View Full Version : The Alpinids in France [by Dr. George Montandon, in 'L'Ethnie Francaise']

Thursday, October 20th, 2005, 11:35 PM

I would like to add to this sub-forum some information about the alpinids in France. I took the text from the work made by Dr. George Montandon: "L'Ethnie Francaise". The text was translated from the French by a good friend (Duchemin) who kindly made possible to have the text in English for non-French speaking people.

The Alpine component.

It's rather rare, have we said, that a race fits to an ethnia, and if there's a country which has not any proper race, it's indeed France. However, if one wished at all cost designate a proper racial type for the French nation, it would be the Alpine type. The Alpine type has synonymous like Celtic type, Cevenol, Celto-ligure, Celto-Slav. The Alpine type term is highly preferable.

Involontarly, the Cevenol word gives back to a local discussion; the one of celtic type has the same disadvantage in an inferior degree, but it has above all the inconvenient to make mistaken a racial notion for a ethnic notion, and that even if the reader is aware, as it is the case in this book, "Celts" do not mean a people, but only a race, race which, as predominant as it may have been in some ethnias, is not for that less represented in all ethnias which have been created on the French soil.

The Celto-Slav expression, comes from the time where one wanted to assimilate, because of their brachycephaly among other reasons, the Eastbaltic type with the Alpine type. Last, the fact that Strabon talks about Ligures as being short and stocky, we have inferred that the Ligures were a brachycephalic "race".

Then, since we have a brachycephalic race in their country, the Alpine race (and we have no data which can make us conlude to the simultaneous presence of two brachycephalic races), there is no reason to consider the Ligures as a race, but as an ethnia; we give the name of Ligures, as we make it usually, to the first Gaul population whose latin writers talk to us about, but, as that population seemed to have its center Southward, it is really likely that that ethnia was predominantly composed of not only of Alpines -short, stocky, broad head-, but also of Mediterreaneans -short, thin (hurled) , average head in a secondary type-, all of three being brownish, and all of three still being the dominant types in Southern France.

Later, forward it seems, from an invasion comparable to germanic invasions, but which would have taken place a few thousand years before (invasion called Gallic or Galate), Northern France subnordic element was reinforced (it was not free of it, taking in account the formation of more or less important blondism in all those Northern region) and the political preponderance moved more Northward; the new ethnia wich formed, gallic ethnia, was composed in a majority of Subnordic elements and Alpine or Celtic elements. So France is mostly made of Mediterranean element in the South, Alpine in the center, Subnordic in the North, the celtic element or Alpine being the pivot of the raciologic history of Gaul and France.

What's the Alpine accurate description?

- The complexion (hair color, eyes color) is brownish. Withouth being as dark as the Mediterranean's complexion, hair and eye are dark by born; in the pure Alpine, hair is not dark chestnut but blackish. Concerning is nature, hair can be straight, but straight and thin and not straight and thick (roide?) as in Mongoloid, or soflty module, but far less module than blond hair. The skin is a mat white, which is not rosy as the Nordic's one, nor swarthy as the Mediterranid's. The stature is usually said short, but it is in reality under-average, with 163 cm on average in France (so Ibero-insulars have a under-average stature, which is nearly short since it is 162-161 cm.); moreover the Alpine body shape is very different from the Ibero-insular: the Alpine is stocky, the Ibero-insular is gracile. Up here, in our description, it is this body shape difference which more distingue the Alpine from the ibero-insular, and the capital second description between the two types is made thanks head's morphology.

- Indeed, if, on the man, it is the Nordic who, at first sight, is opposed to the other European types, on the skeleton it is the Alpine which is opposed to Nordic and Ibéeo-insular joined together. While these two last have a more or less lengthened skull (slightly for the Nordic slightly, strongly for the Ibero-insular), Alpine has a broad skull, very broad, with 86 cephalic index on average. The opposition between the Alpine skull and Nordic skulls and Ibéro-insular is thus brutal and it is not necessary to insist there; on the other hand, just as it is necessary to insist on what differentiates the differential of Alpine diagnosis must be established by comparision with another closed skull, since belonging with the Alp-Armenian race as well, namely with Dinarid skull; and this diagnosis is important for France, because a number of Dinaric dwell France.

The Alpine skull can be called a broad skulled and the Dinaric a short skulled - which is moreover the same for the calculation of the cephalic index and made both of them brachycephalic indivials. But Alpine skull, seen from the top, is more rounded, the more angular skull is Dinaric, as if its posterior part had been cut of a blow of axe.

It is the same of remainder on some side as one looks at skull : Alpine has more rounded countours, Dinaric more angulars; thus the forehead will be more rounded, seen from the top from profile, in Alpine than it is in Dinaric. But the main difference between the two skulls comes from the fact that its unit is harmonious in the Alpine, not harmonious in Dinaric - in the pure Dinaric- i.e. the Alpine's face is broad like the skull box, while the Dinaric's face is lengthened. Here is the capital difference, it is the case to say it, between the two types in question, whereas many anthropologists seem to know only the difference of stature that distinguishes them.

The observation of a short type, squat, of broad diameters, generally blood humoured, in opposition to a hurled type with diameters rather narrow and temperament lymphatic, gave place, in the early XXth century, to works of the school known as constitutionnist. Its first reports were born in France (Sigaud, Chaillou, Mac-Auliffe, Thooris) and the movement, since, extended out of of this country' borders.

This school wanted to see, in the differences of the individuals, personal differences, due to the constitution, the race being thus more or less denied or, at least, being put in the background. Without disputing the interest of many work to which the new tendency - as all new tendency - gave place, misfortune, for the attempt to deny race, it is that :

1º the major races, Whites, Yellows, Blacks, etc., can't be all denied, apart from all constitution facts
2º certain races offer such constitution rather than such other, so that the constitution can be racial
3º the geographical distribution of races, and, for France, that of the Alpine type for example, as chart 20 shows it, is territorial and not ubiquitous, the state of the things in Paris not having to make illusion on the distribution of the racial types by areas.

However, it is manifest that the constitution called Eurysom (?) (with broad body) or Pyknic (compacts) is very frequent among the Alpine type, but it is precisely that this constitution is to be mentioned like one of the characteristics of the Alpine subrace.

A series of recent work, of which those of the Lwow School, make necessary to come to a conclusion about the relation of the Alpine type with the Lapponoid type. By geometrical methods, that only awkwardly confirm morphology data, and that lead to an involuntary anti-evolutionism considering the postulated immutability of the basic types, this school admits 4 fundamental Europoid types (4 angles of a square) from where 6 secondary races by interbreeding are derived (diagonals and sides joining together the 4 angles of the square), thus 10 racial types - the figure of DENIKER, from which the aforementioned types are borrowed, except for some alternatives.

These 4 fundamental types are, for CZEKANOWSKI and its school, the standards: Nordic, Mediterranean, dinaric and alpine, which correspond about, in the current raciologic language, with the types: nordic, Mediterranean, dinaric and alpine (these two last returning for us, very different that they are, in the alp-Armenian race). We can ask ourselves : is the Alpine of the majority of the authors to assimilate to Czekanowski Lapponoid ?

The Lapponoid is generaly annexed to Mongoloids and we formerly shared this manner of seeing (in "L'ologénèse humaine"). A more attentive study of the question, namely of the literature, plates and skulls, has made us since fact of considering (in "La RACE. Les races") Lapponoid like an ancient branch of Europoids, in which the Mongoloid characters are not yet separated from Europoid characacters. On this particular point of the appartenence of Lapponoid to the major Europoid race, we thus agree with the Lwow School. This one recognizes in Lapponoids Alpine features added with Mongoloid features, as it comes from the characters enumaration that the aforementioned School allots it (see above mentioned SCHWIDETZKY) :

Relatively short stature (less than 165 cm).
Long-shaped trunc.
Short and wide hands and feet.
Dark hair and eyes.
Yellowish skin.
Short nose, moderately wide, flat.
Wide face with high cheekbones.
Very short head.

The mention in particular of the yellowish skin and the high cheekbones indicates Mongoloid factors and the double question that, of agreement on the presence of Europoid elements and some Mongoloid elements add to Lapponoid, it is necessary to ask is the following :

a) How is it necessary to conceive the type or the Laoponoids types as for their formation?
b) Can the Lapponoid type replace the alpine type in the consideration of the European raciology like one of the basic types?

The association of the Alpine type with certain Mongoloid characters can reliever of three processes:

1º A relatively recent interbreeding, and it appears certain that given the Asian invasions of the historical period numbers skulls more or less Mongoloids of Poland and moreover in the West arose with this process.

2º A very old interbreeding, protohistoric if it is not prehistoric, the consideration of the alive Lapp like Lappish skull (of Lapland) incentive to this manner of seeing: nose much more raised than it is the case among any other race in the world (thus not a borrowed and attenuated character), low orbits, contrary to what one finds in Mongoloid, which orbits are high, the two orbits on the same horizontal level, which is a primitive character, noticeable among others on Cro-Magnon skulls and those recently described of Afalou-bou-Rhummel connected to those of Cro-Magnon: all that meaning that the Mongoloid characters are not associated with the Alpine type paradigm, but with a Lapponoid type if one wants, but old.

3º An association even older of characters, dating from the time when the Eurasiatic relatively undifferentiated type had both Europoid characters and mongoloid characters, of which thereafter the ones were reinforced, the others attenuated, while they separated in two types, the ones more Europoids, others more Mongoloids. These processes are dictated by the theory ologenist, but it is acceptable by those who, without wanting all the theses of the theory, accept the thesis of the old types less differentiated than the current ones.

However, wether it is by old interbreeding or lack of differentiation by origin, the Lappish type and the Lapponoid type - standard Lappish outside Lapland - show a facies that is valid only for themselves and could not be mistaken for the Alpine type, even if the latter derives from the Lapponoid type (besides current Lapponoid which can have reinforced some of its characters); what it is necessary to put in parallel, these are the skull of the same time, without what there would be no reason not to replace, in the enumeration of the fundamental types of Europe, such other current type by the type of Cro-Magnon.

And if the Lwow school claims that there are today Laponoid subjects outside Lapland, it should be wondered, without denying the existance of true Lapponoid outside Lapland, if the surface methods of this school make it possible to dissociate the pseudo-Lapponoids (moderne Alpines crossbred of modern Mongoloids). Instead of to consider Alpine as secondary compared to Lapponoid (relation which could be right as for the evolutionary succession of the types), one must, for the analysis of the current constitutive types of whole Europe, to thus maintain the Alpine like the facial type alp-Armenian paradigm of Western Europe, and the Dinaric like the racial type alp-Armenian paradigm of South Eastern (?) Europe, while the lapponoid type, any relative that it is of the Alp-Armenian and perhaps older than him, must be maintained with the variation, precisely from its characters of old europoidism, associated with mongoloidism characters.

This discussion shows that there are undeniable affinities between the Alpine one and Lapponoid, and Deputy for Drôme, reporter on the 1934 war budget, Léon Archimbaud, can be given like one these Alpines with Lapponoid affinities.

Another assumption, of historico-social value, was proposed as for the Alpine or Celtic type. It would represent, compared to subnordic, something of more democratic, moreover popular, and would be the prolongation of the brachycephalic race subjugated by Subnordics - those being not only consisted by the Germanics, but also Gallics.

The French revolution and the democrasitation era which followed would be thus a revenge of the indigenous element on the dominant caste, allogenous (alien) in the beginning, of larger stature in any case, more or less blonde, more or less dolichocephalic (when its representatives are tall and blondes, and dolichocephalics, one does not have any more business with subnordics, but with Nordics).

It may be that there is something fair in this appreciation of historical facts, but like very general indication only, because, today, the executives of the nation are recruited in all the racial types populating the territory. It is striking however to note how much the Alpine type is frequent in the services of the Parisian police force, not as much among the agents in uniform, than among the special services agents who are dressed like civilian. Perhaps it is due to the fact that they are recruited among the "strapping men (strong)". In any case, it is an unquestionable fact. The blond Frankish type (nordic) put aside, the Alpine type is the most recognizable racial type in France.

It is that it is also a frank (not Frankish) type, extrem. Any moment, in the street, you can label without hesitating Alpine the small, solid, brownish, with blood face passer. The type strikes by its clearness and its frequency: it looks like a mass production. One could almost, for France, oppose the Alpine one to not-Alpine, the latter containing, in an infinite gradation, all those who oscillate between this Alpine dominating, the much more rare Ibero-insular and very rare pure Nordic. The true alpine type will constitute approximately 30% of the population of France.