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Tribunale Dei Minore
Tuesday, October 12th, 2004, 11:46 PM
Although europeans managed to exterminate most of the native indians in America, Indians striked back as they learnt their murderers to smoke tobacco ...



Tobacco smoking

The practice of smoking tobacco originated as a ritual practice among American Indians in North America, to which tobacco is native. It was adopted by many Europeans following the colonization of the Americas. Today, it is widespread throughout the world; according to the World Health Organization, it is most common in East Asia, where as many as two-thirds of all adult males smoke tobacco. [1] (http://quitsmoking.about.com/cs/antismoking/a/statistics.htm) Because of concern over the health hazards of smoking, it has declined in recent years in the United States and Western Europe.

History

Tobacco smoking, using both pipes and cigars, was long common to many Native American cultures of the Americas. It is depicted in the art of the Classic era Maya civilization of some 1,500 years ago.

With the arrival of the Europeans in the New World late in the 15th century, tobacco smoking was brought to Europe, and from there gradually spread to the rest of the world.

The cigarette was less common than the cigar or the smoking pipe until the early 20th century, when cheap mechanically made cigarettes became common.


Health effects

It has been scientifically established that "tobacco use is the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of premature death worldwide."1
The main health risks in tobacco smoking pertain to diseases of the respiratory tract (particularly lung cancer) and also to diseases of the cardiovascular system, in particular smoking being a major risk factor for a myocardial infarction (heart attack). Cancers of the larynx and tongue are also important causes of mortality and morbidity.

A person's increased risk of contracting disease is directly proportional to the length of time that a person continues to smoke as well as the amount smoked. However, if someone stops smoking, then these chances steadily although gradually decrease as the damage to their body is repaired.

Diseases linked to smoking tobacco cigarettes include:


lung cancer and other cancers
emphysema
stroke
peripheral vascular disease
birth defects of pregnant smokers' offspring
Buerger's disease (thromboangiitis obliterans)
impotence
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic bronchitis in particular

Tribunale Dei Minore
Tuesday, October 12th, 2004, 11:53 PM
Smoking and Cancer

It is important to note that studies have generally shown that the risks for contracting respiratory disease are far lower for pipe and cigar smokers, who generally do not inhale the smoke into the lungs and typically smoke tobacco which is in a more natural state than that usually found in commercially produced cigarettes. Among pipe and cigar smokers, lip and tongue cancers are most common because these are the organs most in contact with the carcinogens.



Smoking and cardiovascular disease

Smoking also increases the chance of heart disease. Several ingredients of tobacco lead to the narrowing of blood vessels, increasing the likelihood of a blockage, and thus a heart attack or stroke. According to a study by an international team of researchers, people under 40 are five times more likely to have a heart attack if they smoke (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3590320.stm).

Other tobacco chemicals lead to high blood pressure. Also, some chemicals may damage the inside of arteries, for example making it possible for cholesterol to adhere to the artery wall, possibly leading to a heart attack.

Tribunale Dei Minore
Tuesday, October 12th, 2004, 11:57 PM
Moral aspects

Communal smoking of a sacred tobacco pipe was a universal ritual through Native America. Native Americans considered tobacco a sacred part of their religion. It was grown for ceremonial use and considered the ultimate sacred plant. Tobacco smoke was believed to carry prayers to the heavens.

In more modern times, even before the health risks of smoking were scientifically known, it was considered a filthy, harmful and immoral habit by some Christian preachers and social reformers. Tobacco was listed, along with drunkenness, gambling, cards, dancing and theater-going, in J.M. Judy's Questionable Amusements and Worthy Substitutes, which was published in 1904 by the Western Methodist Book Concern of Chicago. Judy wrote that "Tobacco dulls the mind. It does this not only by wasting the body, the physical basis of the mind, but it does it through habits of intellectual idleness, which the user of tobacco naturally forms. Whoever heard of a first-class loafer who did not eat the weed or burn it, or both?" In addition, he claimed, "Tobacco wastes the body" and "blunts the moral nature."

The Jewish leader Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan (1838-1933) was one of the first Jewish authorities to speak out on smoking. He considered it a waste of time and saw the practice of people "borrowing" (pilfering) cigarettes from each other as morally questionable.
Most modern opposition to smoking, however, is based on health concerns rather than moral judgments. Some public interest groups, usually described as "anti-smokers", are interested in controlling smoking as a political agenda; many consist of former "reformed" smokers.

Johnson
Tuesday, October 26th, 2004, 12:14 PM
I fail to see the conspiracy. Last I checked, people choose to go to the store and pay $5 for a pack. Whatever happened to individual responsibility? :)

Mandible
Sunday, November 7th, 2004, 06:46 PM
I like a pipe, and a straight Virginia tobacco. not a patriot thing just a matter of taste.