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Frans_Jozef
Friday, September 12th, 2003, 03:00 PM
During the climate phase of the Preboreal(8000BC)the living conditions began to improve drastically: the frozen under-soil thawed, the density and area of birches increased and especially the fir-trees came in expansion, while many lands were transformed in inpenetrable moorlands and bogs, the latter because that the plains bridging England and the low Country became partially overflooded; meanwhile the withdrawing of the artic fauna to northern lands give
way to a more diversified animal resource.

In the LC four finding stations are acknowleged: Stegerveld in Overijssel, Ter Horst in Drenthe, thus north of the Rhine and Maas, finally Zonhoven in West)Limburg and Chaleux in Namur.Artefacts are recognized as close related to similar ensembles in Niedersachsen, Westphalen and Hannover.
The Stegerveld station is dated on ca.7410BC and indicates the early mesolithic in our region. The artefacts consist of asymmetric points with one side totally laborated in a slanting, steep way; short and thin asymmetric flakes ("klingen") with retouches only on the top, still just on one side; a considerable presence of big, irregular and triangular flakes.

In the middle of the 7th millenium till the middle of the 6th millenium the LC experience a dryer period(the Boreal period) and the temperate rise to a main average in the Summer of 16°C(was 12°C previously), the climate was however more continental than today.Tundra changed in woodland. Oak,ash tree,lime tree and the hazel appear succesfully; in new woodlands several species of wild life(beaver, aurochs, boar, elk...) find a habitat. More dramatically was the sea level welling up and dividing England of the mainland. More dramatically was the sea level welling up and dividing England of the mainland. The Low Countries are now embedded in the full mesolithic era.Despite the jolted life conditions and consternating fractures in tribal cohesion after the flooding, the
mesolithic people did well in adaptation and were able to create a stable culture, prospering given the outstanding democraphic growth.

West, Northwest and North Europe was divided in two mayor cultural provinces: the macrolithic and microlithic industrial cultures. The macrolithic culture bears the name "Nordwesteuropaeische Kernbeilkreis" or Maglemose Kultur and was spread from England to the North European Plain and describing West Poland with offshoots in south norway and Central Schweden. In some respects departing from Maglemose the Kunda culture in Estonia and Duvensee culture in Holstein are related with this mighty motherculture,illustrating the adaptability to an new woodland environment, evidence is demonstrated in the heavy tools for wood-work.


South of the macrolithic province borders the microlithic province, stretching from the Weser to France,called the Tardenoisien (after La Fère-en-Tardenois, Aisne, Fr.)and gathers 3 different groups:

1.The Northwestern Group("Noordnederlands Boreaal"):follows the Rhine and Ruhr due south,the Ijssel marking its most western extension and claiming the east with the Weser and the Aller as natural limits.

2. Huelstener Gruppe/Rhine Bassin Group/"Zuidnederlands Boreaal":Gelderland, Utrecht,Noord-brabant,Nederlands-Limburg, whole Belgium and adjectant regions of Germany.

3. "Tardenoisien moyen" in the parisian Bassin and North France. The Huelstener Gruppe is very rich in its microlithic instrumentarium. Already before 6500BC points shaped as a symmetrical triangle with either straight or hollow base are emerging, being retouched on both sides,"feuille de gui" points(mistletoe points: double points with generalized retouches) leaf-like flakes, all kind of triangulars and "high and less broad"squares, long scrapers and lancet points
characterisize an developed sense for craftmanship.

The final stages of the mesolithicum last from 5500BC till 3000BC and occur during the climatic period of the Atlanticum, when the air became more humid and the main average temperature in the winter and summer mounted severly up,causing to rise the sea level, increasing also the water-line in the soil, through which woodland became incessantly flooded and creating thereby more moorlands and bog areas.From the coasts of western holland to belgium stretched a tidal marsh region with many lagoons and fen-areas.

The fir went in decline and on high plains dense foliage woods took up, beneficial to the alder and oak as well the mistletoe. Due to the drastic climatical and ecological situation the mesolithic population inthe north had to make a bid for migration to more for life sustenance suited parts of europe. Lakes had been filled up and the woods got more darkly inpenetrable that fish and games were in retreat.

Elsewhere people were gathering themselves behind shore walls and trying out a more sedentary life style, less disposed to mainly foraging they made a speciality out of fishing, collecting shell-fish and hunts on seals. The Maglemose people were typical beachcombers, their equipments bear witness of this habitus: barbs, fastened in wooden or bony shafts, oars, fish hooks(barbed or not), fishing nets and fir-wooden floats, barbed points with one or two jaddes edges, points with embedded hook and biforkated spearheads. They resided near lakes, moors and rivers in summer encampements, leaving for the winter.
they are furthermore associated with the domestication of the dog and took special delight for hazel-nuts. The oldesloe culture was one of the migrationist culture during the sea-transgression and while wandering south they absorbed Maglemose elements and its poorer derivation, the Duvensee culture, speading
from the weser to the low countries.

Here they're acknowledge in a dense concentration in the valleys of the Maas, settling always near rivers or lakes, keeping far off the sandy Veluwe(Holland) and Kempen(Flanders). They made use of the local resources of fireflints but systematic mining was too far-fetched for these people. The autochtone population would in time retreat to the less hospitable hill lands of the Ardennen (Luxemburg).

cosmocreator
Friday, September 12th, 2003, 06:33 PM
the frozen under-soil

In English, that's called permafrost. :)

Frans_Jozef
Friday, September 12th, 2003, 08:16 PM
the frozen under-soil

In English, that's called permafrost. :)

Yeah, well, it's a literal translation from Dutch: bevroren ondergrond.
;)

Triglav
Friday, September 12th, 2003, 11:01 PM
the frozen under-soil

In English, that's called permafrost. :)

Btw, every darned lingo I speak has that word in its vocab. :)