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Tore
Thursday, August 14th, 2003, 02:28 AM
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v68n3/002146/002146.html

Scroll down about 2/3 down the page and click on Table 3.

It is under the sub-heading genetic distances.

Tore
Thursday, August 14th, 2003, 09:42 PM
I have manually printed out the data for analytical purposes.

Figures are in percentages.

Note: the Sub-haplogroups of H, J, K, T, and U have respectively been combined into one larger haplogroup.

Haplogroups A, B, C, and D are Mongoloid.

Austria/Switzerland

A 0
B 0
C 0
D 0
H 54
I 2.14
J 10.16
K 9.09
T 6.41
U 13.34
V 2.67
W 1.60
X .53
Z 0
Other0

European Russia

A 0
B 0
C 1.86
D 1.86
H 42.33
I 1.40
J 7.91
K 2.79
T 10.23
U 23.27
V 4.19
W 2.33
X 0
Z .47
Other 1.40

Finland/Estonia

A 0
B 0
C .50
D 0
H 44.06
I 2.48
J 6.94
K 2.48
T 6.94
U 22.30
V 6.44
W 5.45
X 1.49
Z 0
Other .99

France/Italy

A 0
B 0
C .4
D .4
H 53.62
I .81
J 6.04
K 6.05
T 14.52
U 10.09
V 2.82
W .81
X 2.02
Z 0
Other 2.42

Germany

A 0
B 0
C .19
D .38
H 48.96
I 2.28
J 9.3
K 6.64
T 9.11
U 13.03
V 5.12
W 2.09
X .76
Z 0
Other 1.14

Iceland

A 0
B 0
C .43
D 0
H 47.55
I 4.71
J 14.31
K 7.72
T 10.07
U 11.57
V 1.71
W .21
X 1.50
Z .21
Other 0

Ireland

A 0
B 0
C 0
D 0
H 47.65
I 2.34
J 14.06
K 7.81
T 9.37
U 9.37
V 7.03
W 2.34
X 0
Z 0
Other 0

Orkney

A 0
B 0
C 0
D 0
H 50.66
I 3.29
J 9.86
K 9.09
T 5.92
U 12.5
V 1.32
W 1.97
X 7.24
Z 0
Other 0

Scandinavia

A .16
B 0
C 0
D .16
H 48.53
I 1.86
J 10.24
K 4.97
T 8.84
U 16.31
V 5.74
W 1.55
X .62
Z .62
Other .47


Scotland

A 0
B .11
C 0
D 0
H 44.67
I 4.38
J 14.44
K 6.73
T 10.09
U 11.78
V 4.26
W .90
X 1.68
Z .62
Other .11

Bulgaria/Turkey

A 0
B 0
C 1.96
D 4.90
H 38.23
I 1.96
J 14.7
K 5.88
T 9.8
U 11.76
V 0
W 3.92
X 3.92
Z 0
Other 2.94

Spain/Portugal

A .85
B 0
C 1.14
D .28
H 58.52
I .57
J 5.96
K 4.55
T 5.97
U 10.51
V 5.97
W 1.99
X 1.7
Z 0
Other 1.99

England/Wales

A .23
B 0
C 0
D 0
H 52.52
I 3.03
J 14.45
K 6.06
T 7.69
U 9.56
V 3.73
W 1.63
X .93
Z 0
Other .47


Western Isles/Isle of Skye

A .41
B 0
C 0
D 0
H 34.56
I 6.50
J 14.64
K 13.42
T 12.6
U 13.42
V 2.03
W .41
X 2.03
Z 0
Other 0


Saami

A 0
B 0
C 0
D 5.11
H 5.68
I 0
J 0
K 0
T 0
U 45.45
V 39.77
W .57
X .62
Z 3.41
Other 0

Polak
Friday, August 15th, 2003, 03:35 PM
Well done Tronder!

Sadly, I have not been able to find similar data for Poland.

Tore
Friday, August 15th, 2003, 09:47 PM
Haplogroups A,B,C,D

As previously stated, these haplogroups are generally confined to East Asia/Siberia, and are thus, typically Mongoloid.

However, it should be noted that Haplogroups A, C, and D improve the body's resistance to cold.

http://www.racearchives.com/archived/viewnews.asp?newsID=498562037945

Perhaps the moderate incidence of Haplogroup D among the Saami (5.11%) and even smaller incidence Haplogroups C and D among European Russians (3.72) can be attributed to this, although Mongoloid admixture is certainly not out of question.

Haplogroup H

High Frequencies of Haplogroup H in Spain/Portugal(58.52%) as well as England/Wales(52.52%) allow this haplogroup to be losely defined as Old European.


Haplogroup I

Haplogroup I is generally seen at <5% levels among the Europeans populations examined, with the highest frequency found in The Western Isles/Isle of Skye/NW Scottish (6.50%).
Coincidentally, The Western Isles/Isle of Skye/NW Scottish have the lowest levels of Scandinavain mtDNA lineages (11.5%) among populations of the North Atlantic, so a Viking/Germanic link is not plausible. I could possibly be an Upper Paleolithic genetic relic . Haplogroup I is virtually absent (<1%) in Southern Europe.

Haplogroup J

Haplogroup J is a neolithic gene marker, showing the spread of agriculture through Northern and Central Europe with one branch; the other showing the Mediterranean influence in the Britsh Isles.

Haplogroup K

The presence of Haplogroup K shows a strong correlation with the presence of Haplogroup I, as it to is highest in The Western Isles/isle of Skye/NW Scottish (13.42%), and high among The Austrians/Swiss (9.09%), The Orkney Islanders (9.09%), The Irish (7.81%), and the Icelanders (7.72%). Such evidence suggests an Upper Paleolithic link as well.

Haplogroup T

Highest Incidences are in France/Italy (14.52%) and European Russia (10.23%). Make your conclusions from there, 'cause I sure as hell can't.

Haplogroup U

Battle-Axe/Corded. Maternal equivalent of hg 3/Eu 19/R1a.
High incidences are in European Russia (23.27%), Finland/Estonia (22.30%), and Scandinavia (16.31%). The Saami have 45.45% of Haplogroup U, although it is a different variation (U5b1), than what is otherwise the norm.

Haplogroup V

All incidences of V are <10%, with exception to the Saami (39.77%), suggesting the origins of the Haplogroup.

Haplogroup W

Highest incidences of W are found among Finns/Estonians (5.45%) and European Russians (2.33%), suggesting Eastern Link.

I refrained from analyzing Haplogroups X and Z.

Polak
Saturday, August 16th, 2003, 06:45 AM
Haplogroups A,B,C,D

As previously stated, these haplogroups are generally confined to East Asia/Siberia, and are thus, typically Mongoloid.

However, it should be noted that Haplogroups A, C, and D improve the body's resistance to cold.

http://www.racearchives.com/archived/viewnews.asp?newsID=498562037945

Perhaps the moderate incidence of Haplogroup D among the Saami (5.11%) and even smaller incidence Haplogroups C and D among European Russians (3.72) can be attributed to this, although Mongoloid admixture is certainly not out of question.

Haplogroup H

High Frequencies of Haplogroup H in Spain/Portugal(58.52%) as well as England/Wales(52.52%) allow this haplogroup to be losely defined as Old European.


Haplogroup I

Haplogroup I is generally seen at <5% levels among the Europeans populations examined, with the highest frequency found in The Western Isles/Isle of Skye/NW Scottish (6.50%).
Coincidentally, The Western Isles/Isle of Skye/NW Scottish have the lowest levels of Scandinavain mtDNA lineages (11.5%) among populations of the North Atlantic, so a Viking/Germanic link is not plausible. I could possibly be an Upper Paleolithic genetic relic . Haplogroup I is virtually absent (<1%) in Southern Europe.

Haplogroup J

Haplogroup J is a neolithic gene marker, showing the spread of agriculture through Northern and Central Europe with one branch; the other showing the Mediterranean influence in the Britsh Isles.

Haplogroup K

The presence of Haplogroup K shows a strong correlation with the presence of Haplogroup I, as it to is highest in The Western Isles/isle of Skye/NW Scottish (13.42%), and high among The Austrians/Swiss (9.09%), The Orkney Islanders (9.09%), The Irish (7.81%), and the Icelanders (7.72%). Such evidence suggests an Upper Paleolithic link as well.

Haplogroup T

Highest Incidences are in France/Italy (14.52%) and European Russia (10.23%). Make your conclusions from there, 'cause I sure as hell can't.

Haplogroup U

Battle-Axe/Corded. Maternal equivalent of hg 3/Eu 19/R1a.
High incidences are in European Russia (23.27%), Finland/Estonia (22.30%), and Scandinavia (16.31%). The Saami have 45.45% of Haplogroup U, although it is a different variation (U5b1), than what is otherwise the norm.

Haplogroup V

All incidences of V are <10%, with exception to the Saami (39.77%), suggesting the origins of the Haplogroup.

Haplogroup W

Highest incidences of W are found among Finns/Estonians (5.45%) and European Russians (2.33%), suggesting Eastern Link.

I refrained from analyzing Haplogroups X and Z.


From what I know, A B C and D need not be Mongoloid. And if you look at their distribution, they seem to be found all over the place, even where there were no known Mongol incursions, like in Iberia.

On the other hand, I know that M is definitely a Mongoloid (East Asian) marker.


Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism was examined in three Russian populations from the European part of Russia (Stavropol krai, Orel oblast, and Saratov oblast). This analysis showed that mitochondrial gene pool of Russians was represented by the mtDNA types belonging to haplogroups H, V, HV*, J, T, U, K, I, W, and X. A mongoloid admixture (1.5%) was revealed in the form of mtDNA types of macrohaplogroup M. Comparative analysis of the mtDNA haplogroup frequency distribution patterns in six Russian populations from the European part of Russia indicated the absence of substantial genetic differences between them. However, in Russian populations from the southern and central regions the frequency of haplogroup V (average frequency 8%) was higher than in the populations from more northern regions. Based on the data on mtDNA HVS1 sequence variation, it was shown that the diversity of haplogroup V in Russians (h = 0.742) corresponded to the highest h values observed in Europe. The reasons for genetic differentiation of the Russian population (historical, ecological, and adaptive) are discussed.

Polak
Saturday, August 16th, 2003, 06:56 AM
I also have a sneaking suspicion that K is a Celtic marker.

Tore
Saturday, August 16th, 2003, 08:20 PM
I also have a sneaking suspicion that K is a Celtic marker.

Do you mean Celtic as in Keltic Nordic, or Celtic as in the aboriginal inhabitants of the British Isles?

Both are possibilities here.


From what I know, A B C and D need not be Mongoloid. And if you look at their distribution, they seem to be found all over the place, even where there were no known Mongol incursions, like in Iberia.

Indeed the presence, albeit slight, of such haplogroups in Southern Europe arises questions as historically the source cannot be Mongoloid.

Perhaps we have here the female equivalent of Hg 26, in which the gene marker indicates a Mongoloid lineage in some case, and in others, not.

Polak
Friday, September 12th, 2003, 05:23 AM
From what I know, A B C and D need not be Mongoloid. And if you look at their distribution, they seem to be found all over the place, even where there were no known Mongol incursions, like in Iberia.

On the other hand, I know that M is definitely a Mongoloid (East Asian) marker.


I'm such a clown.

Haplogroup M includes C, D, E, G and Z.

They may all be Mongoloid markers, but some may be ancient markers from before the Caucasoids and Mongoloids split, left over because they are somehow useful (cold resistance?).

Other Mongoloid mtDNA markers are A, B and F.

Unregistered
Friday, September 12th, 2003, 06:03 PM
2000 years ago Whites occupied the whole of Asia, to the Japan Sea, and probably parts of America too. But these peoples were unable to stand against the Mongols and they exterminated them or mongrelized them. Northern Chinese carry now only 10% White genes, 50% Mongol and the rest, Han genes. Even in White last reducts such as Central Europe, it is only about 70% White and the rest is Mongol. The Mongol contribution is on the male line, as we are talking about forced miscegenetion. Looking at isolines of B type blood in Euroasian continent, we see that B is purest in the Mongol heartland and its frequency declines with distance from this powerful human family. Gengis Khan has about 60 million direct descendants, some of them surely members of this group.

Polak
Saturday, September 13th, 2003, 04:06 AM
2000 years ago Whites occupied the whole of Asia, to the Japan Sea, and probably parts of America too. But these peoples were unable to stand against the Mongols and they exterminated them or mongrelized them. Northern Chinese carry now only 10% White genes, 50% Mongol and the rest, Han genes. Even in White last reducts such as Central Europe, it is only about 70% White and the rest is Mongol. The Mongol contribution is on the male line, as we are talking about forced miscegenetion. Looking at isolines of B type blood in Euroasian continent, we see that B is purest in the Mongol heartland and its frequency declines with distance from this powerful human family. Gengis Khan has about 60 million direct descendants, some of them surely members of this group.


70% White and the rest Mongol?

Which gene markers are you saying are Mongol?

At present, I am aware that Mongol paternal lineages may reach as much as 3% in Central Europe if you count Tat-C as Mongol.

If you don't, then the Mongol paternal contribution may be 0%.

Female Mongol lines may reach as much as 2%, but that's probably an overestimation too.

In terms of Genhgis Khan and his soldiers, there is actually a gene linked to them, and it doesn't show up in Europe at all.

It shows up all over Central Asia, in Iran, and even in Pakistan, but not in Europe.

Here is the link...

http://web.unife.it/progetti/genetica/Giorgio/PDFfiles/ajhg2003.pdf


So do you have any evidence to back up what you're saying, or is this just based on your own rough "observations"?


And blood group B is not a Mongol trait. That's because it formed BEFORE the split between Mongolids and Caucasoids.

Tore
Saturday, September 13th, 2003, 07:25 AM
It shows up all over Central Asia, in Iran, and even in Pakistan, but not in Europe.

I don't have adobe at the moment, thus I am unable to access the article, yet would I be correct in stating that this gene marker is Haplogroup 10/36?

Polak
Saturday, September 13th, 2003, 09:08 AM
I don't have adobe at the moment, thus I am unable to access the article, yet would I be correct in stating that this gene marker is Haplogroup 10/36?


Yes, the marker in question is Haplogroup 10.

xa
Saturday, September 27th, 2003, 01:19 AM
Hi,

I wonder if someone could tell me what is the variation that otherwise is the norm of the Saami, instead of the variation U5b1, and if that belongs to a haplotype that is considered Asian?

When looking at the article The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo Sapiens Nov. 2000 I can see in their study that 41.7 has haplotype M170 (Eu7), 41.7 has M178 (Eu14), 8.3 has M173 (Eu18) and another 8.3 has haplotype M17 (Eu 19).

http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/Science_2000_v290_p1155.pdf


When looking at the article A Continental Perspective On Y-Chromosome Diversity - Aug. 2001 they mention the Saami in that study having haplotypes M96, M170, M172, M173, M17, and most with M46.

http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/PNAS_2001_v98_p10244.pdf


U5 a common West Eurasian marker...

Postglacial recolonization of Europe by modern humans: a signal from mtDNA haplogroup U

1Kristiina Tambets, 1H.-V. Tolk, 1T. Kivisild, 2V. Orekhov, 1J. Parik, 1E. Metspalu, 1M. Reidla, 3L. Pliss, 4A. Krumina, 3V. Baumanis, 5L. Damba, 5M. Voevoda, 6M. Bermisheva, 6E. Khusnutdinova, 5M. Gubina, 5L. Osipova, 2N. Yankovsky, 7P. Rudan, 8L. Beckman, 1R. Villems
1Tartu University and Estonian Biocentre, Riia Str. 23, 51010 Tartu, Estonia, 2Vavilov Institute of General Genetics RAS, Gubkina Str. 3, 117333, Moscow, Russia, 3Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Latvian University, Ratsupites 1, LV-1067, Riga, Latvia, 4Medical Academy of Latvia, Dzirciema 34, Riga, Latvia, 5Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Siberian Branch of RAS, Lavrentieva 10, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia, 6Ufa Research Centre, Pr. Oktyabria 69, Ufa, Russia, 7Institute for Anthropological Research, Ilica 1, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, 8Umea University, University Campus, SE-901 87 Umea, Sweden

Phylogeography of the non-recombining maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and paternally inherited Y chromosome have been broadly used to shed light on different aspects of demographic history of human populations. Based on coalescence age calculations, more than 80% of maternal lineages present in extant populations are believed to belong to the Upper Palaeolithic gene pool. With the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ca 20 000 years ago the maternal lineages were compressed into refugia and started to re-expand together with the climate improvement ca 15000 years ago. In order to investigate possible reflections of those processes in genetic pool of present European populations we have analysed more than 5000 mtDNA samples from different populations of Europe (from Baltic region to western Siberia) and Near East using the sequencing of the first hypervariable segment (HVS-I) of mtDNA control region and combined it with RFLP typing of informative coding region polymorphisms. The phylogenetic networks based on obtained data were further investigated following the phylogeographic analysis of individual lineage clusters (subhaplogroups). Here we will concentrate on the lineages within a major western Eurasian haplogroup U, particularly on its most frequent subclusters U5 and U4. U5 is one of the largest western Eurasian maternal lineage clades, present also in northwestern Africa, in Near and Middle East and in Central Asia. Its coalescence age is calculated as 45000...55000 years BP. In its highest values U5 is present in some Finno-Ugric speaking populations (about half of Saami maternal lineages). The phylogenetic network for U5 reveals more than ten putative sub-founders, most of which coalescence ages are around 11000...13000 years BP which is corresponding to a rapid warming of climate after LGM and to the re-occupation of northern Europe by humans. U4 is largely a northeastern-central European variety of mtDNA and a characteristic sample of clinal distribution of maternal lineages in Europe. Its coalescence age is calculated to 16000 ... 24000 years BP. U4 is nearly absent in Indo-Iranian speaking populations (Iranians, Ossetes and Kurds) but is frequent in Finno-Ugric speaking populations and among Volga basin Turkic speakers. Although mostly European-specific, its frequency is highest (ca 16%) among western Siberian people - Khantys. The subcluster U4a is shared by different European populations, but the subcluster U4b is characteristic mostly to Germanic speaking populations and absent in Finno-Ugric, Volga region and western Siberian people. The coalescence age calculations for U4 subclusters reveal different expansion times after LGM in different geographical regions. Following the phylogeographical approach of discussing the mtDNA data we conclude that the present-day distribution of maternal lineages is largely determined by demographic events after the LGM.

http://hgm2002.hgu.mrc.ac.uk/Abstracts/Publish/WorkshopPosters WorkshopPoster11/hgm0587.htm

--

Haplogroup U

Battle-Axe/Corded. Maternal equivalent of hg 3/Eu 19/R1a.

High incidences are in European Russia (23.27%), Finland/Estonia (22.30%), and Scandinavia (16.31%).

The Saami have 45.45% of Haplogroup U, although it is a different variation (U5b1), than what is otherwise the norm.

Tore
Saturday, September 27th, 2003, 01:52 AM
I wonder if someone could tell me what is the variation that otherwise is the norm of the Saami, instead of the variation U5b1, and if that belongs to a haplotype that is considered Asian?

The genetic mutation U5b1 is found found only among the Saami and in small frequencies in populations they presumably mixed with.

The marker is absent among Asian and other European populations, yet is a sub-clade of U5, which is of European origin, along with U3 and U4.

I assume that this article is referring to U5B1 as "a combination of three mutations", as another rare maternal marker found among the Saami, that being V, is present in Iberia and the British Isles.

"A combination of three mutations was found in more than one-third of the Sami samples. This "Sami motif" was observed in only one Finnish sample and in five Karelian samples. Moreover, it was not found in any of the other populations - Indo-European, Basque, African, Inuit or Japanese. Consequently, this combination appears to be restricted to the Sami and is an indication of the common origin of the Inari Sami, the Skolt Lapps and Sami from Sweden and Norway. The Sami therefore differ genetically from the other Finno-Ugric and Indo-European peoples, but still speak a Finno-Ugric language. As a result, they have not yet been located on the European language and gene maps, and collaboration among researchers in different fields is still needed."

http://virtual.finland.fi/finfo/english/geeneng.html

I hope I have answered your question.:)

xa
Monday, September 29th, 2003, 09:27 AM
I apologize for not being more clear in my question, but it was answered in your other thread Genetic Analysis of the Saami.

xa
Monday, September 29th, 2003, 06:15 PM
I have read your other postings.


Both Polish and Russian samples are characterized by the presence of the Saami-specific U5b-motif (16144-16189-16270) found at a frequency of 0.5% in Poles and 1.5% in Russians.

Distribution of other mtDNA lineages seems to re-flect the historical contacts between populations of the Northwestern Balkans and Northern/Eastern Europe.

The U5b1-lineage with motif 16144-16189-16270 occurs at a frequency of 1.4% in Bosnians, but it is well known that this U5-subcluster has a restricted Northern/Eastern European distribution, being found frequently (8%52%) in Finns and Saami as well as rarely (0.5%1.5%) in Slavonic (Russians and Poles) and Baltic (Lithuanians) populations (Sajantila et al. 1995; Orekhov
et al. 1999; Meinil et al. 2001; Kasperaviciute & Kucinskas, 2002; Malyarchuk et al. 2002).

In addition, Bosnians are characterized by the presence of the Asian-specific haplogroup Z (0.7%), which was previously revealed in Europe in Saami, Finns and Russians (Sajantila et al. 1995; Delghandi et al. 1998; Orekhov et al. 1999; Malyarchuk & Derenko, 2001; Meinil et al.2001).

In Slovenians, the U5a-lineage defined by the substitution 16114A was found at a relatively high frequency of 3.8%. To date, this lineage that has been found with a similarly high frequency only in Finns (Meinil et al. 2001). In addition, Slovenians are characterized by the presence of another lineage frequently occurring in Finns the U5b-haplotype 16192-16311.

This suggests that the common genetic substratum observed in modern German, Slavonic and western Finno-Ugric populations penetrates also South East European populations, reaching territory as far as the Western Balkans.


This supposedly Saami haplotype is coming from my Karelian mother. More than the mtDNA alone makes us a whole person. My family never practiced any reindeering or fishing between the area of Lake Pielinen and Lake Ladoga. Perhaps some of my ancestors did, at one point in time

:-O

http://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/~macaulay/founder2000/tableA.html


U5b1 144 189 243 270 - 1 in NW - Europe: North West

U5b1 144 189 270 - 4 in Sca - Scandinavia and 8 in NE - Europe: North East

U5b1 144 189 270 291 - 2 in Ar - Armenia

U5b1 144 189 270 301 - 1 in NE - Europe: North East

U5b1 144 209 189 270 - 1 in NE - Europe: North East

U5b1 144 270 - 1 in Sca - Scandinavia

Oceanborn
Sunday, November 12th, 2017, 07:37 PM
My maternal haplogroup is U4b. I can't find much information on the history of it, except where 23andme says that it's rare. Only 1 out of 550 people that send in their DNA to 23andme have that haplogroup according to them. Here's what they have to say about it:


Your maternal line stems from a branch of U called U4b. Haplogroup U4b is a relatively young branch that traces back to a woman who lived approximately 11,500 years ago. The parent branch of U4b, haplogroup U4, may have arisen in eastern Europe, and is most common in northwestern Siberian populations. In contrast, U4b is much more rare in Baltic and Russian populations. It is more common in western Europe, where it is found only among Swedes, Icelanders, Norwegians and other northern European Germanic-speaking groups. This suggests that U4b likely originated not in the Baltic areas of eastern Europe, but in the Germanic areas of northwestern Europe.