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Frans_Jozef
Saturday, August 2nd, 2003, 03:26 PM
If we assure ourselves of a native European Upper Paleolithic orgin of the Alpine race and a preliminary survey of platicephalic brachycephals has done far of contradicting such a proposition, and blondism is a speciation of/and endemic to the Europid racial family, and when we acknowledge that the UP/Mesolithic groups and their immediate, albeit reduced and brachymorphic relations, whereby I have to reissue the fact that the Ofnet type of alpinoid brachycephals precede the high-vaulted, perhaps darker pigmentated Mugem type which alongside the southern slopes of the Alpine mountain chain entered Central Europe and makes up today still an markant and erring component in this region as well in the Balkan, where in former Yugoslavia and Albania the type evolved to a semi-Dinaric(?) type, the undersized Kthela type with a triangular face and slight occipital flattening, and must have emerged independantly and local ("bodemständig") in Southern Germany, escarping in a horseshoe model to the northwest and reaching up Scotland where in Aveline's Hole the same platicephalic roundheads are found with a maximum cranial mean of 80,3, which in the flesh constitues a subbrachycephaly of 82,55, while in northeastern direction proto-Lapponic hunter-gatherers developed,- allow incipient blondism, but often combine dark and lighter shades of chestnut brown with blue and light-mixed eyes, while a brunet appearance in many cases still is endowed in partial depigmentation, most of all the skin and lightbrown hues of the iris, and like Coon correctly appraised the problem of blondism, that"the universality of some degree of blondism among whites and near whites everywhere makes it unlikely that it was ever confined to a single race or group of races within the White family", so the main preoccuppation and pathetic Schwärmerei among the modern Nordicist ranks with their unlaudable pastiche of racial nomenclatura full of "- ishes" and negligence of discerning races and subraces from mere Gautypen and bi-trihybrid population characteristics, the hazardous convulsive breaking points in what complies in defining North European races, falls dramatically apart.

Nowhere becomes this better illustrated than in West Norway in the Sognefjord districts, where I inclined to believe that the Alpine race in its purest, boreal, depigmentated form exist:

<< The mean cephalic index in this district is between 81 and 82, while the mean cranial index for men and women is 77.7. Such a considerable difference can hardly be interpreted otherwise than that the cephalic index has increased in the course of the last century. In none of the other districts investigated in Sogn is the pigmented
brachycephalic type so prominent as in Sogndal-Hafslo, and nowhere is the head height so low as in Sogndal. A striking feature of the pigmentation is the redistribution of racial characters encountered in both Sogndal-Hafslo and in Brekke, expressed by the combination of pure blue eyes with dark brown hair.

The population in Brekke has a higher mean stature than in Sogndal-Hafslo, the breadth and height of the head is greater but the length shorter. The cephalic index is therefore several units higher. The face is larger, both higher and broader, the same is true of the nose. The pigmentation of the eyes is lighter, light brown and greenish eyes occur less frequently and dark brown eyes as a rare e But how shall we explain that in Sogndal-Hafslo, which lies like an island between the inner and middle regions of Sogn with their populations of predominantly Nordic type, we find a population whose physical traits exhibit more pronounced indications of Alpine mixture than any other part of Sogn? The answer to this can only be an assumption.

When one travels in along the Sognefjord on a summer day and reaches Sogndal, one is captivated by the beautiful scenery, the open, fruitful fields around the protected shores without any threatening, overhanging mountains. It is obvious that this landscape must have seemed attractive to the wandering people who came sailing into the fjord to find a place to settle, and that this locality must have been settled very early, before the settlement from east, so that when the latter began on a larger scale, probably during the great migrations, the Sogndal district was already occupied.

It is reasonable to assume that the settlement of Sogndal, by people of a predominantly Alpine type, was a branch of the settlement which took place in England and Scotland from the south in the beginning of the Bronze Age and which has left marked traces in other parts of the west coast of Norway. Through mixture with peoples of predomiriantly Nordic type who settled in the neighboring districts at a later date, and with peoples of predominantly East Baltic type who had settled in the outer coastal districts, the present population of Sogndal-Hafslo could have obtained its physical characteristics according to this assumption.>>

An alternative take on the origin of the Sogn Alpines consist in enabling a Mesolithic introduction from the British Isles and Denmark, using the North Sea Continent, emerged when about 10000-9000 before our era the water of the ocean was tied up in immense glaciers, as stepping stone to colonize the coastal strips of Norway; about –6000 a second wave came by from Germany; these in the first place longheaded settlers would surely have contained the small-statured but capacious in head size Ofnet brachycephals and the Scandinavian Alpine stock grew from this, maintaining most of the morphological and metrical features of their hunting and fishing predecessors.

The Sogn Alpines have a rhombic vault form with pronounced tubera parietalia and narrow forehead; their head lenght attaines a general mean of 193mm, the breath is considerable too with 155mm. Alpinids make also up for the population of Hordaland indicated by the great presence of brownish and light-mixed eyes, mesorhinity, weak brachycephaly and medium tallness;

H.F.K. Günther rightly suspected that the whole Norwegian westcoast was under a predominance of Alpinids, mainly encroached within tracts of Nordics and slightly
influenced by streaks of East Baltics, what I dare to contest in relying on Kossinna's data involving strong contigents of Nordic-Borreby strains which at least harks back to the Steinkisten period; the Alpine territory really starts in the north near Haugesund, reaches through Stavanger coastways to Kristiansand in the east, behind Stavanger it turns back into the mountains.

The Sogn type reminds the French-Belgian Furfooz type, who was hypobrachycephalic, short ovoid with a broad extension midways of the head, rounded backhead that slips straight down to the neck, on the other hand most Neolithic Alpinids in Scandinavia belong eitherway to the Grenelle or Borreby type, the former has a globular backhead and good developed browridges; the cranial indices of both are interchangeable, but Grenelle is oftenest associated with full brachycephaly; Furfooz and Borreby contain also low mesocephalic elements, as seen in the Belgian forrestal hills of the Ardennes and the situation of Traena, off shore of North Norway in the Middle Ages, preservation of this condition seems reflected in the hypobrachy-mesocephaly of the people of Sogn and Fjordane.

Furthermore, but under caution, I tend to unlock the process of excrescence of brachymorphism in the Middle Ages and peaking in the 19th century, after which unraveled a retraction of this course whereby the head lenght increased in every race, also in another dimension, namely the average head underwent a reduction in size, this touched the Nordic race as well, but it manifested perhaps more intrusively in Alpinesn following their constitution, but despite that small and medium-sizeness, they would in time overtake this prescription, so that France supposedly the Alpine country by pre-eminence, show meaningful associations with the Alpine component in Scandinavia (measurements will duely follow soon).


Anthropometrics:

DANES:
Stature: 178cm
Head lenght: 198.9
Head breadth: 156.2
Bizygomatic breadth: 141.5
Face height: 129.6
Lenght-breadth index: 78.7
Facial index: 91.8
% light eyes: 72.4
% light hair: 30.5


NORWEGIANS:
Stature: 172.4cm
Head lenght: 192.6
Head breadth: 152.1
Bizygomatic breadth: 137.3
Face height: 122.2
Lenght-breadth index: 79
Facial index: 89.1
% light eyes: 63.7
% light hair: 49.9


NORTHERN NORWEGIANS:
Stature: 172cm
Head lenght: 191.4
Head breadth: 153.3
Bizygomatic breadth: 139.1
Facial height: 121.9
Lenght-breadth: 80.2
Facial index: 87.7
% light eyes: 58.6
% light hair: 37.7


QUANES:
Stature: 167.3
Head lenght: 188.9
Head breadth: 155.3
Bizygomatic breadth: 139.6
Facial height: 118
Lenght-breadth index: 82.3
Facial index: 85
% light eyes: 43.7
% light hair: 35


FRENCH:
Stature: 169.9cm
Head lenght: 191.7
Head breadth: 154.9
Bizygomatic breadth: 141.9
Facial height: 123.9
Lenght-breadth index: 80.8
Facial index: 87.2
% light eyes: 43.5
% light hair: 21


These measures make it clear that the Alpinid denomination of France is untenable, in various aspects the Alpine element, whether in pure form or in solution ascribes to a medium-sized, broad-faced yet in combination with a relatively high face height hafted to a hypobrachycephalic to mesocephalic head of considerable largeness(346.6mm, which ranks them among the Germanic peoples of the Low Countries, Low Germany, West Scandinavia…) and partial blondism, while darkbrown and swarthy shades of pigmentation are rare, the majority of the French possess chestnut hues of hair, which would imply in the philosophy of the McCollough and Coon School of Anthropology that a strong Borreby element must have permeated the population;

with exception of North and Northeastern France which has been heavyly influenced and contained strongholds of the Seine-Oise-Marne culture and Bell Beakers, the objection to this assumption is maintained by the fact that the central and eastern parts of the country are made up by the Atlanto-mediterrenean, Dinarid and Carpathid races, the latter explains the presence of pronounced, but leptorhine convex noses in the <<French Alpine>> and the ortho-hipsicephalic indices related to this taxon in Savoie, the medium to small sizes of the <<Central European Alpine>> must be explained according the combination of a short head lenght(a classic Dinaric feature) with a broad lateral extension of the head(typical but not exclusively attribute of the Alpine skull), these races only account for the orthocephalic main indices(LHI 72-74), since the Alpinids are considered(in the West) as platicephalic.

The brachycephalisation in France from the early Middle Ages didn't work out into an alpinisation of the French inhabitants, since it was accompied with an attenuation of the robusticity of the face, the reduction of the maxillae and a frank leptoprosopy, thus much more in a Taurid sense; no wonder that Coon called on an affinity with the
Tajiks, who he in following Hamy and Quatrefagnes regards as Alpines, while today they're classified as Turanids(Vallois) or a locally brachycephalized subrace(Lundman);

the Central European Alpine of Coon, when devoid of Lappomorphic tendencies, corresponds imo to the Carpathid blend of Lundman, while the depigmentated large-headed Alpine of North France, Guyenne, Gascogne, Béarn and the Basque regions has more to do with the Furfooz race which resembles uncannyly the Sogne brachycephals, which characteristics by Coon and SNPA are re-interpretetated as Borreby traits, while dealing with the most low-vaulted zones of Europe!

The fact that the Scandinavian Alpinis are taller has a correlation with some zoological rules, whereby mamals advacing to the polar region are subject to an increase in height, though in principles the Alpine prototype was small-set, Furfooz was just 153cm tall, not uncommon though in post-Magdalenian period, albeit that the Capellid-Bruenn races were undersized too; the cold Magdelenian period had indeed reduced indiscriminantly and with drastic measures the statures of the Europids...

the partial blondism of some Alpines could also be explained involving geographics and latitude; the Asians are tawnier than the Europids, because Asia lies higher than Europe, hence more intensively exposed to UV rays, though Sibirids and some Central Asians are moderately fair(shite pinkish skins!) and the hair pigmentation runs into the dzarker tones chestnut brown range(not dull brown thus, but with a strange metallic shimmering)..therefore the Alpines in highland Europe tend to bercome somewhat darker than most other UP derivatives like the the Quanes type, while Alpines like the Sogne type or in the Low Countries is dark-mixted as PA's on the sea front...

Btw, Borrebies, Sogne, Furfooz, Quanes, etc.sharing a common origin is once more underlined by the fact that bar specialisation and drift, they're have a comparible skull model: roundish ovoid or rhomboid with prominent parietal bosses, more or less round backhead which suddenly drops straight in the neck, but with no noticeable
occipital flattening as in the Taurids...lambdoid flattening however does regularly occur within Borreby.

Frans_Jozef
Saturday, August 2nd, 2003, 03:52 PM
The greatest error in writing a racial history of Europe was the exagerration of the distribution and role of the Alpine race, which like a devil in disguise gleefully reveals itself in local centers of brachycephalization.

The combination of globular or shortheadedness, shrunken body proportions and, small statures and finally a brunet complexion are in most textbook the criteria on which the Alpine race is determined.In previous articles I have gone down to the specifics on which Alpines can be recognized and distinguished from more southerly and
mountain dwelling races in Europe.

Suffice to say that the Alpine skull is capacious(Vallois states that it attains 1450cc, but can reach up to 1600cc!), at least of medium lenght but broad, globular or broken up like in Borreby and platicephalic(low to moderate vaulted; the Scandinavian Alpine has a LHI of ca.70), the body is stocky, pykno-mesomorphic but more gracile
forms are as common, the stature is medium(ca.165cm); both Coon and Biasutti agree that the complexion runs from blond to brunet, but foremost the intermediary pigments are the rule.

The brachycephalics of the Belgian province Luxemburg should probably be considered as exponents of the Alpine race in its truest form; the means for head lenght and breadth are 186mm and 157mm, still profoundly large-headed(L+B) and 3-4 units smaller than the Belgian mean(190/1mm+160mm), which is more of Borreby inspiration; btw, is it mere coincidence, elicit by precipitancy and overworking, or repeats the Luxemburger average head lenght not the same as in the Ibero-Insular and Danubian groups, races who emerged during the Neolithic period and represent a more linear, slender body build in association with small stature(smaller than the modern Alpine who is 165cm tall, while the Ibero-Insular falls down on 160cm and the Danubians were as moderate as the Alpines and reach as well minima like 153cm);

the Alpine maintained its bulkier built, but grew more pyknomorphic, but all three miss the bony eminencies, muscularity and coarse lateral built of the Cromagnoid races. Alpines, Danubians and Ibero-insulars evolve paedomorphic traits. The face height of the Alpine ranges from 120-122mm, the breadth is large, 140mm; anthropometrically these measures overlap or approach the means of the Borreby-derived population of Jaeder and Fehmarn, in this respect the face is higher than the Danubian(116mm) whom is by 10units narrower(130mm) and the Ibero-Insular has too a rather short face, which appears the opposite by its narrow breadth, although it's by its facial index leptoprosopic, 89.23, while Alpines and Borreby alike are mesoprosopic.

The Ibero-Insular has a straight-bridged nose, as has Alpines and Borreby; these two have, though, noses which are short, broad (yet coverting to leptorhinity) and assume a thick, elevated tip, but according to Biasutti the norm is a short, rather high-rooted nose with a straight bridge, while the retroussé type characterizes the East Baltic race.

The snub nose is common possession of the Upper Palaeolithic races; since I have proven on Körös and the Linearband the nativity to Europe of these cultures and the mixed composition, containing Nordic, Mediterrenean and Cromagnid elements, all experiencing a make-over process of physical, i.e. postcranial and constitutional gracilization, and since the Danubian dolichoid type doesn't rule out an appraisement in either a Nordic as a Mediterrenean sense, by which it should be conceived as a primitive, mixomorphic type, the possessing certain qualities midway these two races, flowing morphologically into each other, but consitute a decissive, morphological and biological unit.

The sparse Cromagnid component reflects an interstadial condition during the racial evolution and formative process in which nevertheless the group confirms to a single, close-knitted and panmictic breeding stock, far more than absorption and cross-breeding with residual mesolithic locals.

Finally, we don't know much about the ratios of certain taxons in these early neolithic entities, personally, after a friend of mine in our backstream conversations reminded me that the reasonable uptilted hindpart of the Borreby's head is comparable to the Pontic race(inclusive lambdoid flattening?) and Kossinna hints on some Danubian influence on the formation of Borreby in the upswept occiput, I urge a more reversed admixture, Borreby and Plau predate the Danubians and must from the end of the mesolithic till far into the Bronze Age had a maximum territorial extension from the Atlantic over the North European Plain into both Scandinavia and the Danubian-Balkanic tract and underway altered incoming gracilized races and participating in their further development, another possibility takes them as an endemic element to these entities.

Since mesocephaly is integral to the Borreby race, it wouldn't have worked yet as brachycephalization agent, then again the skull shapes are strikingly different, ovoid for the Borreby, ellipsoid for the Danubians with flattened parientals. Danubians, being meso- to platyrhinic, the nose takes a small, concave and blunted form, a snubbed nose type not unlike EB and Alpines.

In Central and Eastern Europe, where the Danubians and columns of native European first farmers originated, snub-nosed are indiscriminantly associated with both brachycephalic and mesocephalic, high-vaulted and either blond or more brunet races: so whatever happened to the descendants of the Danubian main type?

Schaginhaufen's revelation on the blond brachycephals in Switzerland, only 6% of the population, and often mesorhine and mesoprosopic, but predominantly leptorhine aand leptoprosopic, of medium body height, with rounded occiput, slightly receding forehead that appears high and full, could be the leading representation of the danubian in its present-day form in the Celtic-Germanic countries, with due reserve, while the Danubian head breadth could under impetus of the brachycephalization broaden up to 3-4 units and shorten similarly in lenght, and still attain a cephalic index in the mesocephalic range.

The situation of the Auvergne, Central France, supports the implication of increased local "alpinoid" brachycephalisation out of , in Coon's sense, Mediterranid stocks, with deceiving properties like a mesene upper face, relatively broad nose, small stature, brunet complexion and paedomorphism. The Auvergne includes the departments of Allier, Cantal, Haute-Loire and Puy-de-Dôme, one-time teritory of the Celtic tribe of the Avernii.

Vallois devices it with Brittany to create a large area going from the Atlantic seaboard into the Massif Central, anthropologically gathering a population marked by medium tall brachycephals with chestnut hair and light eyes. France was for instance in the Iron Age predominantly dolichomorphic, the Beaumes Chaude type nearly disappears and is replaced by the Genay type, which Vallois holds for Proto-mediterrenean and corresponds with the Danubian.

The Auvergne is no exception to this rule and burial mounds only contained dolichoid finds. Only in the Parisian Basin, Brittany and the Languedoc are brachycephals present and their proportion in the population is constantly feeble. Even in the Middle Ages, the Auvergne couldn't have been a concentration of Alpines and it hadn't been strongly touched by the trend of brachycephalisation, which in France seemingly occured with a gradual leptoprosopy and reduction of the maxillae.

Bouchereau's material reveal short(179.5mm) and narrow(141.8mm) skulls, resulting in a Cr.I of 79, highly mesocranial and orthocranial(LHI 72.9), the face is narrow, 126mm, broad-nosed, N.I.48.1 and mesene, 52.4.

The study further indicate that in recent times the average head became rounder and broader(l= 176.3mm,b= 145.5) and attains a subbrachycephalic mean of 82.5, while still orthocranial, the basion-bregmatic height reduced from 131 to 128.4. The body lenght increased as well from general medium height in 1880(164-165.9cm) to fairly tall heights above 170cm today. The eyes are rather mixed than light, which is more frequent in Brittany, and in equivalence with dark eyes. Leptoprosopy and leptorhinity are common.

It illustrates that the problem of brachycephaly and the Alpine race are two distinct study objects and not to be intertwined.

Slå ring om Norge
Sunday, March 5th, 2006, 12:28 AM
Here`s some pictures of people from Sogn. Maybe not useful, but then it`s just to delete...
No.2 from left is not untypical.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://web.ukm.no/magasin/2004/nyheter/bilder/1085085196.jpg&imgrefurl=http://groups.msn.com/ToneDAaberge/tonesfamilie.msnw&h=1150&w=1600&sz=1290&tbnid=WLVwV_vw754_jM:&tbnh=107&tbnw=150&hl=en&start=3&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsogninger%26svnum%3D10%26hl %3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG