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cosmocreator
Monday, December 19th, 2005, 09:30 AM
80% of Europeans Descend From Stone Age Hunters

Native Britons direct descendants of Stonehenge builders

Indigenous Europeans owe their ancestry mainly to Stone Age (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nati onalvanguard.org%2Fprinter.php%3Fid%3D72 11) hunters, not to later migrants who brought farming to Europe from what is today the Middle East, a new study suggests.

Based on DNA analysis (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nati onalvanguard.org%2Fstory.php%3Fid%3D6764 ) of ancient skeletons from Germany, Austria, and Hungary, the study sways the debate over the origins of modern Europeans toward hunter-gatherers who colonized Europe some 40,000 years ago. By 30,000 BC the first signs of modern human (Homo sapiens) activity, the Aurignacian industry, are known. The most famous example from this period is the burial of the Red Lady of Paviland in modern day Wales (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nati onalvanguard.org%2Fstory.php%3Fid%3D2524 ).

Around 10,000 years ago the last ice age finally ended. Temperatures rose, probably to levels similar to those today, and forests expanded further. By 8,500 years ago, the rising sea levels caused by the melting glaciers cut Britain off from continental Europe for the last time.

Humans spread and reached the far north of Scotland during this period. Sites from the British Mesolithic include Star Carr in Yorkshire and Oronsay in Orkney. Excavations at Howick in Northumberland uncovered evidence of a large circular building dating to c. 7,600 BC which is interpreted as a dwelling. The view of Mesolithic Britons as being exclusively nomadic is now being replaced with a more complex picture of seasonal occupation or in some cases permanent occupation and attendant land and food source management where conditions permitted it.

In 1997 DNA analysis was undertaken on a tooth from a Mesolithic man whose remains were found in Gough's Cave at Cheddar Gorge. Adrian Targett, 42, a teacher at Kings of Wessex School, Cheddar, Somerset lives in the same village where his direct ancestor who lived 10,000 years ago was found.

Such findings have cast doubt on the traditional view of successive waves of mass immigration from ethnic alien immigrants into Europe annihilating the earlier indigenous peoples. This evidence now proves conclusively that indigenous Europeans are the indigenous people of Europe and that all indigenous Europeans should be protected under International Law as the indigenous people of Britain and Europe.

An indigene is literally someone or something that is native to or originating from a given place. Therefore, when indigenous is used purely as an adjective, an indigenous people is a group or culture regarded as "coming from" a given place. In this broad sense almost any person or group is indigenous to some location or other such as Blacks being indigenous to Africa and Asians to the Indian sub-continent.

A definition as used by the International Labour Organisation (Convention No. 169, concerning the working rights of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples, 1989) applies to:
both tribal peoples whose social, cultural and economic conditions distinguish them from other sections of the national community and whose status is regulated wholly or partially by their own customs or traditions or by special laws or regulations, and to peoples who are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations which inhabit the country at the time of conquest or colonisation.

Colonisation is defined as the genocidal process of multi-culturalisation that is currently being inflicted illegally upon Britain and Europe by the corrupt incumbent political elites. The fact that by 2050 the indigenous peoples of Britain will become a minority in our own homeland shows that both multi-culturalism and mass immigration are components of genocide.

In this relationship the status of the indigenous people can, in most instances, be characterised as being effectively marginalised, isolated and/or as forming a minority, when compared to other groups from whom they are distinct, or the nation-state as a whole. This applies in Britain since the Norman Invasion of 1066 when the indigenous Anglo-Saxon people of England were dispossessed of their land by the Norman invaders and the Act of Union in 1707 when the English, Welsh and Scottish people were denied their ethnic national and political status in their own territories and had the British state imposed upon them by a corrupt wealthy oligarchy who then exploited the indigenous peoples of Britain for their own means.

The DNA evidence now suggests immigrant farmers who were thought to have arrived tens of thousands of years later contributed little to the European gene pool. The research suggests that the culture of farming was transmitted into Europe to the indigenous peoples, and that no foreign populations entered Europe at that time to spread the idea of farming. It was merely cultural transmission not genetic transmission.

Instead they left only a cultural legacy by introducing agriculture some 7,500 years ago, the researchers say. The study's findings, published in the journal “Science”, were a surprise to the study team, according to anthropologist Joachim Burger of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, in Mainz, Germany.

"I expected the distribution of DNA in these early farmers to be more similar to the distribution we have today in Europe," he said. "Our paper suggests that there is a good possibility that the contribution of early farmers could be close to zero," added co-author Peter Forster, an archaeology research fellow at Cambridge University, England. "If the ancient DNA results turn out to be valid and reproducible, [they] are very exciting indeed," commented Alex Bentley, an anthropologist at Durham University, England.

The team investigated mitochondrial DNA—a permanent genetic marker passed from mothers to their offspring—recovered from the teeth and bones of 24 skeletons from 16 central European sites.

These ancient humans all belonged to cultures that can be linked to the introduction of farming practices that began in present-day Israel, Jordan, and Syria around 12,000 years ago.

The researchers identified which cultures the subjects belonged to by the decorations found on their pottery. A quarter of the prehistoric farmers were found to share a mitochondrial DNA signature that is now extremely rare worldwide and has left virtually no trace in living Europeans. This shows that the people who may have brought the culture of farming into Europe died out totally as an ethnic group, whilst their culture and technology remained.

The apparent failure of these people to make their genetic mark stands in stark contrast to farming itself, which spread rapidly across Europe.

A possible explanation, the researchers write in their study, is "that small pioneer groups carried farming into new areas of Europe, and that once the technique had taken root, the surrounding hunter-gatherers adopted the new culture and then outnumbered the original farmers."

Cambridge's Forster added, "It's interesting that a potentially minor migration of people into central Europe had such a huge cultural impact." This is also quite alarming as it suggests that an ethnic group may enter an area and then die out as a distinct ethnic group in genetic terms but their culture may remain. This has distinct applications in relation to the issue of Islam and Asian immigrants in modern Britain.

Archaeologist Marek Zvelebil agrees that the alien ethnic groups did die out, saying the DNA findings support evidence from pottery and other artefacts from the beginning of the Late Stone Age. "This is one of the first studies to actually examine the bones of ancient human beings who lived 7,000 to 8,000 years ago," said Zvelebil, a professor at the University of Sheffield, England. "Archaeological evidence indicates that what we had was cultural diffusion and a mixture of perhaps some immigration and local adoption of farming culture," he added. "There's been 30 years of debate about this point—how the farming way of life reached Europe and spread.

"Small groups of people migrated from the Near East into parts of the East Mediterranean and central Europe. But in most other parts of Europe you had local hunter-gathering people adopting farming." Those immigrant groups then either died out by natural means, or they and their ancestors were deliberately removed from the land and gene pool by the indigenous people of Europe.

Evidence from elsewhere in Europe supports the idea that the introduction of farming represents a cultural rather than a genetic exchange, according to David Miles, research fellow at the Institute of Archaeology in Oxford, England, and author of the book, The Tribes of Britain. "In northwest Europe the genetic evidence suggests [farming] came mainly as an idea and that the number of people moving was relatively small," Miles said.

Most of the farmers in Britain, for instance, would have been native descendents of the hunter-gatherers, he said. "There's been a lot of arguing over the last ten years, but it's now more or less agreed that about 80 percent of [modern British] genes come from a very small number of hunter-gatherers who came in immediately after the Ice Age," he said.


Source: http://www.nationalvanguard.org/story.php?id=7233 (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nati onalvanguard.org%2Fstory.php%3Fid%3D7233 )

Waarnemer
Monday, December 19th, 2005, 09:40 AM
80% of Europeans Descend From Stone Age Hunters

That's what Coon was saying all along.

Waarnemer
Monday, December 26th, 2005, 01:40 PM
European Faces Reflect Stone Age Ancestry, Study Says
James Owen
for National Geographic News (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/)

December 20, 2005


Europeans inherit their looks from Stone Age hunters, new research suggests.
Scientists studied ancient skeletons from Scandinavia to North Africa and Greece, comparing ancient and modern facial features.

Their analysis suggests modern Europeans are closely related and descended from prehistoric indigenous peoples.

Later Neolithic settlers—notably immigrants who introduced farming from the Near East some 7,500 years ago—contributed little to how Europeans look today, the researchers add.

The scientists described their findings in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Online Early Edition.

The study suggests that the arrival of farming did not signal a broad wave of colonization as some scientists had thought. Rather, native hunter-gatherers absorbed the farming way of life and those who brought it.
The findings are based on 24 face measurements of modern-day Europeans compared with those of their prehistoric predecessors.
The team focused on facial dimensions which are "neutral" and don't change as human populations adapt over time to different environments and lifestyles.

Because these features are passed down generation to generation, they are good markers of human ancestry, according to lead study author Loring Brace.

The University of Michigan anthropologist says the craniofacial remains of late Stone Age Europeans reflect those of earlier inhabitants who lived 35,000 to 10,000 years ago.
"They're really fairly close," he said.
Ancient peoples had heavier brow ridges than modern Europeans. "The faces were also broader and the jaws were heavier," Brace added.
Skeletal remains from Greece and elsewhere are thought to represent Neolithic settlers who introduced farming from modern-day Syria, Jordan, and Israel. Brace said these remains have facial measurements that don't match those of most present-day Europeans.

The anthropologist added that despite some similarities with modern Mediterranean populations, "the farther north and west you get, the less they resemble the people living there now."

"Modern Europeans don't look like the incoming Neolithic [farmers]," he said. "It's pretty clear that there's a much larger component of the indigenous foraging peoples across Europe, and they existed in far greater numbers than the archaeological record had led us to believe."
The study suggests that Neolithic remains, which have been taken as evidence of large-scale colonization, are misleading.

Brace says pots associated with Neolithic farmers tended to disintegrate into countless shards, creating the impression of a larger presence than was actually the case.

Early farmers also buried their dead together, unlike the native inhabitants, leaving groups of bodies for archaeologists to later uncover along with other artifacts.

Hunter-gatherers

The researchers say the fact that incoming settlers didn't pass on telltale facial characteristics to later Europeans suggests that they were absorbed by the indigenous hunter-gatherers.
"They absorbed them genetically—and their way of life," Brace said. "Molecular biology is telling us the same story."

Recent DNA analysis of the skeletons of prehistoric farmers found buried in Germany, Austria, and Hungary appears to show that they contributed little to the European gene pool. (See related story (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/11/1110_051110_europe.html).)
A quarter of those analyzed remains share a DNA signature that is now extremely rare worldwide and which has left virtually no trace on living Europeans.

Those findings, described last month in the journal Science, suggest that "the contribution of early farmers could be close to zero," according to Peter Forster, archaeology research fellow at Cambridge University, England.

Other experts now broadly agree that the spread of farming across Europe represents more of a cultural legacy than a genetic one.

"Personally, I think it's a question that can be answered only on a regional basis," said Marek Zvelebil, professor of archaeology at the University of Sheffield, England.

"In some areas, particularly parts of the East Mediterranean and central Europe, you do have small groups of people migrating from the Near East," he said.
"But in most other parts of Europe, particularly western and northern Europe, you have local hunter-gathering people adopting farming."

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/12/1220_051220_stoneage_faces.html (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/12/1220_051220_stoneage_faces.html)

Rodskarl Dubhgall
Wednesday, May 30th, 2018, 12:26 PM
Depressing implication! The folks are native but denied rights of blood and soil, to make way for the closest approximation to the Neolithic population to have their way in our lands. In effect, it's happening all over again. I've never bought the importance of the "fertile crescent" and the very name suggests a Mohammaden population explosion, "disseminated" wherever it's been able to impose itself upon. The more things change, the more they stay the same. Deja vu!