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Strapu
Wednesday, July 10th, 2002, 06:55 PM
After the Civil War, the United States struggled to define the role that blacks would play in society, especially in the South. During the later stages of Reconstruction (1867-1877), northern Republicans in the U.S. Congress sought to secure the citizenship rights of newly emancipated blacks by passing the Fourteenth and the Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, the Reconstruction Acts of 1867, and the Civil Rights Act of 1875. To guarantee such rights for blacks would threaten the very nature of Southern society, and thus some whites in the region undertook a campaign to preserve their way of life. This campaign became known as "redemption." Southern whites, led by those in the planter class, attempted to "redeem" the South by depriving blacks of their political and economic rights through violence and intimidation, and by passing discriminatory laws.

By 1877 many in the nation believed that northern Republicans had lost interest in ensuring the rights of blacks in the South, a belief confirmed by the Compromise of 1877, in which the Republican administration agreed to withdraw federal troops from three southern states , - South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana - in exchange for those states' electoral votes in the contested 1876 presidential election. The removal of these troops meant that Democrats, or southern conservatives, would soon oust Republican state governments, leaving the region completely in the control of whites and undermining black gains.

Following the resumption of Democratic rule, southern legislatures began passing Black Codes, laws that restricted the freedoms and economic options of blacks and sought to virtually to reinstate the plantation system. Under the Black Codes, interracial marriages were banned and blacks could be forced to sign yearly labor contracts. They could also be declared vagrants for not having a certain (usually unreasonable) amount of money on their person and sentenced to labor on a white-owned plantation. In addition, these laws limited the types of occupations and property blacks could hold. Black Codes forced black workers out of higher-paying skilled trade and relegated them to low-paying, unskilled positions. Many more blacks were kept economically dependent on whites through sharecropping.

White southern state governments also imposed racial segregation. Through centuries of slavery, separation of the races was customary, but white governments, beginning with Tennessee in 1875, passed laws that made segregation official, further limiting the freedoms of blacks. Other southern states passed similar laws by 1890. Schools, hospitals, restaurants, waiting rooms, and public transportation became segregated. For blacks, violating segregation, or "Jim Crow" laws, or even seeking to vote brought punitive retribution through either the courts or mob violence and intimidation. Lynching became one of the most terrifying ways whites controlled blacks in the South. The illegal practice reached its peak between 1889 and 1899, when an average of 187 lynchings occurred each year, 80 percent of them in the South.

Another favored tool for subordinating blacks was disfranchisement. Southern whites recognized that blacks were certain to vote against conservative Democrats, and throughout the 1870s and 1880s many used violence and intimidation to discourage black electoral participation. In the 1890s the Populist Party sought, with black support, to challenge the southern planter elite, thus further alarming whites. Beginning with Mississippi in 1890, southern states amended their constitutions to exclude most blacks and many poor whites from voting, although the laws contained loopholes that allowed well-connected individuals to vote. Because jury pools were selected based on voter registration records and were therefore effectively open only to whites, a side effect of disfranchisement was that blacks faced a hostile justice system in which the only part they played consistently was that of defendant. Through such obstacles as the poll tax, literacy, and property requirements, black voting fell by 62 percent, and white by 37 percent. By the turn of the century, the South had become a one-party region.

The Supreme Court, which had been largely silent during the Civil War, found its voice during Reconstruction and, in a series of decisions over the course of two decades, demonstrated its sympathy toward Southern white supremacists. United States v. Cruishank (1876) weakened the Fourteenth Amendment, and the Civil Rights Cases (1883) voided the Civil Rights Act of 1875. The final blow to black hopes for equality came in 1896 with the Court's ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson, in which the "separate but equal" doctrine that upheld segregation was articulated. Blacks would not win back the right to participate fully in southern society until the gains made during the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.

Let them have their Civil Rights but let them have their rights without White people, and without Whites contributing through their taxes to their own demise!
Strapu

davison6
Thursday, July 11th, 2002, 04:45 AM
What really should have happened was to let Lincoln carry through with his plan to ship them all back home. Of course Northern Republicans lost interest in protecting them, what real use were they? The entire Civil War was fought over economics, and the damage done by black slavery, and only a few religious nuts (the same who later brought us Prohibition) actually gave a damn about the blacks themselves. Their subsequent efforts to ride on a wave of white guilt when we actually treated them much better than their own treated them back in Africa shows exactly how useful they are to us. Have You seen Arthur Kemp's photo essay comparing black sections of New York and other U.S. cities to the ruins of past civilizations?

Dominator
Thursday, July 11th, 2002, 04:54 AM
Originally posted by davison6
Have You seen Arthur Kemp's photo essay comparing black sections of New York and other U.S. cities to the ruins of past civilizations?

Any links ?

davison6
Thursday, July 11th, 2002, 07:46 AM
Originally posted by white shadow
Any links ? Not handy, but it's on Stormfront.

RoundskullBoredguy
Friday, October 24th, 2003, 08:30 AM
Oops...I just figured out this was a heavily Eurocentric forum...pardone moi. :D Oh, well. I found this place while trying to find out whether I was Alpine or Nordic (Alpine here). Anyway...blacks are as much people as are us whites, why even consider treating them as less than human? That would never go over in today's multiracial societies.