for example, sleutel ["key"] rather than kaai, and saterdei ["Saturday"] instead of sneon.
On the other hand, the influences of Frisian on Standard Dutch are meagre - the only words to have found entry into Dutch are those from sport terminology such as skûtsjesilen (competitive sailing with old sailing boats) and klunen (skating overland).


Frisian in Friesland (NL)

The province of Friesland is now multilingual. Alongside the national language (Dutch) and the regional language (Frisian) a number of dialects are also spoken, viz the dialects of Stellingwerf (a Saxon dialect), the area of Het Bildt (in the north west) and Town Frisian or Stedsk in the towns.

Frisian today, as can be seen from the studie van Gorter en Jonkman (1994), is the first language of 54.8% of the inhabitants of the province, and about 94% have a passive knowledge of the language.

First language:

Standard Frisian = 54,8 %
Standard Dutch = 28,0 %
Frisian dialect = 10,7 %
Dutch dialect = 4,5 %
other language = 2,0 %

Mastery of Frisian:

understanding = 94,3 %
speaking = 74,0 %
reading = 64,5 %
writing = 17,0 %

(Gorter/Jonkman, 1994)


Description of Frisian


Group:

Germanic (with Gothic, German, Swedish etc.), West Germanic (with Dutch, English etc.)

Geography:

Spoken today in the Dutch state of Friesland, also on the Frisian islands in Germany and the Netherlands. Formerly was spread wider in Lowlands and even on the Jutland peninsula.

Phonetics:

Frisian is especially rich in vowels and diphthongs: at all there are about 25 diphthongs and 6 triphthongs in the language. Diphthongs, as well as single vowels, vary in the root ablaut mutation (doar [do:ar] 'door' - doarren [dwaren] 'doors'). Together with Afrikaans Frisian is unique among Germanic languages for its nasal vowels. The sound [r] looks more like English, unlike Dutch and German - it is alveolar, not uvular. Unvoiced p, t, k are aspirated before a stressed vowel.

Nominal Morphology:

Frisian morphology is considerably richer than that of its closest relative English. The noun here has two genders, two numbers and two cases. Old Frisian had also the feminine gender, but later it coincided with masculine. The plural is formed by -s and -en endings (heit 'father' - heiten). Old Frisian kept the remains of four cases, while today's language preserved only genitive. Moreover, genitive as well is used less and less frequently, replaced by complex constructions (mem har stoel 'mother's chair'). There are definite (de, it) and indefinite (in) articles.

Verbal Morphology:

Formerly conjugated, the Frisian verb now has personal changes in the singular only. The tenses are common with similar Germanic languages, including English. All other verbal categories are also formed in an analytical way.

Lexicon:

The Dutch language is much more suitable for expressing complex social and cultural terms, and this is why there are plenty of Dutch words in Frisian. The whole population of Friesland can speak both languages.

Writing:

Latin alphabet

Close Contacts:

The closest Germanic language is English, more distant ones are Dutch and Afrikaans.


Sample

Us heit, dy't yn de himelen binne; jins namme wurde hillige. Jins keninkryk komme. Jins wollen barre allyk yn 'e himel, sa ek op ierde. Jow ús hjoed ús deistich brea. En forjow ús ús skulden, allyk ek wy forjowe ús skuldners. En lied ús net yn forsiking, mar forlos ús fan 'e kweade, Hwant Jowes is it keninkryk en de krêft en de hearlikheit oant yn ivichheit.., Amen.

Our Father who art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever.., Amen. (Modern West Frisian/Geef-Frysk)

Old Frisian sample:

In contrast to Dutch where the Old Dutch period ends in the 12th century, in the case of Frisian we speak of Old Frisian until about 1550. The Frisian language of the 13th and 14th century shows certain features which correspond to the oldest linguistic forms of the other West Germanic languages, for example unreduced vowels in unstressed syllables. This can be clearly seen in the following passage from the Hungsingoër tekst from 1252 (taken from De Friese taal, 1995: 3):

Thet thredde bod: fira thene sunnandei en there helche degan. (Fr)

Het derde gebod: gij zult de zondag vieren en de heilige dagen. (NL)

The third commandment: honour Sunday and the holy days. (En)


Sources

http://indoeuro.bizland.com/tree/germ/frisian.html

Bronnen (http://www.ned.univie.ac.at/publicaties/taalgeschiedenis/bibliographie.htm#gorter)

Aragorn
Monday, December 10th, 2007, 07:57 PM
Map of area where today still the Frisian language is been spoken.

http://forums.skadi.net/attachment.php?attachmentid=98033&d=1197316602

Ingvaeonic
Thursday, May 19th, 2011, 07:23 AM
The three varieties of the Frisian language or languages are, according to the relevant Wikipedia article, as follows:

1. North Frisian 2. West Frisian 3. Saterland Frisian.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frisian_languages

Now my question to Frisians is this:

Are the three varieties of Frisian simply dialects of the same language or separate Frisian languages?

Now according to Wikipedia again, these three forms of Frisian are not mutually intelligble, which is surprising, so do Frisians see themselves as speaking different Frisian languages, wherever Frisian is spoken in or across the Netherlands, Germany, or Denmark?

Nothing like the views of native speakers, so you tell me, troops.:)

Sybren
Thursday, May 19th, 2011, 11:54 AM
I am and speak West-Frisian.

I believe the 3 Frisian languages are indeed that: separate languages. Here in West-Frisia we have different dialects, i think they also have that in the other 2 Frisian regions.

Yes, i definitely see North- and East-(Saterland)Frisian as different Frisian languages than West-Frisian. I have heard them in the past and couldn't understand any of it, even though the sounds were very recognisable for me.

To check this, i searched for some movies of the languages:

North-Frisian (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MRXoCixqyk8)

I can not understand any of this, but now and then i hear distinct sounds that are also used in West-Frisian. This language sounds to me like a mixture of Danish, German, Dutch and Frisian. I guess Ocko here understands this(?).

East-(Saterland)Frisian (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Q4ez4A9TSQ)

I understand this partly! This also sounds somewhat like what they speak in northeast Holland (Groningen) i guess. Again much German influence i think. I think West- and East-Frisian are more alike than West and North.

For comparison:

West-Frisian (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqjPHOCK5Ec&feature=related)


By the way, it is VERY frustrating to hear a language that seems quite similar to your own at first hearing, but still you can not understand it :P Especially North-Frisian for me.

Ingvaeonic
Thursday, May 19th, 2011, 12:38 PM
I am and speak West-Frisian.

I believe the 3 Frisian languages are indeed that: seperate languages. Here in West-Frisia we have different dialects, i think they also have that in the other 2 Frisian regions.

Yes, i definitely see North- and East-(Saterland)Frisian as different Frisian languages than West-Frisian. I have heard them in the past and couldn't understand any of it, even though the sounds were very recognisable for me.

To check this, i searched for some movies of the languages:

North-Frisian (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MRXoCixqyk8)

I can not understand any of this, but now and then i hear distinct sounds that are also used in West-Frisian. This language sounds to me like a mixture of Danish, German, Dutch and Frisian. I guess Ocko here understands this(?).

East-(Saterland)Frisian (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Q4ez4A9TSQ)

I understand this partly! This also sounds somewhat like what they speak in northeast Holland (Groningen) i guess. Again much German influence i think. I think West- and East-Frisian are more alike than West and North.

For comparison:

West-Frisian (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqjPHOCK5Ec&feature=related)


By the way, it is VERY frustrating to hear a language that seems quite similar to your own at first hearing, but still you can not understand it :P Especially North-Frisian for me.

Thanks for elucidating these differences between the varieties of Frisian and for the links to compare the various examples of Frisian.:thumbup Frisian is an interesting language group among Gemanic languages. And yes, I am sure it is mightily frustrating to hear a language quite similar to one's own and it remaining completely incomprehensible.:(

Ocko
Friday, May 20th, 2011, 01:47 AM
I am from East Friesland. they speak socalled plattdeutsch, which is similar to dutch. Frisian is different, the Saterland Frisian is actual real frisian.


platt-deutsch is the old german language, from before the change to high-german (through the Luther-bible). East-Friesland kept this language because it was protected by peat-bogs to the mainland. People could only cross that barrier on small path-ways which were only known by some local guides.

East-Frisians kept more being seebound and the farmers traded locally.

Ingvaeonic
Friday, May 20th, 2011, 07:01 AM
I am from East Friesland. they speak socalled plattdeutsch, which is similar to dutch. Frisian is different, the Saterland Frisian is actual real frisian.


platt-deutsch is the old german language, from before the change to high-german (through the Luther-bible). East-Friesland kept this language because it was protected by peat-bogs to the mainland. People could only cross that barrier on small path-ways which were only known by some local guides.

East-Frisians kept more being seebound and the farmers traded locally.

Interesting view, Ocko, from the German side of the border. So Saterland Frisian is the real thing. This could be contentious. I'll leave it to Frisians on either side of the Germany-Netherlands border to fight that one out.

Yes, I remember you telling me in my post on Low German, Plattdeutsch/Niederdeutsch, that Plattdeutsch was the usual language among Ostfriesland people, though this is slowly dying out. And I remember you writing that Hochdeutsch-speaking outsiders were charged a "tourist price" for haircuts by the barber in your town, but Plattdeutsch-speaking locals got haircuts at a cheaper local rate. That's the way to do it. Ostfriesland in centuries past being only accessible by paths through peat-bogs accounts for her linguistic isolation. Interesting.

Sybren
Friday, May 20th, 2011, 10:04 AM
Interesting indeed!

So the language in the movie that i posted as an example of Saterland-Frisian is Plattdeutsch? That is why i probably had a hard time finding an example of real Saterland-Frisian and why i thought it resembled Gronings.

Has or knows anybody an audio example of Saterland-Frisian?

Anlef, where are you? :P

Bernhard
Friday, May 20th, 2011, 10:54 AM
I'm not Frisian myself, but here are my thoughts.

The differences between the current Frisian languages/dialects can be ascribed to different cultural, political and historical developments. In times when Germanic life was still built around the ancient tribes the significant ethnocultural groups were Frisians, Franks, Saxons etc. But times changed and the tribes became less important (one might even claim that new 'tribes' were formed centered around new and different political, economical and cultural things of importance), thus resulting in different lines of development for different parts of Frisia. Some became part of the Dutch nation, while others became part of the German nation, increasingly sharing more cultural and linguistical characteristics with said nations. Eventually Frisian linguistical areas even became geographically separated because of the advent of Saxon languages/dialects. Frisian in general is now more of an ancient source which gave life to different linguistic and cultural groups who all still show a sign of common origin despite there current differences. But this common origin has become less important in time and is of a different kind as it once was in tribal times. The same goes for the Franks actually. Standardized Dutch is a franconian language, but the same goes for a large part of the High-German languages/dialects. They share a same origin, but went different ways because of historical developments. Although there is a difference in the sense that Frisians place more importance on this origin and stuck more to it than the Franks for example. Hence the fact that they still all identify as Frisian (which is also due to the fact that the name has not been lost as a geographical term which was the case in most franconian areas), despite the fact that they differ.

Sybren
Friday, May 20th, 2011, 12:20 PM
I have found two other good examples of Nord-Frisian:

So klingt Schleswig-Holstein auf Friesisch (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hDJiHSFvm_o&feature=related)

Nis Albrecht - di üülje - Trailer (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h5dy2hkxbLo&feature=related)

But you have to keep in mind there are several Nord-Frisian dialects.


And finally! I have found a SaterFriesisch example! My previous example of this was wrong, that was Plattdeutsch. Samples of SaterFriesisch are apparantly extremely rare. Here it is:

Ramsloh (http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~naeser/ramsloh2.mp3)

Very, very strange to hear this! It sounds much more like West-Frisian than Nord-Frisian does. I would describe it as sounding like a mix between West-Frisian and German. If a SaterFriesisch speaking person was in the room next to me and the sounds were muffled, i would think he or she was speaking my own language. VERY familiar sound :-O

Ingvaeonic
Tuesday, May 24th, 2011, 08:52 AM
The examples of the various Frisian languages have an interesting cadence and rhythm. The MP3 recording from Marburg University of the talk-back-radio conversation in East/Saterland Frisian does sound like it has German mixed with it, but again the cadence and rhythm sound very similar to North/Schleswig-Holstein and West Frisian examples, even it if the actual words are different. All the Frisian languages with their rolling cadence and consistent rhythm would, in my opinion, lend themselves well to poetry.

Well researched, Sybren, I appreciate your efforts; keep this up and we'll have to put you on the payroll as a researcher.:thumbup

Ocko
Tuesday, May 24th, 2011, 01:42 PM
The language video from U-tube about frisian is actually mostly high german with plattdeutsch pronounciation of high-german. Mixed in are a few soundbites from actual plattdeutsch.

It said East-frisians took over the plattdeutsch through the trading connection with the Hanse (a merchant organisation from medievial times), only in Saterland are real Frisian language islands. The majority lost its frisian language.

After listening to the real Saterland-Frisian (I only understood a word here and there) it seems that the intonation between Frisian and eastfrisian plattdeutsch is similar, also the speak-melody. the rising at the beginning of the talk to the high point and the consequent fall down at the end.

Ingvaeonic
Tuesday, May 24th, 2011, 03:04 PM
Is East/Saterland Frisian in danger of dying out in Niedersachsen/Ostfriesland? If Plattdeutsch is any indication in North Germany, it probably is; East/Saterland Frisian must be an endangered species of a language. East/Saterland Frisian dying out would be another serious cultural loss to Germany, as I said about Platt in my posts on the Plattdeutsch thread: regional Germanic languages such as East/Saterland Frisian and Plattdeutsch dying out would be a very bad and sad development, in my opinion.

Sybren
Tuesday, May 24th, 2011, 03:12 PM
Is East/Saterland Frisian in danger of dying out in Ostfriesland?
You would think so, considering the (small) area is completely surrounded by Plattdeutsch/German speaking people and considering there are only some 2000 people speaking it left.

On the other hand it seems the Saterland Frisians are quite aware of the possible extinction of their language, so most of them try their best to keep the language alive (at least, i read that somewhere...).

I hope their children will not reject the language as sadly happens here a lot in West-Frisia :( Even in my own family :( Probably because of Dutch speaking friends and the Dutch education system...

Ingvaeonic
Tuesday, May 24th, 2011, 03:17 PM
You would think so, considering the (small) area is completely surrounded b y Plattdeutsch/German speaking people and considering there are only some 2000 people speaking it left.

On the other hand it seems the Saterland Frisians are quite aware of the possible extinction of their language, so most of them try their best to keep the language alive (at least, i read that somewhere...).

I hope their children will not reject the language as sadly happens here a lot in West-Frisia :( Even in my own family :( Probably because of Dutch speaking friends and the Dutch education system...

It's a good thing that Saterland Frisians are culturally aware and are preserving their language. West Frisian is a written language, right? So if East/Saterland Frisian is also a written language, as well as a spoken one, it would help maintain its position as a small regional language, even with a small number of speakers.

Well if West Frisian is in the same position, its extinction would be another cultural loss, this time for the Netherlands. I am sure that many Dutch and German people would think that maintaining regional Germanic languages is a very important cultural endeavour. If I were Dutch or German from these regions, I'd be fully and actively supporting the preservation of these languages.

Sybren
Tuesday, May 24th, 2011, 03:29 PM
West Frisian is a written language, right? So if East/Saterland Frisian is also a written language, as well as a spoken one, it would help maintain its position as a small regional language.
It is a written language (as is Saterland Frisian), but West-Frisian is only written correctly by a select few, who actively choose to learn it. This is because the education system is Dutch and in elementary school we were only taught Frisian writing 1 hour in the week, only for a few years, so not nearly enough for proper writing.

Ingvaeonic
Tuesday, May 24th, 2011, 03:33 PM
It is a written language (as is Saterland Frisian), but West-Frisian is only written correctly by a select few, who actively choose to learn it. This is because the education system is Dutch and in elementary school we were only taught Frisian writing 1 hour in the week, only for a few years, so not nearly enough for proper writing.

Now that is a shame. You would think that the framers of the Dutch education system would be making provision within the education system to preserve regional languages, in those areas where they are spoken, by encouraging speaking and literacy in them. Ditto Germany.

Sybren
Saturday, November 12th, 2011, 07:55 PM
Inspired by Þoreiðar's/Draugen's Norwegian language learning thread, I present to you the Frisian language introductory thread!

This thread is meant for all who want to get a basic understanding of the Frisian, more specifically: West-Frisian language, better known as "Frysk". It has to be said that the different Frisian languages are nót or hardly mutually intelligible. West-Frisian is the Frisian spoken in the north-west of the Netherlands and is with around 500.000 speakers by far the largest Frisian language.

The fact that West-Frisian is mostly used as a spoken language and only a small percentage of Frisians know how to correctly write in Frisian, makes this thread also useful for Frisians who are limited in their writing of it. This includes myself as well, so i will do my best to search for the correct language information to present in this thread.

In this first post, i will go into the most basic simple stuff. The Frisian words are clickable for hearing their pronunciation.

Have fun!

________________________________________

The Frisian alphabet

The Frisian alphabet makes use of the Latin alphabet, but differs in a few ways:

- The letters Q and X do not occur in Frisian, except for in proper nouns and English loanwords.
- Diacritics are sometimes used on A, E, O and U to change the tone of these vowels. These are however not seen as different letters like for example the Å, Æ or Ø in Scandinavian languages, but are considered as just different forms of those 4 vowels.


Alphabet and pronunciation:

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z

We pronounce it the same as the Dutch Alfabet (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LwavpuCx3m0)


Vowels with diacritics and their pronunciation

Ââ - pronunciation (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009207127806c5/) (like 'awe' in "awesome")
Êê - pronunciation (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009240838ead6d/) (like 'ai' in "air")
Éé - pronunciation (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960092535519fb70/) (like 'ey' in "hey")
Ôô - pronunciation (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960092758ad7f782/) (like Ââ, but longer)
Ûû - pronunciation (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960092852af37617/) (like 'o' in "move")
Úú - pronunciation (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960093184675c15f/) (like 'ü' in "München")

________________________________________

Personal pronouns

I = Ik (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960068201b66613a/)
Me = My (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96006953952d51c1/)
You (singular) = Do (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9600700826799986/)
You (plural) = Jim (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96007150f57a9d97/)
They = Sy (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96007255e34f3cfa/)
Them = Hun (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96007305cc3f4b3f/)
We = Wy (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96007330587fac90/)
Us = Us (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96007361d2638c25/)
He = Hy (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9600739342538f30/)
Him = Him (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9600741039df1654/)
She = Sy (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96007497bd7445a1/)
Her = Har (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960075377f57eb92/)

________________________________________

Common greetings and general phrases

Hi = Hoi (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009422dedaf53f/)
Hello = Hallo (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009465f5a28479/)
Welcome = Wolkom (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9600950122f2425d/)
See you (later) = Oan't sjen (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009519cf27aecb/) [lit. 'till seeing']
See you tomorrow = Oan't moarn (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009562670ab1f3/) [lit. 'till tomorrow/morning']
Good morning = Goeie moarn (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960096312d661a29/) (or just: Moarn)
Good day = Goeie (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009667d65a24fd/)
Good afternoon = Goeie middei (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009710e162a875/) (or just: Middei) [lit. 'good midday']
Good evening = Goe-jûn (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9600975294f13d13/)
Good night = (We don't use this as a greeting. "A good night" would translate as "In goeie nacht")
Sleep well = Wolterêsten (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009791fadc0c9f/) [lit. '(I bid you) well-to-rest']
How's it going? = Hoe giet it? (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009811d01511bf/) [lit. 'how goes it?']
What's the time? = Hoe let is it? (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960098663a8ead17/) [lit. 'how late is it?']
What's your name? = Hoe hitsto? (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9600991187589d3a/) [lit. 'how are you hight (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hight)?']
Sorry = Sorry / It spyt my (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9600996078a3761e/)
Thanks = Tankewol (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010028f35c07ae/) (but practically everyone says dankewol) [lit. 'thank you well']
You're welcome = Is goed (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010195fdf66a4f/) [lit. 'is good'] (or: Graach dien)

________________________________________

Common nouns/verbs

People = Minsken (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010266aca603bd/)
Sky = Loft (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010335a82edd43/)
Bird = Fûgel (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010445b08d2242/)
Water = Wetter (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960104735ee2fb42/)
Fish = Fisk (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601049281207183/)
Sea = See (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601050292e71ad3/)
Gras = Gers (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601051380560aee/)
Tree = Beam (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601052456f20669/)
Forest = Bosk (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601054007e8c400/)
House = Hûs (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010721f8dd19c6/)
Village = Doarp (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010732e417fbbc/)
City = Stêd (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960107484dd82f65/)
Door = Doar (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960107718de550a2/)
Window = Rút (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010847a46ed7ca/)
Wall = Muorre (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010870fa1b78f4/)
Stone = Stien (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960108947d242da2/)
Wood = Hout (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010910fc10ce98/)
Table = Tafel (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010931b3a00038/)
Chair = Stoel (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601094201be9ffe/)
Food = Iten (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010997bba03549/)
Bread = Bôle (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601100549184d7e/)
Meat = Fleis (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96011026d64593e3/)
Vegetable = Griente (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960110410fdc0ea9/)
Car = Auto (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960110542b1d8930/)
Telephone = Telefoan (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601106319bc82ca/)
Television = Tillevyzje (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960110834f396164/)
School = Skoalle (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960110978f78b318/)
Laugh = Laitsje (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960111091b0c46b4/)
Cry = Gûle (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96011122a7692d5a/)

________________________________________

Colours

Black = Swart (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96011234d025eedb/)
White = Wyt (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96011251f1c43cd6/)
Gray = Griis (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96011266cb1e2082/)
Brown = Brún (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96011279ae15cd42/)
Red = Rea(d) (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96011299104cacf5/) (in my experience, practically always with a D at the end)
Green = Grien (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96011305ecf5dd51/)
Blue = Blau (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96011320e70773c5/)
Yellow = Giel (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96011325ea28b502/)
Orange = Oranje (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96011348c56cfbb1/)
Purple = Pears (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96011371966d4b86/)
Violet = Fiolet (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960113877910a2eb/)
Pink = Rôze (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960113989b3933d8/)

________________________________________

Numbers

0 = Nul (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96012667bd4116a3/)
1 = Ien (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601270067e78b93/)
2 = Twa (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96012714a55d28fa/)
3 = Trije (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96012726d3bf2439/)
4 = Fjouwer (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96012749af95f07a/)
5 = Fiif (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960127683e1c22ad/)
6 = Seis (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96012821e41bf33d/)
7 = Sân (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96012871e55b3fa6/)
8 = Acht (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601289404c2fb04/)
9 = Njoggen (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601290381224f52/)
10 = Tsien (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96012923a3599988/)

11 = Alve (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960129517e43749f/)
12 = Tolve (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96013094e8ba5287/)
13 = Trettjin (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96013106e785cbee/)
14 = Fjirtjin (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96013135932ddd7b/)
15 = Fyftjin (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601315789af7b5d/)
16 = Sechstjin (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960131774dbc1af0/)
17 = Santjin (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960132289ec64c62/)
18 = Achttjin (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960132568dfaa1a9/)
19 = Njoggentjin (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960132838c2864ac/)
20 = Tweintich (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601332254af89bd/)

21 = Ien en tweintich (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96013367cd6ebb25/)
22 = Twa en tweintich (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960133877337e72f/)
23 = Trije en tweintich (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96013403c0e18689/)
...

30 = Tritich (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96013422d2b95baf/)
40 = Fjirtich (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96013445734d2724/)
50 = Fyftich (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601348269fb7a09/)
60 = Sech(s)tich (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96013505c8253430/)
70 = Santich (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601351240a78b1b/)
80 = Tachtich (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601352611c7a962/)
90 = Njoggentich (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96013552ff561291/)
100 = Hûndert (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96013578fc944c7f/)

101 = Hûndert ien (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960136164661c580/)
102 = Hûndert twa (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960136423d8b07f0/)
103 = Hûndert trije (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601367461228c3d/)
...

200 = Twa hûndert (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9601369069aa25af/)
300 = Trije hûndert (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96013697428a874c/)
400 = Fjouwer hûndert (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96013719fab28b9e/)
...

1000 = Tûzen (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960137364875d2df/)

________________________________________

Feel free to ask questions and/or point me at mistakes.

I will add more information or perhaps exercises if there is interest in it.

Anlef
Sunday, November 13th, 2011, 01:54 PM
Excellent, Sybren! I would love to see you expand on this.

Though I wonder if it wouldn't be better to give this introduction a site of its own. Then you could also have the soundbytes play directly from the site.

At any rate, keep up the good work!

Sybren
Sunday, November 13th, 2011, 01:58 PM
Thank you!

Maybe i will do that! (making a separate website) The loading of the audiofiles is very slow and tedious this way :(

I will soon add more :)

Anlef
Sunday, November 13th, 2011, 02:21 PM
Good!

Another thing: it might be interesting to add the literal translation of some of the Frisian expressions, if it doesn't clog the lay-out. To modify your paragraph:


Common greetings and general phrases

Hi = Hoi (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009422dedaf53f/)
Hello = Hallo (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009465f5a28479/)
Welcome = Wolkom (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9600950122f2425d/)
See you (later) = Oan't sjen (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009519cf27aecb/) [lit. 'till seeing']
See you tomorrow = Oan't moarn (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009562670ab1f3/) [lit. 'till tomorrow/morning']
Good morning = Goeie moarn (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960096312d661a29/) (or just: Moarn)
Good day = Goeie (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009667d65a24fd/)
Good afternoon = Goeie middei (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009710e162a875/) (or just: Middei) [lit. 'good midday']
Good evening = Goe-jûn (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9600975294f13d13/)
Good night = (We don't use this as a greeting. "A good night" would translate as "In goeie nacht")
Sleep well = Wolterêsten (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009791fadc0c9f/) [lit. '(I bid you) well-to-rest']
How's it going? = Hoe giet it? (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96009811d01511bf/) [lit. 'how goes it?']
What's the time? = Hoe let is it? (http://www.zshare.net/audio/960098663a8ead17/) [lit. 'how late is it?']
What's your name? = Hoe hitsto? (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9600991187589d3a/) [lit. 'how are you hight (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hight)?']
Sorry = Sorry / It spyt my (http://www.zshare.net/audio/9600996078a3761e/)
Thanks = Tankewol (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010028f35c07ae/) (but practically everyone says dankewol) [lit. 'thank you well']
You're welcome = Is goed (http://www.zshare.net/audio/96010195fdf66a4f/) [lit. 'is good']

And concerning the last expression: isn't there a Frisian equivalent to Dutch graag gedaan?

It does look a bit clogged with my additions. If you decide to put this introduction on a separate website, you could use more elegant solutions to add the extra information.

Sybren
Sunday, November 13th, 2011, 02:31 PM
I think that is a good idea :) I will add it soon.


And concerning the last expression: isn't there a Frisian equivalent to Dutch graag gedaan?
Believe it or not. While you were typing that post, i saw that i forgot it and added it :P

So 'Graach dien' which means 'You're welcome'.

Never heard of the English word "hight" by the way.

Sindig_og_stoisk
Sunday, November 13th, 2011, 03:34 PM
It is really remarkable thing how similar this language is compared to German or Danish.

I have lived with some Dutch exchange students in my dorm. At times it seemed as if their language was German and could be reasonably understood, but then they trailed off into something entirely incomprehensible...

A great little Introductory Thread you have written here. I look forward to learning more.

Ingvaeonic
Friday, November 25th, 2011, 03:29 AM
Frisian and Low German/Low Saxon would be two Ingvaeonic/North-sea Germanic languages of the West Germanic language group that I would very much like to learn. I, too, look forward to reading and learning more about Frisian. :thumbsup

DutchfromHolland
Friday, November 25th, 2011, 05:18 AM
This is a great thread! I read somewhere that Frysk is the closest related language to English.

Bittereinder
Friday, November 25th, 2011, 11:56 AM
Good work Sybren,

Perhaps it would be a good idea to take all the words and meanings and translate it into Dutch, Afrikaans, German, perhaps even Swedish, I would be willing to spend time doing it. It could illustrate the similarities and relations between Germanic languages.

Sigurd I believe will be up for the German Translation...

Anyhow Excellent stuff! :thumbup

Groete

VikingSpirit
Friday, November 25th, 2011, 12:12 PM
Very good! I hope it will encourage many to learn that beautiful language, because the number of speakers is getting smaller and smaller. It's our duty to protect and support that indispensable element of our great Germanic culture.

Ingvaeonic
Friday, November 25th, 2011, 01:45 PM
Very good! I hope it will encourage many to learn that beautiful language, because the number of speakers is getting smaller and smaller. It's our duty to protect and support that indispensable element of our great Germanic culture.

Quite right, VikingSpirit. I couldn't agree more. It would be an enormous loss to the Netherlands, Germany, and Northern Europe as a region as well as to Germanic culture generally if such great regional Germanic languages as Frisian and Low German/Low Saxon were lost.

flemish
Tuesday, November 29th, 2011, 12:21 AM
I've read that it's a part of the Anglo-Frisian sub-branch of the West Germanic branch of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family, so you can assume it's the most closely related to English. Yes, quite interesting.

Sybren
Wednesday, January 11th, 2012, 08:58 PM
Thanks for the great support for this thread everybody! This late update is due to me being very busy lately, sorry for that :(

Grimminger, that is a nice idea, but i would like to keep this thread solely for learning Frisian ;) Maybe you would like to start such a thread yourself :) Of course i'm willing to help!


I thought some simple sentences regarding asking for help/directions were a logical follow-up:


Can i ask you something? - Mei ik jo wat freechje? (normal (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/959b4atj38/voc001.mp3)) / (slow (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/7ntr3491m9/voc002.mp3))

I'm lost - Ik bin ferdwaald (normal (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/vi144gda28/voc003.mp3)) / (slow (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/nee1dacgj3/voc004.mp3))

Can you help me? - Kinne jo my helpe? (normal (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/198629s0z7/voc005.mp3)) / (slow (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/0gob7d33ij/voc006.mp3))

Where can i find the bathroom? - Wer kin ik de W.C. fyne? (normal (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/2z5kgt8rph/voc007.mp3)) / (slow (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/56a25vpcu9/voc008.mp3))

Go straight, then turn left/right. - Gean rjochtút, sla dan linksôf (officially: loftsôf)/rjochtsôf. (normal (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/0d5heuk7mn/voc009.mp3)) / (slow (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/cf15t5phe7/voc010.mp3))

I'm looking for... - Ik sykje... (normal (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/n0twjx2wl6/voc011.mp3)) / (slow (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/xzlzp65dm5/voc012.mp3))

One moment! - Ien momint! (normal (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/ci077mumny/voc013.mp3)) / (slow (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/3uil8r3349/voc014.mp3))

How much do i have to pay? - Hoefolle moat ik betelje? (normal (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/5ncf85f46n/voc015.mp3)) / (slow (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/32adignaew/voc016.mp3))

Is this enough? - Is dit genoch? (normal (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/2l9bxkseq7/voc017.mp3)) / (slow (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/96j5a2ofu4/voc018.mp3))

Where is the trainstation? - Wer is it treinstation? (normal (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/s86sa8yh8w/voc019.mp3)) / (slow (http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/x4r96rz0u4/voc020.mp3))


A much better audio player, don't you think? :)

If someone has specific requests/questions, please ask!

Sybren
Saturday, April 14th, 2012, 11:58 AM
An interesting paper i found about the linguistic relation between Frisian and the other Germanic languages. The paper also includes comparisons between the other combinations of Germanic languages.

Some interesting parts:


http://img18.imageshack.us/img18/2163/tabelz.jpg



The relationship between Frisian and the other Germanic languages

From Table 3 and 4 it is possible to determine the distance between all Germanic standard languages. We are especially interested in the position of Frisian within the Germanic language group. For this purpose the mean distance over the 6 Frisian dialects (excluding the dialect of Leeuwarden which is considered Dutch) has been added. This makes it possible to treat Frisian as one language. Examining the column which shows the ranking with respect to Frisian, we find that Dutch is most similar to Frisian (a mean distance of 38.7%). Clearly the intensive contact with Dutch during history has had a great impact on the distance between the two languages.

Moreover, German appears to be closer to Frisian than any other language outside the Netherlands. Looking at the ranking with respect to Dutch, it appears that Town Frisian is most similar (Leeuwarden 20.3%), followed by the Frisian varieties (average of 38.7%). Next, German is most similar, due to common historical roots and continuous contact (a distance of 53.3%).

As discussed in the introduction, Friesland has a long history of language contact with the Scandinavian countries, and traces of Scandinavian influences can be found in the Frisian language. The impact of this contact is reflected in our results only to a limited extent. Remarkably, the distances to the mainland Scandinavian languages (Danish, Norwegian and Swedish) are smaller (between 60.7% and 63.3%) than to English (65.3%) even though the Frisian language is genetically closer related to English than to Scandinavian.



Conclusions and discussion

Overall, the classification of the Germanic languages resulting from our distance measurements supports our predictions. This goes for the classification of the Frisian dialects and also for the rest of the Germanic languages. We interpret this as a confirmation of the suitability of our material showing that it is possible to measure Levenshtein distances on the basis of whole texts with assimilation phenomena typical of connected speech and with a rather limited number of words.

The aim of the present investigation was to get an impression of the position of the Frisian language in the Germanic language area on the basis of quantitative data. The fact that Frisian is genetically most closely related to English yields the expectation that these two languages may still be linguistically similar. However, the distance between English and the Frisian dialects is large. We can thus conclude that the close genetic relationship between English and Frisian is not reflected in the linguistic distances between the modern languages. Geographical and historical circumstances have caused the two languages to drift apart linguistically. Frisian has been strongly influenced by Dutch whereas English has been influenced by other languages, especially French.

It would have been interesting to include these languages in our material. This would have given an impression of their impact on the English language. At the same time it would also have given us the opportunity to test the Levenshtein method on a larger language family than the Germanic family with its relatively closely related languages. It would also be interesting to include Old English in our material since this would give us an impression of how modern Frisian is related to the English language at a time when it had only recently separated from the common Anglo-Saxon roots to which also Old Frisian belonged.

For many centuries Frisian has been under the strong influence from Dutch and the Frisian and Dutch language areas share a long common history. It therefore does not come as a surprise that Dutch is the Germanic language most similar to the language varieties spoken in Friesland.

It may be surprising that the linguistic distances between Dutch and the Frisian dialects are smaller than the distances between the Scandinavian languages (a mean difference of 6%). Scandinavian languages are known to be mutually intelligible. This means that when, for example, a Swede and a Dane meet, they mostly communicate each in their own language.

This kind of communication, which is known as semi-communication (Haugen, 1966), is not typical in the communication between Dutch-speaking and Frisian-speaking citizens in the Netherlands. The two languages are considered so different that it is not possible for a Dutch-speaking person to understand Frisian and consequently the Frisian interlocutor will have to speak Dutch to a non-Frisian person. Our results raise the question whether semi-communication would also be possible in a Dutch-Frisian situation. If this is not the case, we may explain this by linguistic and non-linguistic differences between the Frisian-Dutch situation and the Scandinavian situation.

The Levenshtein distance processes lexical, phonetic and morphological differences. All three types are present in our transcription, since word lists are derived from running texts. Syntactic characteristics are completely excluded from the analysis. It might be the case that certain characteristics play a larger role for the Levenshtein distances than desirable in the case of the Scandinavian languages if we were to use the method for the explaining mutual intelligibility. For example, it is wellknown among the speakers of Scandinavian languages that many words end in an ‘a’ in Swedish while ending in an ‘e’ in Danish.

Probably people use this knowledge in an inter-Scandinavian situation. However, this difference is included in the Levenshtein distances between Swedish and Danish. It is possible that Frisian-Dutch differences are less predictable or less well-known by speakers of the two languages. It is also possible that the difference in communication in the Netherlands and in Scandinavia should be sought at the extra-linguistic level. Scandinavian research on semi-communication has shown that the willingness to understand and the belief that it is possible to communicate play a large role for mutual intelligibility between speakers of closely related languages.

Staying with the Scandinavian languages, it should be noted that the mainland Scandinavian languages are in fact closer to Frisian than English, even though the Scandinavian languages belong genetically to another Germanic branch than English and Frisian. This can probably be explained by intensive contacts between Frisians and Scandinavians for many centuries. However, the common idea among some speakers of Frisian and Scandinavian that the two languages are so close that they are almost mutually intelligible is not confirmed by our results, at least not as far as the standard Scandinavian languages are concerned. Probably this popular idea is built on the fact that a few frequent words are identical in Frisian and Scandinavian.

It is possible, however, that this picture would change if we would include more Danish dialects in our material. For example, it seems to be relatively easy for fishermen from Friesland to speak to their colleagues from the west coast of Denmark. Part of the explanation might also be that fishermen share a common vocabulary of professional terms. Also the frequent contact and a strong motivation to communicate successfully are likely to be important factors.

As we mentioned in the introduction, among dialects in the Netherlands and Flanders, the Frisian varieties are most deviant from Standard Dutch. However, among the varieties which are recognized as languages in the Germanic language area, Frisian is most similar to Dutch. The smallest distance between two languages, apart from Frisian, was found between Norwegian and Swedish: 43.4%. The distance between Frisian and Dutch is smaller: 38.7%.

The Town Frisian variety of the capital of Friesland (Leeuwarden) has a distance of only 20.3% to Dutch. Although the recognition of Frisian as second official language in the Netherlands is right in our opinion, we found that the current linguistic position of Frisian provide too little foundation for becoming independent from the Netherlands, as some Frisians may wish.


Source: http://www.let.rug.nl/~heeringa/dialectology/papers/tdg03.pdf

Ocko
Saturday, April 14th, 2012, 01:07 PM
Would be interesting to have a proto-germanic reconstructed language.

Northumbria
Thursday, April 26th, 2012, 07:01 PM
The aim of the present investigation was to get an impression of the position of the Frisian language in the Germanic language area on the basis of quantitative data. The fact that Frisian is genetically most closely related to English yields the expectation that these two languages may still be linguistically similar. However, the distance between English and the Frisian dialects is large. We can thus conclude that the close genetic relationship between English and Frisian is not reflected in the linguistic distances between the modern languages. Geographical and historical circumstances have caused the two languages to drift apart linguistically. Frisian has been strongly influenced by Dutch whereas English has been influenced by other languages, especially French.

It would have been interesting to include these languages in our material. This would have given an impression of their impact on the English language. At the same time it would also have given us the opportunity to test the Levenshtein method on a larger language family than the Germanic family with its relatively closely related languages. It would also be interesting to include Old English in our material since this would give us an impression of how modern Frisian is related to the English language at a time when it had only recently separated from the common Anglo-Saxon roots to which also Old Frisian belonged.


Staying with the Scandinavian languages, it should be noted that the mainland Scandinavian languages are in fact closer to Frisian than English, even though the Scandinavian languages belong genetically to another Germanic branch than English and Frisian. This can probably be explained by intensive contacts between Frisians and Scandinavians for many centuries.

English is very distinct from the other Germanic languages, some people place it on its own branch between West and North Germanic. It's developed relatively isolated from other Germanic languages since the Norman invasion whilst even the Frisians living in the marshes and islands would have had occasional contact with Germans and Dutch.

Ingvaeonic
Monday, May 7th, 2012, 04:15 AM
Since the advent of Middle English, English has been a Franco-Germanic language. German, Frisian, Dutch, Afrikaans, and the North Germanic languages of Scandinavia, Iceland, etc. are purer Germanic languages than English. The Norman dialect of Old French, one of the langues d'oïl, was too great an influence on the English language. It has its advantages: English is rich in synonyms; however, it lessened the Germanic character of English.

Ferjo
Thursday, July 5th, 2012, 01:04 PM
This is a great thread! I read somewhere that Frysk is the closest related language to English.

Besides Scottisch I believe.

Fehde
Friday, August 17th, 2012, 09:57 PM
I am from East Friesland. they speak socalled plattdeutsch, which is similar to dutch.


There are different kinds of Plattdeutsch also. I speak holsteiner Platt
and can hardly understand people speaking east frisian Plattdeutsch.
Especially because Plattdeutsch is a more spoken/living than written language, there is no uniform Dictionary, and also the books written in Plattdeutsch are using variant forms of spelling for the same words.


Plattdeutsch from Holstein (northern Plattdeutsch with influences from Hamburg):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7YnlC-ks6nE&feature=related


East frisian Plattdeutsch:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5eXEbv2WvL4


--

More about north frisian language from Wikipedia



North Frisian language

North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 10,000 people in North Frisia. The language is part of the larger group of the
West Germanic Frisian languages.[...]

Classification

The closest relatives of North Frisian are the two other Frisian languages, the Saterland Frisian of north-western Lower Saxony, Germany, and the West Frisian language spoken in the northern Netherlands. Together these three form the group of Frisian languages.

The English language is also closely related to Frisian. The two languages are classified in a common Anglo-Frisian group. Anglo-Frisian is grouped among the Ingvaeonic languages together with Low German. The related Low German has developed differently since Old Saxon times and has lost many Ingvaeonic characteristics.
Dialects
Overview

The North Frisian dialects can be grouped into two main dialectal divisions: those of the mainland and the insular dialects. All in all these two groups comprise 10 dialects; The dialect spoken on the Halligen is one of the mainland dialects though. Typically one distinguishes between the following ten dialects that have been spoken since the beginning of Frisian linguistic studies in the 19th century.

Insular North Frisian

Sylt Frisian (Söl'ring)
Föhr-Amrum Frisian (Fering/Öömrang)
Heligolandic Frisian (Halunder)

Mainland North Frisian

Wiedingharde Frisian
Bökingharde Frisian (Mooring)
Karrharde Frisian
Northern Goesharde Frisian
Central Goesharde Frisian
Southern Goesharde Frisian (extinct since 1981)
Halligen Frisian

The mainland and insular dialects clearly differ from each other because they were shaped by Frisian immigrants during several different centuries. The islands of Sylt, Föhr and Amrum were colonised around 800 while the mainland was settled by Frisians in AD 1100.

Add to this the various influences of neighbouring languages on the dialects. On Sylt, Föhr and Amrum as well as in parts of the northern mainland there is a strong South Jutlandic influence, whereas on Heligoland and the rest of mainland North Frisia the Low German influence is predominant. Moreover, there has historically only been a limited exchange between the dialects so that hardly any lingua franca could develop and there was no cultural centre in North Frisia whose dialect would have been able to take a leading role.
Samples

The sentence displayed below in many variants reads, "'Shine, old moon, shine!', cried Häwelmann, but neither the moon nor the stars were anywhere to be seen; they had all already gone to bed" (from: Theodor Storm: Der kleine Häwelmann).

Insular

Söl'ring (dialect of Sylt)

„Ljucht, ual Muun, ljucht!” skriilt Häwelmann, man di Muun wiar narigen tö sen en uk di Stiaren ek; ja wiar al altermaal tö Bēr gingen.

Fering-Öömrang (dialect of Föhr and Amrum)

„Locht, ual muun, locht!” rep Heewelmaan, man a muun wiar nochhuaren tu sen an a stäären uk ei; jo wiar al altermaal tu baad gingen.

Heligolandic (dialect of Helgoland)

„Lochte, ool Muun, lochte!” rüp Heäwelman, oawers de Muun wear naarni tu sin’n en uk de Steern ni; dja wear al allemoal tu Baad gingen.

Mainland

Northern Goesharde Frisian, Hoorninger Fräisch variety of Langenhorn

„Jocht, uule moune, jocht!” biilked Hääwelmoon, ors e moune waas närngs to schüns än da steere ok ai; ja weern al aal to beede gingen.

Wiedingharde Frisian

„Ljocht, uuile moone, ljocht!” biilked Hääwelmuon, män e moone was näärgen to schüns än uk e steere ai; jä würn al altomoale to beerd gingen.

Halligen Frisian (although it is spoken on the Halligen islands, it is linguistically grouped with the mainland dialects)

„Jaacht, uale mööne, jaacht!” bölked Hääwelmoon, man de mööne woas näärngs to siinen än de steere uk ee; jä weern al altomaole to beed giangen.

Mooring (dialect of Bökingharde)

„Jucht, üülje moune, jucht!” biiljked Hääwelmoon, ouers e moune wus nargne tu schüns än e stääre uk ai; ja wjarn ål åltumååle tu beed lim.

Note that, despite the differences between the dialects, the Fering and Öömrang are highly similar; in this example nearly identical.

[...]

Self-designation

Due to the large number of dialects there is no original native name for the North Frisian language as such. E.g. the Wiedingharde and Halligen Frisians call their language freesk, in the Bökingharde it is called frasch, and in the Goesharde likewise fräisch or freesch. While these names all translate to "Frisian" the native names of the insular dialects refer to the particular islands as in Fering, Öömrang, Söl'ring or Halunder. E.g. "Frisian" would mean "fresk" in the Föhr dialect.

The North Frisians eventually agreed upon the inter-dialectal name "friisk" which corresponds to the West Frisian native name "frysk". This designation is today mostly used when the North Frisian collectivity is addressed or in the names of official institutions such as Nordfriisk Instituut, Friisk Foriining or Friisk Gesäts. The northern section of the Interfrisian Council has however kept its name "Frasche Rädj" in the Mooring dialect.

[...]

Current situation

Officially the number of North Frisian speakers ranges from 8,000 to 10,000[1] but linguists propose significantly lower numbers. In 2007, Århammar estimated a total of 5,000 speakers within and 1,500 to 2,000 speakers outside North Frisia proper. Exact surveys do not exist.

North Frisian is an endangered language, as in most places children no longer learn it. In UNESCO's Red Book of Endangered Languages, North Frisian is classified as "seriously endangered". Exceptions are a few villages on the islands of Föhr and Amrum and the Risum-Lindholm area. Especially in the western parts of Föhr, the language community is still relatively sound. The number of speakers on Föhr and Amrum alone is estimated to around 3,500. The other dialects are in fact seriously endangered, like Karrharde Frisian, Central Goesharde and Halligen Frisian.

The elementary and grammar school on Amrum is called Öömrang Skuul and among other subjects focuses on teaching the local dialect. Fering is also taught in schools on Föhr and the Risum Skole/Risem Schölj in Risum-Lindholm on the mainland is a combined Danish-Frisian elementary school.

All speakers of North Frisian are at least bilingual (North Frisian and Standard German). Many are trilingual (North Frisian, Standard German and Low German) and, especially along the Danish border, quadrilingualism used to be widespread (North Frisian, Standard German, Low German and South Jutlandic).

In Schleswig-Holstein, the North Frisian language is protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages as a minority language. On 24 December 2004 a state law became effective in Schleswig-Holstein that recognises the North Frisian language for official use in the Nordfriesland district and on Heligoland.

Nachtengel
Friday, March 13th, 2020, 07:06 PM
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gWQov56eO2g


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YBRHpMNeTcY


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X7_c1i4PAWo


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7oCoEZHmGuM


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MGP7N_Hdmok