View Full Version : Nthropological Remains From The Neolithic Burials In The Boisman Bay

Friday, November 25th, 2005, 05:46 PM
Please edit the title of my post to "Anthropological...".

Tatiana A. Chikisheva, Elena G. Shpakova


At the end of 1994 A.N.Popov gave the authors a part of paleoanthropological collection (mainly of craniological materials) from the Neolithic burials of the Boisman-II site. The site is attributed to the period of developed Neolithic and on the base of radiocarbon dates placed in the chronological range of 5-6 mill. BC. In the last syntheses of archaeological sites of the Primorye, Boisman-II is related to the sites of the Zaisanovskaya Culture (Garkovik, 1994), though according to another standpoint it might be attributed to the original Boisman Culture (Popov, Krupianko, Moreva, 1992).

The importance of these materials can scarcely be exaggerated. Neolithic population of Asia has not undergone intensive anthropological studies. This is especially true for the Pacific Rim Region including the Amur River Basin, the Primorye, the Sakhalin Island, since this area and its soil-climatic conditions are insufficiently explored. Owing to the force of these conditions the bone materials practically are not preserved in graves and open air sites. However this epoch was a key period in the race-genetic history of human populations, since it was associated with the origin of stable combinations of anthropological traits bend to certain geographical areas, and with the formation of main race groups and their branches. During subsequent epochs construction of recent anthropological pattern in different regions of oikumene was in progress within the frame of these groups and branches (Bunak, 1956; 1959; Alexseev, 1974). The Neolithic link in the chain of morphological transformations of Mongoloids in the Asian Pacific Rim would make a valuable contribution to the interpretation of genesis of anthropological types in this region. Several morphological complexes can be traced within the Low Amur ethnic groups, and , while solving the problem of anthropological substrata of their representatives, paleoanthropological data are of crucial importance.

The whole complex of morphological information about ancient and recent population of the Far East is usually considered in the context of several main statements of the Mongoloid systematics. Division of the Mongoloid race into four groups postulated by N.N. Cheboksarov is the principal one. Two groups are considered to be main - the Northern (the Siberian Mongoloids) and the Southern (the South-Eastern Mongoloids), while the other two groups are intermediate - the North-Eastern (the Arctic Mongoloids) and the Eastern (the Far Eastern Mongoloids) (Cheboksarov, 1947). Later on he substantiated the morphological similarity of the Arctic, Far Eastern and Southern Mongoloids by combining them in the Pacific Rim branch of the Mongoloid race and contraposed them to the continental branch (Cheboksarov, 1949, 1951).

N.N. Cheboksarov conjectured the race differentiation among the Mongoloids as early as in Late Paleolithic (Cheboksarov, 1978). So, examining skulls from Shandong (Zhoukoudian, China), he recorded the features typical to the Pacific Rim Mongoloids , whom later on almost all the populations of Eastern and South-Eastern Asia were attributed to. Late Paleolithic fragment of a child skull from the Afontova gora II site (eastern Siberia, Krasnoyarsk) was interpreted as a representative of the continental Mongoloids whose populations subsequently were widely distributed in Siberia and Central Asia up to the Bolshoi Hingan.

In more or less generally accepted classification of Mongoloids proposed by Y.Y. Roginsky and M.G. Levin (1955), four groups, isolated by N.N. Cheboksarov, in fact acquired the taxopolitical rank of local races: North-Asian, Arctic, Far-Eastern, and South-Asian. Morphological peculiarity of populations combined in the aggregates on the level of local races is reflected in differentiation of these races in anthropological types.

In major anthropological classifications of Mongoloids, peoples of the Pacific Rim of northern Asia are divided into two aggregates. One of them has the status of the Arctic Race (Eskimos, Coastal and Deer Chukchi, Koriaks, Itelmens, Aleutians), the other one comprises different types of the Baikalian Group of the North-Asian Race (Negidals, Orochi, Nanaian, Nivkhes, Ulchi). Element of conditionality is bound with the multicomponent character of morphological complexes of the great bulk of population in this region. This complex anthropological composition of populations inhabiting the eastern extremities of the Asian continent was resultant of the many centuries old interaction between bearers of northern and southern race complexes. It is always necessary to isolate the dominating component while grouping them in subdivisions within this or that race.

It is expected that the given below analysis of the unique and actually the first paleoanthropological series from the Primorye would provide the information about anthropological similarities and differences among ancient populations of the Far East and contiguous regions. It probably would give the possibility to trace the dynamics of these traits starting from ancient times to the present descendants and would contribute to more accurate definition and improvement of some links in the genetic classification of the Asian Mongoloids.

Taking into account the significance of the series under publishing, the authors consider it necessary to give the description of individual characteristics of the buried individuals. Means of the main features are given in the tables 1-4.

INTERMENT 1 "A". Skull of a man who died at about 20 years of age was analyzed. Brain box and facial part have been reconstructed of the fragments. All skull bones were damaged (Fig. 1).

Endocranial sutures are highly thickened, but external ones are open: thickening is observed only on the middle part of the coronal and on the sagittal sutures. Sphenooccipital suture is not completely closed. The majority of tooth are well preserved.

The skull is ovoid. The brain box is large. Height diameter and cranial base measurements are especially large. The brain box is characterized as hypsi-metriocranial by length-height indices, and as mesocranial by breadth-height indices. A smooth junction of evenly convex bones is observed on the lateral view, while from the occipital one can see a vertical position of lateral sides and a wide flat upper part of the vault. Parietal tubers are strongly developed. The occiput is projective, with strongly developed nuchal lines forming a low ridge. The forehead is low and sloped, with large angle of transversal curvature. Relief of the glabela and superciliary arches is weakly pronounced. Mastoid processes are medium. Tympanic parts of temporals are thickened.

There are no any artificial deformations on the skull. Asymmetry of the occipital-parietal part is observed , which manifested in bone bulging on the right. Flatness in the obelion area along the sagittal suture and on the upper part of the squamous portion of the occipital bones accompanied with the reaction of bone tissue in the form of porosity .

The facial part is characterized by large diameters, orthognathy, strong horizontal flatness. Orbits are large, hypsiconchic, round. Nose is very high, of medium breadth, leptorrhine. The lower edge of nasal aperture is acute. Nose bones were lost posthumously. Maxilla is distinguished by its huge dimensions (especially, the breadth ) and massivity. Palatine bones are complicated with small ridges and projections of different form.

Mandible is massive, with short and wide ascending ramus, developed chin projection and protuberances.

INTERMENT 1 "Б". Skull fragments of a woman at the age of 40-45 years were studied. The calotte with numerous posthumous vault damages , right part of face and maxilla were reconstructed. Mandible with posthumously damaged condyles was preserved. The available teeth are worn to a large degree. On the alveolar process of the right portion of the maxilla there is evidence of strong inflammation which destroyed the bone base of molar tooth sockets. Vast area along the sagittal suture is flattened. Along both sides of the parietal the reaction of bone tissue in the form of irregularly thickened porous areas is observed. There is evidence of porosity on the upper part of the squamous portion of occipital . There are no artificial deformations.

Bones of the cranial vault are thick and heavy. The relief is feebly marked. The skull is sphenoid on the vertical view, and it is nearly dome-shaped on lateral view. Longitudinal diameter is small which causes very high transversal-longitudinal diameter. Porion-bregma height is large. The occipital is slightly sloping. Forehead is of medium width and medium inclination (almost straight), with large flattening on a level of minimal width. Glabella is smoothed down, but superciliary ridges are relatively high, at least if compared with the male skull from the Interment 1 "A". Temporal bones are distinguished by thickness of tympanic parts and high supramastoid crests.

The face is very wide, of medium height, orthognathic on the total angle of vertical profile, strongly flattened on the upper level. Orbits are of medium height and width, mesoconchy. Nasal aperture is narrow, with acute lower margin. Maxilla and palate are wide. Palatine surface is not smooth, with a great many of protuberances. Torus palatine can be outlined. Mandible is massive, with thick and high corpus, low and wide ascending ramus, well developed chin and protuberances.

INTERMENT 2. Skull of an old woman (about 60 years old) was examined. Brain box with destroyed base, damaged parietal and frontal bones, as well as face bones, reconstructed of many fragments, and mandible were preserved (Fig. 2). Almost all the teeth of maxilla were lost during life. Resorbsion of bone tissue is observed on the alveolar process in the area of the lost teeth. At the same time, teeth of mandible were preserved, though they are heavily worn (5 and 6 grades). Evidence of inflammation process is observed on margins of alveolar portion. The skull was artificially deformed. The deformation is evidenced by thickened areas on the lower lateral sections of parietal bones, on the upper section of the squamous portion of the occipital and the lower medial sections of parietal bones, as well as on the central part of the squamous portion of the frontal to the sides of a small sagittal ridge.

Both visually and according to the porion-bregma height, the skull is very high with large transversal and mean longitudinal diameters. It is brachycranial. Vertical contour of cranial vault is sphenoid, the lateral one is dome-shaped, while the occipital has the form of trapezium with arched apex. The forehead is narrow, flattened, sloping, with weakly pronounced prominences. The glabella and supercilliary are weakly pronounced. The parietals are evenly protuberant. The occipital is weakly projecting. The occipital-parietal part is asymmetrical due to the greater bulging and prominence of the right side. The mastoid processes are very large. Temporal bones are characterized by massive tympanic parts and large crests.

The face is orthognathic, very wide and very high, flat. The orbits are hypsiconchy, of small width. The nasal bridge is very wide and flat. The nasal bones are wide, flat, slightly bulging. They are extended to the frontal nasal process. The nasal is high and of medium width, leptorrhine. The lower margin of the nasal aperture is acute with strongly developed anterior nasal spine.

The mandible is large with wide inclined ascending rami of medium height. Nut-shaped swellings occur on the internal surface. Chin projection and chin prominences are strongly developed.

INTERMENT 3 "A". Destroyed calotte of a juvenile individual whose age, as evidenced by open sutures and size of proximal phalanx of the thumb, was 14 years. Only the left part of the cranial vault has been restored of multiple fragments. The sagittal contour of the preserved part reflects a distinctive configuration of the skull caused by artificial deformation ( of the high circular type) (Fig. 3). The skull is dome-shaped in the parietal section. The parietals are strongly curved. The occipital is flat and visually has no curvature. The frontal bone being flattened in the middle part has a torus-shaped bulge at the upper section of the squamous portion. Below the "torus" there is a weakly pronounced hollow resulted from applying a bandage. There is a hollow of the same kind on the middle part of the frontal bone also. On the basal view the skull probably was sphenoid, while on the occipital view it was arched with the side walls directed vertically. The skull is distinguished by the very large mastoid process, thickened tympanic part of the temporal and well pronounced supermastoid crest. Craniometrically, large ear height is remarkable.

The cranium seems to be mechanically destroyed after death of the individual. Numerous small fragments of the vault, absence of facial part, as well as the fact that the bones of calvaria were found about 1 m apart from the main skeleton support this assumption. In addition, though some fragments of the heavily destroyed right part of the skull were burnt, one fragment being burnt round is fitted to another not being affected by the fire. This points to the fact that the fragments of semi-destroyed vault were subjected to thermal treatment. Also burnt round fragments of epiphysis of the right fibula belonged to the woman from the Interment 3 were found together with the semi-burnt vault fragments.

INTERMENT 3 "Б". A skull (Fig.4) and fragments of postcranial skeleton of a young woman died at 20-25 years of age were preserved. Calotte and part of the facial section were reconstructed of numerous small fragments. In the obelion area there is a large hole (2x3 cm) of artificial origin ( supposedly , the skull was fractured posthumously with a heavy object ) with cracks radially running to all directions. Signs of artificial deformation of the low annular type with plates put beneath the bandage along the frontal and parietal cranial segments are observed. Traces left by the plates on the frontal bone are of the form of three small flat areas on the middle section of the squamous portion. One of them is located along the sagittal line, while the other two areas are symmetrically located on each side. The two areas on the parietal section side with the coronal suture. They occurs along the central lines of the parietal bones. There is the sagittal torus on the upper part of the frontal. It extends to the parietals. The deformation has altered the original form of the skull by reducing the natural curvature of the frontal section and making the curvature of the parietal section more pronounced. Reaction of bone tissue to the long termed mechanical coercion by plates and bandages is visible on the squamous portion of the frontal bone, parietal and the upper part of on the frontal bone.

The skull is large, very high, very long, of middle breadth, dolychocranial, hypsi- and acrocranial. The occipital-parietal section is asymmetrical due to greater bulging of bones of the left part. On the base view the skull is ovoid. The lateral contour is of artificially formed elongated dome shape. The occipital contour is trapezoidal with roof-shaped apex.

The skull bones are thick, though light and porous. Their relief is moderately developed with the exception of thickened tympanic part of the temporal, with the strongly developed supermastoid crest. The frontal is narrow, moderately sloping, markedly flattened at the level of the frontal-temporal landmarks. The face is high, orthognathic, very wide and flat. The orbits are of small diameters (especially transversal), mesochonchy according to the index. Nasal aperture is very narrow and high. Small fragments of nasal bones belong to the nasal root. They are of middle width, low and characterized by the low Symotical Index.

The mandible is large. All measurements are of high values with the exception of height of the ascending ramus which is low. The chin is well pronounced. At the level of P2-M1, M2 , the interior surface of the alveolar process is strengthened on the left with small nut-shaped swellings.

Fragments of two infant skeletons were found among the bones of the woman. One of children died at the age of 7-8 years. Fragments of the second skeleton belonged to a new-born child or a fetus.

INTERMENT 4 "A". Only left part of the mandible with P2 , M1, M2, M3 (in alveolar cell) and two small fragments of the cranial vault have been preserved. The fragments belonged to a woman of 20-25 years old. Small height of the mandibular ascending ramus is combined with its large width and low angle of inclination. The corpus is thick and not high. Porosity is distinctive on the available fragment of the parietal bone.

INTERMENT 4 "Б". The burial is represented by a fragment of the frontal left part of a child's mandible. According to the degree of development of deciduous teeth root system and size of embryos of permanent teeth, the child was about 3 years old.

INTERMENT 5. Skull of a young man who died at 25-30 years of age was examined. The skull lend itself well to reconstruction, though there are damages almost in all the sections (Fig. 5).

There is an evidence of artificial deformation. It is represented by three flattened areas on the frontal surface. One of them occurs along the sagittal line in the upper part of squamous portion of the frontal articulating with bregma. The other two areas are symmetrically located above the frontal tubers. There are also two flattened areas in the upper part of the parietal bones located symmetrically along the sagittal suture There are low transversal pre- and postcoronal ridges due to the coercion of deforming plates. These areas as well as the adjacent parts of bone tissue have rough porous surface which caused by the reaction of bone tissue to traumatic damage of soft tissues surrounding the bone. This damage was due to lingering application of deformative plates. Defects in the nerve-vascular system in the damaged areas caused necrotic alterations of soft tissue resulted in inflammatory process with subsequent deformations of adjacent areas of the bone. The deformation has altered shape of the skull by making its occipital-parietal part more flat. The skull is very high, very long, of medium breadth, dolychocranial, hypsi- and acrocranial. The occipital-parietal part is asymmetrical due to greater convexity of bones of the left side. On basal view the skull is ovoid; on lateral view it is close to dome-shape; on occipatal view it is distinctly pyriform with its side walls being vertically directed. The skull seems to be very massive with all measurements of high values and pronounced relief of the facial temporal bones. The temporal crests are hypertrophied.

The frontal bone is narrow, sloping, sharply flattened in cross section. The lower lateral angles are inflated. There is a ridge-shaped bulge above the upper margins of the orbits. The bulge and the very low superciliary arches are separated with a surface.

The face is orthognathic, very high, very wide. It is strongly flattened in the upper section and moderately in the middle one. The orbits are of medium breadth, hypsiconchy. The nasal is high and narrow. Nasal bones are very narrow, flat, of small projection. The nose bridge is also flat. The maxilla is of a large size. There are numerous tuberculoses and crests, and a palatine torus on the palate. The mandible is massive, thick, with high and wide ascending ramus. There are nut-shaped swellings on its interior surface.

The summarized characteristic of the craniological material from Boisman-2 is as follows. The skulls have mean transversal and longitudinal horizontal diameters. According to their ratio, the series may be defined as meso-brachycranial. The Cranial Index of the female group is higher than of the male one. The skull height is large and the maximum values of the feature are typical to female skulls. According to the combinations of the sagittal arch components (occipital-parietal and frontal-sagittal indices) and height-length index, which race differential meaning was demonstrated by Y.D. Benevolenskaya (Benevolenskaya, 1980, 1988, 1991), the series from Boisman-2 occupies an intermediate position between the Mongoloid groups of the continental and the Pacific Rim branches. By mean values of this features they display a similarity to the Deer and Coastal Chukchi, Ulchi and Nivkhi ( data on Boisman-2 were compared with the compendium by Y.D. Benevolenskaya [1991, p.130]). The frontal bone is narrow, moderately sloping. Relief of the superciliary arches is weak, the glabella is moderately projecting. However, the relief of the postfrontal structures of the brain box is of pronounced development. The temporal bones are especially pronounced. They have massive and long mastoid processes, great temporal crests and thickened tympanic bone. The temporal lines of parietals and nuchal lines of occipital are well pronounced. They form a ridge on male skulls. The maxillae are characterized by greater thickness, massivity, well pronounced relief, as well as by pronounced development of nut-shaped swellings. The same roughness of structure (large sizes, palatine torus, bone protuberances of different kind) is characteristic to maxillae. A peculiarity of the mandibles is a low and wide ascending ramus.

Facial skeleton is characterized by large breadth and height dimensions. As to the bi-zygomatic diameter, female skulls are more hypermorphous than the male ones. Values of height diameter are distributed along series in accordance with common tendencies of sex dimorphism. They are very large in male skulls, and large in female skulls.On horizontal view facial skeleton of skulls from Boisman-2 is strongly flattened. On vertical view it is hyperorthognathic. Orbits are of medium breadth, high. Nasal aperture is narrow and high. Its lower margin is often sharp. Sometimes it is represented by fossa prenasalis. Nasal bones are moderately wide and very flat on the male skull from the Interment 5. They are very wide but also very flat on the female skull from the Interment 2. Angles of their projection are small and very small on male and female skulls, correspondingly. One of the peculiarities of the Boisman-2 series is a special direction of sex dimorphism, when the trait most typical to its morphological type are manifested more distinctly on female skulls.

At first sight the estimation of taxonomic position of the morphological complex of skulls from the Boisman-2 site within the great Mongoloid race seems to be evident. Our attention is focused on large dimensions of facial skeleton, its sharp horizontal flatness, very weak projection of nasal bones, i.e. on the craniological features isolated by G.F.Debets as the most significant ones for the differentiation of north Asian anthropological types (Debets, 1951). Their digital characteristics in the Boisman-2 series approximate or even overstep the limits of the maximum degree of expression of features in ancient and recent series of Mongoloids. This craniological complex corresponds to the Baikalian group of types within the North-Asian race (Debets, 1951; Levin, 1958). Unfortunately, craniological remains do not allow us to use the samatological criteria being the principal ones in any classification scheme of race types (variations of facial soft tissues, in particular development of Mongoloid traits of eye area; eye and hair pigmentation; intensity of the tertiary hair cover). However, evident Mongoloid traits of facial section characteristic to the Boisman-2 craniological series seem to be good arguments for attributing it to morphological forms of the Baikalian race.

T.S. Balueva (1978) and V.P. Alexseev (1991), who had studied the synchronous though much more fragmented craniological material from Chertovy Vorota Cave, came to the analogous conclusion. The fact of occurrence of the remains with traits of the Baikalian type in the Primorye was regarded by V.P. Alexseev as an argument for considering this region as the place of origin of the Baikalian complex of traits, though he did not draw any concrete parallels between the early morphological variant from Chertovy Vorota Cave and modern craniological series of the Tungus-Manchurian peoples of the Priamurye and the Primorye who anthropologically are bearers of the Baikalian race complex

Craniologically, skulls from Boisman-2 and well preserved male skull from Chertovy Vorota Cave are actually identical. Hyperbrachycrany and a tremendous frontal breadth of the latter, being not typical to any of presently known Mongoloid groups, should probably be considered as individual peculiarities of the skull. But enormous height of the calvaria and very narrow nasal aperture seem to be of a special interest in the light of new materials from the Primorye. Presence of these traits not typical to Mongoloids of the Baikalian race and to the local racial types of Siberia in general do not permit of attributing large diameters and heightened flatness of the face to any of the types isolated in the modern anthropological medium of representatives of the North-Asian race.

While comparing craniometric data of Neolithic time from the Primorye with ancient and modern series of northern and eastern Asia, represented in Tables 1-4, one would note that the groups from the Primorye gravitate towards the representatives of the Arctic race which are the Deer Chukchi. Position of this group within the scheme of race types of the Asian Mongoloids can be determined as a transitional one between two "circles" of Mongoloid forms (the Continental and the Pacific Rim) on which, according to N.N. Cheboksarov, the Mongoloid race is differentiated. We only state the fact that the most specific morphological traits of the Boisman-2 craniological series, as well as the skull from Chertovy Vorota Cave are revealed in the combination of features typical to the Arctic Mongoloids in the variant similar to the Chukchi variant.

As to the calvaria, this is a special combination of main axis on which the basion height approximates to the breadth. As it is known, the Eskomos have the basion height diameter significantly exceeding the transversal one, while the occipital section of brain box is roof-shaped. This very combination, being noted as early as at the first stage of study of the Eskimo crania, was called the Eskimo or Arctic. For facial part it is a narrow nasal aperture. High alveolar process index ( 41.8 for male skulls from Boisman-2; 42.8 for the skull from Chertovy Vorota; 46.3 for female skulls from Boisman-2) should be added to the set of craniometrical features presented in the comparative tables 1-4. This feature was isolated by G.F. Debets while studying the paleoanthropological remains from the early Beringian burial grounds of Uelen and Ekven. By this feature representatives of the Arctic Mongoloids differ markedly from the North-Asian Mongoloids (representatives of both the Central Asian and the Baikalian groups of types have the index not exceeding 39) (Debets, 1975, p. 199; 1986, p.22, fig.2).

In Boisman-2 mandibles with wide and low ascending rami are characterized by craniometrical features typical to the Arctic Mongoloids (Debets, 1975, 1986). Presence of nut-shaped swellings and palatine torus, well pronounced relief of tympanic parts of parietal bones are observed practically on all skulls from Boisman-2. According to G.F. Debets (1975), these features are also typical to cranial series from Beringia.

Along with combination of traits typical to ancients and modern representatives of the Arctic race, skulls from Boisman-2 possess some traits forming the base of groups of the North Asian race: strongly flattened face and nose, high frontal-sagittal index. Just on the Chukchi skulls the complex of above mentioned craniometrical the Arctic and the Continental North Asian traits are phenotypically closer to appearance of Neolithic skulls from the southern Primorye. Phenotypical similarity with skulls of the Primorian Neolithic also occurs in craniometrical complex of modern ethnic groups inhabiting the Low Amur River Basin (Ulchi, Nivkhs), though the skulls of the latter differ from Neolithic skulls by wider nasal aperture.

Of course, the obtained morphological analogies between Neolithic and modern craniological materials represent chronological and territorial extrapolation and therefore cannot be interpreted in terms of grounding of some nuances of anthropological composition of this or that concrete people. Nevertheless, they lend grounds for several assumptions concerning the crucial moments in the race-genetic history of peoples of the Pacific coast on northern Asia and contiguous territories in general.

First of all, the question about the center of formation of the morphological complex underlying some variants of the Arctic race can be defined more exactly. The majority of anthropologists are unanimous in considering the Bering coast of Asia and northern islands of the Pacific were colonized by the Pacific Rim Mongoloids. Of course, discussions on problems of genesis of somatological and craniological traits of aboriginal groups of populations in northern Beringia can hardly be removed once and for all. In the extreme conditions of Arctic, where manifestation of the adaptive physical traits being subjects of selection is leveled, the degree of similarity on morphological criteria not always corresponds to the degree of real kindred and vice versa.

However, there are some very important data obtained by A.G. Kozintsev in the field of ethnic cranioscopy. He has discovered a complex of six features on cranial sutures. This features are characterized by alternative variability. They are not subjected to direct influence of environment and do not manifest correlation between each other and with traditional race differentiating traits on the intragroup level. In principle, this complex approximates to the universal one providing significant information in different regions and for different levels of race genesis (Kozintsev, 1988). Combination of two features (suborbital pattern, type II, and the index of complexity of suborbital pattern) characterizes the Arctic race as an entity and opposes it to representatives of all other Siberian groups. It appears to be a fragment of southern Mongoloid morphological complex (Kozintsev, 1986). Inhabitants of the South-Eastern Asia cannot be included into the groups who potentially might have common ancestors with the Arctic Mongoloids. Odontologic studies by Christy G. Turner provides the forcible arguments for this suggestion (Turner, 1983).

He has differentiated Mongoloids into two groups by dental morphological patterns: Sundadonts (Polynesians, Micronesians, Ainus) and Sindodonts (inhabitants of Siberia and Central Asia. northern Chinese, Japanese, Eskimos, Aleutians, Indians). Present state of knowledge presupposes placing of ancestral variants of the Arctic race complex in the vicinity of the center where the formation of the ancient East-Asian (Far-Eastern) variants of the Pacific branch of Mongoloids proceeded. At his time N.N. Chrboksarov came to the conclusion that the East-Asian group of anthropological types formed in the Hwang Ho River Basin and contiguous areas, i.e. Manchuria, northern Korea, partially eastern Tibet, the Priamurye (Cheboksarov, 1949). G.F. Debets believed that ancient skulls with typical "Eskimo" traits might be found "somewhere in southern latitudes of eastern Siberia or the Primorye" (Debets, 1968, p. 14). It appears that in the Neolithic paleoanthropological material from Boisman-2 and Chertovy Vorota the chances of the southern Primorye to be drawn into the seat of formation of the morphological substratum of the Arctic race complex have been realized.

Concrete analogy of craniometrical characteristics of the Primorian Neolithic skulls with skulls of the Deer Chukchi allows us to say a few words on the problem of the continental gravitation of the Kamchatian (Deer) variant of the Arctic race. According to G.F. Debets, it manifests itself in a series of somatological features (Debets, 1951). Y.D. Benevolenskaya perceives it in a high (North-Asian) value of the frontal-sagittal index (FSI) observed in the Chukot craniological series (Benivolenskaya, 1991). Skulls from Boisman-2 do not yield to representatives of the Central-Asian and the Baikalian groups in the FSI value. They differ markedly from the Far-Eastern race group possessing small values of the FSI. From the Arctic group the Deer Chukchi are similar to the Neolithic series from the Primorye by this feature, while the Eskimo populations strictly occupy an intermediate position between the North-Asian and the East-Asian Mongoloids. Continental traits in the Boisman-2 morphological complex in the context of our supposition on substratum role of the complex in race genesis of the Arctic groups testify to the original continental-Pacific "intermediateness" of the Arctic race type. We can not discuss the mechanism of its formation, since it would require data on correlative variability of sagittal arch components in series of early representatives of the both branches of Asian Mongoloids. Morphological heterogeneity is observed in the modern medium of the Arctic groups. It consists in a stronger expression of continental traits on Chukchi skulls, and the Pacific traits on Eskimo skulls. The heterogeneity probably originated in the medium of ancient populations of the Pacific Rim who formed the base of the Eskimo and Chukchi ancestors. Morphological similarity of modern group of the Deer Chukchi with the Neolithic series from southern Primorye is suggestive of this base for the Kamchatian variant of the Arctic race in the Boisman-2 anthropological type.

Craniological material from Boisman-2 and morphological similarity with the skull from Chertovy Vorota give ground to doubt the validity of attribution of the latter to the earliest representatives of the Baikalian race type (Baluev, 1978) as well as of the supposition concerning the localization of the core center of formation of the Baikalian complex of traits in the southern Far East (Alexseev, 1991).

These two presupposition based on a single find do not conform to archaeological data. So, during Neolithic three large areas were formed in the southern part of the Far East: the Promorye, the Lower and Middle Amur River. There cultural development proceeded by original ways, but in general it was subordinated to regional and chronological traditions (Okladnikov, Derevianko, 1973). In the Primorye in its turn, the northern Primorye and southern Primorye were isolated as an independent ethno-cultural areas (Brodiansky, 1977). Study of a variety of Neolithic cultures in the southern Far East resulted in grounding of the concept of the Far Eastern nidus off Neolithic cultures (Okladnikov, 1970; Okladnikov, Derevianko, 1973). Archaeological region where some common typological traits and even cultural unity can be traced during several chronological stages (from Neolithic to the end of the Early Iron Age) includes the Middle and Lower Priamurye, the Primorye, northern Manchuria and the extreme north of Korea. According to D.L. Brodiansky, it may be singled out as the Priamurian-Manchurian archaeological province (Brodiansky, 1975, 1985). Deep local roots of the Neolithic cultures of the southern Far East have been proved archaeologically (Okladnikov, 1970; Derevianko, 1976). Originality of the Neolithic tribes of the Priamurye and the Primorye manifested most distinctly in the art: in peculiar ornamentation of ceramics and rock-paintings. In opinion of some scholars (Derevianko, 1976), during Neolithic, Bronze and Early Iron ages the formation of the earliest Paleo-Asian ethno-cultural layer took place in the southern part of the Russian Far East. In first centuries A.D. in the Amur River Basin and the Primorye the Mohe sites appeared. They replaced the Poltsevian ones and differed markedly from them. The Mohe tribes, on which base the Nuizhens were formed , were undoubtedly Tungus-Manchurian. Probably with the Mohe people one should bind the penetration of the mass Tungus population to the Amur River Basin. The Mohe were the bearers of the Baikalian morphological complex. As an component, they participated in the formation of anthropological composition of the Tungus-Manchurian peoples of the Far East (Alexseev, 1980). At the present stage, real paleoanthropological data testify to the fact that the Mohe were the first representatives of the Baikalian group of anthropological types in the Priamurye. Anthropological layer associated by its sources with the Neolithic population of the southern Primorye, is traced in the Paleo-Asian population of the Pacific coast of northern Asia and as isolated elements in the modern groups of the Tungus-Manchurian population of the Far East.

Another peculiarity reflecting ethno-cultural connections was observed on the skulls from Boisman-2 by the authors of this paper. This is evidence of artificial deformations made by pressing bandages and plates causing circular deformation. In Eurasia the earliest circularly deformed skulls are attributed to steppe cultures of the Bronze Age in the Lower Povoljhie, the Priasovie, and the Minusinsk Hollow( Zhirov, 1940; Ginzburg, 1949; Glazkova, Chtetsov, 1960; Firstein, 1973). For the Sarmatian and Hun tribes head deformation was a very popular and widely spread phenomenon. Deformed skulls are found in every series of the Hun-Sarmatian time. In the Far East the practice of skull deformation was encountered for the first time in the series from Boisman-2. Attribution of the site to an absolutely different (not intra-Asian steppe) historico-cultural province is suggestive of an independent center of development of the tradition of head deformation existed in the medium of the Pacific and coastal fishing tribes. The deformations similar in form were described in the skull series found in the eastern China in the Shandong Province (the Hwang Ho River Basin): in the Neolithic burial ground of Dawenkou (the Yanshao Culture, 3 mill. BC ) (Yen Yen, 1972) and in the burials of the Panmiao site (4-3 mill. BC, the Han Dynasty ) (Zhy Hong, 1990). N.N. Cheboksarov observed the tradition of artificial alteration of skull form in Chine on Hainan (Cheboksarov, 1973). It is possible that there was a common ethno-cultural base for emergence of this tradition for Neolithic tribes of the Primorye and early population of north-east China.

Results obtained while studying the craniological materials from burials of the Boisman-2 settlement can be summarized as follows.

During Neolithic time in the Primorye the population of at least two cultures (Rudninskaya and Boismanovskaya ) was anthropologically uniform. The morphological complex of the population occupies an intermediate position between the combinations of anthropometric features typical to ancient and modern representatives of the Continental and the Pacific branches of the Mongoloid race, however they are closer to the Pacific Mongoloids.

Observed coincidence of the tradition of artificial skull deformation existing both in the Neolithic southern Primorye and in north-eastern China is of a particular interest. Since the specific anthropological similarity between the Neolithic population of the southern Primorye and the group represented by the Dawenkou burial ground of the Yanshao Culture has not been recorded, it seems to be logical to conjecture the existence of a special oriental nidus of the tradition of head deformation, rather than a common genetic layer as the basis of anthropological types of China and the Primorye.

Anthropometric and anthroposcopic features of the skulls from Boisman-2 form a combination which is close to the ancient and modern series of the Arctic race. The maximum similarity with the Deer Chukchi has been revealed. Our observations corroborate the hypothesis of the Pacific way of settling of Beringia. It also may be conjectured that the base for the Kamchatian variant of the Arctic race might form in anthropological medium of Neolithic population of the Boisman-2 type. The presupposition on localization the nidus of the formation of the Baikalian type of the North-Asian race seems to be unfounded , since in the Lower Priamurye and the Primorye the first representatives of the Baikalian type were the Mohe tribes.


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