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Evolved
Friday, September 3rd, 2004, 09:45 PM
Swedish racism
http://forums.skadi.net/attachment.php?attachmentid=18916

With images like this one with comparisions of "begging" and "hobo" "Lapps" at left and Swedes of Nordic type (as the caption reads) the Swedish race biologist Hjalmar Lundborg wanted to prove that the Sami's was of an inferior race. He got support both for his research as well as trough papers published by several noteworthy scientists of the time.

Most notable among those was professor Gustav von Düben, a man who collected Sami skulls in an attempt to prove the difference in the Sami's character and psychology. Trough the work of such men the idea that the Sami's was "unfit to decide over their own lifes and destiny" was spread. The present goverment policy on native matters in this country is still based on this notion.

Lies (http://www.itv.se/boreale/lies.htm)


One of the eyeopening books dealing with Swedish racism is Finns in the Shadow of the "Aryans" written by Aira Kemiläinen. The nature of this racism is xenophobia towards other peoples such as Finns, Saami and Baltic peoples and even distant Asians (often called Mongols by the Swedish racialists, referring to Asians).

Kemiläinen, Aira. Finns in the Shadow of the "Aryans": Race Theories and Racism. Helsinki: Finnish Historical Society, 1998. 320 pp., ill.

The founder of the organized Swedish racism was A.O. Freudenthal in the 19th century. Organized racialists awarded in the 20th century a medal named after Freudenthal. Here is a list of the Freudenthal medalists (http://www.suomalaisuudenliitto.fi/sm-vast.htm#freu).

The Time published on September 22, 1997 James Walsh's article Unnatural Selection.

Yet the eugenics program that authorized sterilizations of 'social undesirables', begun in 1935, continued long after the war, persisting until an agency that called itself chillingly the National Institute for Racial Hygiene died a quiet death in 1976. In postwar decades when Social Democratic Sweden considered itself a citadel of enlightenment and tolerance, the country was silently pursuing principles of racial purity long since discredited in most of the world. During those 41 years, some 60,000 Swedes were sterilized as misfits who did not meet the ideal of the blond, blue-eyed, intelligent Scandinavian.

Genocide suggested by Nesselius

Swedish professor I. Nesselius suggested in 1708 - 1711 a genocide of the Finns. According to Nesselius' plan the Finns would have been replaced by the Swedes everywhere in Finland, except in Lapland. There 3 per cent of the Finns were to be left as a historical relic. The rest of the Finns would have been victims. This genocide plan was however not accepted.

Case Sweden (http://www.suomalaisuudenliitto.fi/case.htm)


Sweden: Sterilization Policy Sparks Debate

BY BIRGITTA ISACSSON
STOCKHOLM, Sweden - A sharp debate has opened here over eugenics policies carried out for decades. Some 63,000 people were sterilized in Sweden between 1935 and 1975 to supposedly combat racial and social inferiority. Most were sterilized against their will, and the overwhelming majority of them were women.

Swedish authorities took the first steps toward a "racial hygiene" policy in 1921, when the State Institute for Race Biology was founded in Uppsala. It was the first institute of this kind in the world and a pattern for Kaiser Wilhelm Institute fur Rassenhygiene in Berlin, Germany. The institute distributed pictures of "racially clean" and "racially mixed" people. The "racially mixed" were gypsies, so-called travelers or tinkers, and others considered social outcasts. In 1934 the Swedish parliament adopted a law authorizing sterilization of the "mentally ill." This legislation was extended in 1941 to allow sterilization to combat "antisocial behavior."

By 1947, the number of sterilizations had grown to more than 2,000 a year, and stayed at that level into the 1950s. Swedish authorities put people in impossible situations, such as taking away their children or denying them abortions if they refused to sign an application for sterilization. Young people in reformatories had to sign as a condition for their release or for leave of absence. The forced sterilization laws were finally abolished in 1975 as one of the victories of the growing women's rights movement.

This type of abuse was by no means limited to Sweden. In Norway more than 40,000 people were subjected to this, and in Denmark 6,000. In United States 60,000 were sterilized between 1907 and 1960.

Articles spark controversy

While many of the details of this history have been public knowledge since the 1970s, the recent controversy was sparked by a series of articles on the subject by journalist Maciej Zaremba that appeared in the liberal Swedish daily Dagens Nyheter August 20-21. The articles and the controversy they sparked are part of a broader attack on the social welfare state, the so called "Swedish folk-home," an attack directed at the social rights won in struggles by working people.

Zaremba's articles take the view that the social democrats were responsible for the sterilizations, arguing that they wanted to build the welfare state, but a lot of people did not have the right disposition. "Through forced sterilizations folk-home Sweden could minimize the number of people living on welfare," he wrote.

The conservative daily Svenska Dagbladet picked up on this ammunition focusing on the sterilization debate. In its lead article September 1, the paper stated, "It has long been taboo to criticize the welfare state and the Swedish people's home. Those who have done so have been accused of being reactionaries, supporters of class differences and oppression...

"The system has forced people into lifestyle everybody must follow: Everybody should work full-time. Children should be in day-care centers... Even those with small income are taxed very hard. The school system is built on the notion that everybody has the same talents, are equally motivated to study, and learn and develop in the same tempo. The result has been that those who do not want to live according to the social state norm have become a problem. Youth cannot move from their parents any more. Those with low income are forced to live on welfare. And the Swedish school is very efficient at making children dropouts, hopeless cases who can't achieve anything."

But contrary to what Zaremba and Svenska Dagbladet assert, the Swedish policy on "racial hygiene" and sterilizations was carried out with the support of all the governing political parties in Sweden. Although they had different motives for supporting this policy, they voted nearly unanimously for it in parliament. While the conservatives and the fascists supported it from the point of view of making the Nordic Aryan race predominant and strengthen the Swedes, the social democrats pushed it as a means to eliminate social problems and make people in Sweden genetically better.

This was an important part of the attacks on working people throughout the 1930s and `40s under social-democratic governments. Along with the abortion law of 1938, the sterilization laws of 1935 and 1941 put the decisions over a woman's body in the hands of the authorities.

The ruling class in Sweden has not wanted a debate on the forced sterilization policy. The same holds true for other aspects of Swedish history that have long been public, including the rail transportation through Sweden of thousands of Nazi soldiers and war materiel to Norway when the Nazis had occupied that country, as well as the treatment of Jews during the World War II when a big "J" was marked on their passports. The Social Democrats, who headed the government from the early 1930s to the mid-70s, also want to block these debates.

But in this case they have been compelled to open an inquiry.

Responding to questions about the national sterilization policy, Carl Bildt, a leader of the Social Democrats, was forced to discuss the issue at his party congress in Umea September 1. "We all have part of the guilt. I take on some of the guilt. I did not know that it was so many or that it happened under such a long time," Bildt said.

"What happened was barbaric and the Social Democrats are part of a collective guilt which includes everybody," declared Social Minister Margot Wallstrom. On September 4 the government announced the appointment of a commission to investigate and "consider how to make amends and propose forms of compensation for the victims," said Wallstrom. Since 1975 around 30 people have demanded compensation, but only 16 have reportedly received $6,289.

"In the juridical spectra, those who were forced to sterilize have no right to compensation as it happened under the laws of these days. Here we talk about of compensation ex gratia, by grace," said Helena Starup from the Social Department.

Wallstrom herself recently signed a denial of compensation to Maria Nordin, who was forced to accept sterilization to get out of a so-called special school when she was 17 years old in 1943. Nordin, who has come out publicly in media, is a typical victim of the forced sterilizations. She was young, poor, and "within her family there were drinkers, mental illness, and a way of life without norms," the social authorities wrote about Nordin, considering this sufficient grounds to sterilize her.

Birgitta Isacsson is a member of the metalworkers union in Stockholm.

The Militant (http://www.themilitant.com/1997/6133/6133_18.html) Vol.61/No.33, September 28, 1997


Between 1934 and 1976, when the Sterilisation Act was finally repealed, 62,000 people, 90 percent of them women, were sterilised. 15-year-old teenagers were sterilised for "crimes" such as going to dance halls. One woman was sterilised in 1960 for being in a motorcycle gang. Orphans were sterilised as a condition of their release from children's homes. Others were pinpointed on the basis of local neighbourhood gossip and personal grudges. Some were targeted because of their "low intelligence", being of mixed race, being gypsies, or for physical defects.

...

Files recently released from the Swedish National Archives make clear that from the 1950s, after the Institute for Racial Biology was wound up, sterilisation continued based on an agenda to promote social conformity. Those targeted were misfits and rebellious young people. The young woman who hung around with a motorcycle gang was described as being "without good judgement", with "no concept of ethics". Her doctors were, in addition, sure she was sexually active, and so she was sterilised.

World Socialist Web Site (http://www.wsws.org/articles/1999/mar1999/euge-19m.shtml)


One woman, aged 72 at the time of the Post article, was sterilized "because she couldn’t read a blackboard because she did not have eyeglasses and was deemed to be retarded."

...

Some 500 lobotomies were conducted on patients who were not from mental hospitals...including a seven-year-old boy in Umeaa in northern Sweden in 1949. Diagnosed as "mentally retarded, hyperactive", he died during surgery."...One man featured in the documentary, who was lobotomised in 1963, is now 67 and has no concept of time, still believing that his children are small.

In part, the benevolent socialist government of Sweden hoped to discover whether "lobotomies could cure alcoholics and criminals."

Sweden also "forced hundreds of ‘mentally deficient’ Swedes to let their teeth rot after being force-fed candy in dental experiments."

Sweden and the Myth of Benevolent Socialism (http://www.lewrockwell.com/dieteman/dieteman33.html)

Tifilis
Friday, September 3rd, 2004, 10:01 PM
Our state acctualy cept it going until 1975.. the Rasbiologiska institutet in Uppsala was closed down not too long ago.

Sweden is maybe a good country, but the government sucks. They're all a buch of semi-Bolsheviks and Feminists. Sweden has been ruled by Leftist powers sice 1915 when the Communist leader Hjalmar Branting took over the Riksdag(Swedish parlamient). Since then, we have had this rule, officially claiming to be one of the best countries in the world(as most Commie states do), but behind the scene they fooled the people to believe in them, something they still do. There's a lot of propaganda coming out of the Riksdag all the time. Our royal family and our king Carl XIV Gustav are only some sort of puppets to the Communists in the Riksdag. This rule is detroying Sweden, I know, because I live here....

Julius
Saturday, September 4th, 2004, 04:21 AM
Social Democracy was great in many respects. You know something is good when it's attacked by the Capitalist Right and the Marxist Left. ;)

Very slanted articles though, with a lot of false information. The sterilisations were carried out on retarded people who no sane individual can say should have children.

It should be noted that the institute never did anything to other races except Gypsies, but those actions were not based on race but on behaviour.

The pictured impression of Lapps and Finns is false as well; there never was such a bad general opinion about them. For example, just read Carl von Linne's - who created the concept of human races - trips to the Lapps. Or how Swedes helped create Finland's National identity. Or Sweden's treatment of Finnish children, or how the state has given Finns and Lapps rights like no other ethnic minorities.

Here's some insight from Gran Dahl, in a response to the article Conservative Revolution in Sweden (http://forums.skadi.net/showthread.php?t=8017):

(It should be noted that the author is an ex-Marxist intellectual. But like all his 1968 comrades, he can't let go of his "Anti-Fascism", and believe they have exclusive rights to the method of guilt-by-association. :D If you don't want to read it all, see under `Racism?'.)


The Swedish Model and the Conservative Revolution: Response to von Kreitor

[All the translations and comments within brackets are mine. /Julius]


Nikolaj-Klaus von Kreitor's article, "The 'Conservative Revolution' in Sweden," is embarrassingly self-serving.[1] The arguments are either half-truths or un-truths, the style is associative, the method constructivist. Consider how he supports his point by referring to "critics," which turn out to be 12 articles written by himself! The piece actually consists of two separate parts. One deals with the issue of Res Publica edited by Carl-Gran Heidegren and myself, which von Kreitor describes more or less accurately.[2] But the very first sentence is wrong. von Kreitor claims the issue "focuses on the meaning and impact of the German 'Conservative Revolution' in Scandinavia." But, in fact, it concerns only the German Conservative Revolution, and it is embarrassing to read that the reason the introductory article concludes the Conservative Revolution is "something to take into account in the future" is because the so-called Swedish model embodied the ideas of the Conservative Revolution. Rather, our conclusion is based on an evaluation of the current situation in Europe.

The second part of von Kreitor's article argues that the issue of Res Publica misses "the history of the ideology on the Conservative Revolution in Sweden and its relevance today." This is astonishing, in view of what he claims in the very first sentence. There is certainly a history of the reception of the Conservative Revolution in Sweden, but not the one von Kreitor thinks, i.e., that the "Swedish model" is "the most successful implementation of the ideology of the Conservative Revolution." This is pure fiction.


Traces of the Conservative Revolution in Sweden

The closest approximation to a conservative-revolutionary group of thinkers in Sweden was probably the "young Right" in Gothenburg during the 1910s and 1920s. This group had close contacts with Germany and developed a rightist concept of modernism.[3] The most prominent member of this group was Rudolf Kjelln, one of the supporters of "the ideas of 1914"[4] and the father of modern geopolitics.[5] He was also a representative of the modernist wing of the conservative party.[6] This group remained marginal, even within the conservative party.

The most interesting person was Per Engdahl (1909-94), who became one of the leaders in the Swedish fascist movement. Even though he probably only read Oswald Spengler's The Decline of the West[7] and Werner Sombart's Handler und Helden, rather than authors such as Schmitt, Moeller van den Brock and Ernst Junger, he formulated a cosmology close to the ideas of the Conservative Revolution.[8] He also played a role in the relation between Swedish Social Democracy and the Conservative Revolution.

Apart from these small groups and individuals, there were hardly any conservative revolutionaries in Sweden, except for one small political group, the Socialist Party. This was a faction that broke off from the Communist Party led by Nils Flyg (an old friend of Per Engdahl) between 1937 and 1943. Solidly anti-Stalinist, this group moved closer to the ideas of Gregor and Otto Strasser, before finally becoming an appendix to the Nazi Party.[9] As a result, however, they practically lost all public support.

Von Kreitor selects bits and pieces, some partly true, others pure fantasy, and constructs a paranoid puzzle. His main thesis, i.e., that the SAP [ie. the Social Democratic Workers Party] was racist, totalitarian etc., resembles the right-wing conservative critique of the SAP.[10] The same messages have often been heard during the post-war period: Sweden is a state-socialist country with taxes so high that they amount to robbery, Social Democracy has destroyed beautiful cities, socialized the children, etc. That this was the result of the appropriation of the ideas of the Conservative Revolution, however, is something new. Guilt by association is part of von Kreitor's method: he even translates some concepts used by Swedish social democrats into German for no other reason than to give this impression.

The ideological roots of Swedish Social Democracy had very little to do with the ideas of the Conservative Revolution. Soon after Social Democracy came to Sweden in the late 19th century, it developed into a strong social movement; its key ideas were imported from German Social Democracy. Concepts such as Bildung, soberness and cleanliness were emphasized in the effort to build a powerful movement with strong and well-educated members. Thus it had close relations with the two other main social movements at the time -- Frikyrko and Nykterhetsrrelsen (The Free Church and the Temperance Movement). After the introduction of political democracy in 1921 (the first election where both male and female citizens could vote), it sought an electoral majority. This goal was nearly reached by the late 1920s, when radicalism -- anti-capitalism, anti-monarchism, anti-militarism and internationalism -- began to be abandoned. When it finally became the ruling party, in 1932, it was well-prepared. The key element in its strategy was the "historical compromise": an agreement between labor and capital paving the way for a safe and calm development of industry; a Keynesian economic policy reducing unemployment and increasing market demand; and, above all, a radical modernization of Swedish society. In short, traditional Marxist ideology was replaced by a much more pragmatic program.

The core of the SAP ideology came from modernism (removing the fetters of "tradition" understood as the old class-society) and rationalization. The key figures were Ernst Wigforss, Alva and Gunnar Myrdal.[11] The latter stressed efficiency and advocated social science. Society was seen as something like a corporation. The Myrdals were also nationalists, not in an aggressive imperialist sense, but as believers in a common project. The economy, science and education had to be rationalized to bring about a classless society. Along with all other modernist social doctrines, education was considered necessary for developing efficient and rational citizens. How does this differ from the subordination of individuals in the fascist state? In order to avoid the fascist temptation, Alva Myrdal substituted the "state" with "society" and "the general."[12] This was more than a rhetorical trick. The SAP modernists (the Myrdals and Wigforss)[13] really believed they could use the state to build a "strong society"[14] of strong, rational individuals and that this would eventually lead to the withering away of the state. For them, community, tradition, culture and primary groups were nothing but the old class society in disguise. They truly believed that conditions for human happiness could be planned and realized. What they did not take into account was the dialectics of rationalization: the "iron cage" of modernity (Max Weber), whereby means create their own ends.

Swedish Social Democracy, however, had also a "reactionary-modernist" or "conservative" side. But this had nothing to do with the Conservative Revolution; it was related to the impact of more mainstream conservatism, fascism and Social Democracy. Crucial here was the Social Democrat Rickard Lindstrm (1894-1950), the editor of the social-democrat journal Tiden (1926-29) and a member of the SAP governing board between 1936 and 1950. He represented the party's informal nationalist group. Along with Nils Karleby, he was instrumental in the party's move from a class-party to a Folk-party. In two influential works, he developed nationalist and racist ideas.[15] He also supported Germany during WWII and was influenced by Hendrik de Man, the Belgian sociologist and politician who started as a radical Marxist and through Social Democracy ended as a collaborator in occupied Belgium.[16] Particularly interesting was de Man's book, Zur Psychologie des Sozialismus, [17] where he attacked Marx and Marxism for extreme rationalism, while reconsidering ideas from Goethe, Nietzsche and Bergson. Lindstrm also accepted all this and emphasized the influence of Georges Sorel.[18]

In his autobiographical work, En Socialist, Lindstrm returned to de Man: "Hendrik de Man found his way into the hearts of thousands of young workers . . . Thus 'the socialism of personality' of the young generation has taken over that kind of socialism which is based on the belief in 'the development of the economic society formations as a natural-historical process'."[19] Besides voluntarism and a belief in the young generation, this work emphasizes cultural and psychological factors as the most important determinants for the reproduction of class society. The same account can be found in Per Engdahl's autobiography, Fribytare i folkhemmet. The leading Swedish fascist, Engdahl also stressed the cultural barriers between classes, emphasizing that the classless society must be based on consensus, corporatism and a shared mythology -- the national myth. He favorably quoted Lindstrm's work.

Engdahl also used to vote for the Social Democrats, and is said to have been a good friend of Ernst Wigforss and Tage Erlander [the Swedish Prime Minister between 1946-1969]. Thus there were both personal and intellectual connections between fascists, nationalists and Social Democrats. Yet the rationalist-modernist tendency within the party was the strongest, even if Per Albin Hansson[20] placed the Swedish national banner among the red banners. This form of nationalism was subsequently strengthened during the war.

As Lars Trgrdh[21] has pointed out, there are also considerable affinities between the German concept of Volk and the Swedish Folk. They are a result of the common cultural heritage of Swedish and German Romanticism, with its emphasis on the collective as something transcending the individual. Swedish Social Democracy may very likely have taken over figures and images from conservative thinkers,[22] which is no more remarkable than the fact that the once antidemocratic conservatives took over concepts such as democracy and today even accepts the basic features of the Welfare State. The emphasis on Folk had to do both with a common, predominant Zeitgeist and a conscious strategy. Folk, however, was not considered in opposition to other Folks, as in Germany, but only to the masters -- the capitalists.[23]


Racism?

Von Kreitor claims that the Swedish model was racist since the Folkhem only had room for the "the Swedish Racial Group" (252). This is false, and he provides no evidence to support this claim. The Tornedal Finns were not "excluded" from Swedish society. As citizens, they had the same rights and duties as others. In some places, however, they were forbidden to speak Torne-Finnish in school. This is not social "exclusion." The 1927 immigration law has nothing to do with the "Swedish model," which came into being in the 1930s. Von Kreitor claims that "even today Swedish law does not recognize the existence or even the concept of minorities." Again, this is false. The Laps have certain rights accorded in special legislation. Apparently, von Kreitor is not very familiar with the Swedish Constitution. Article 2 in Chapter 1 of The Instrument of Government concludes: "Opportunities should be promoted for ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities to preserve and develop a cultural and social life of their own."[24] Article 15 of Chapter 2 reads as follows: "No Act of law or other statutory instrument may entail the discrimination of any citizen because he belongs to a minority on grounds of race, skin color, or ethnic origin."[25] One may also add that there is a Discrimination Ombudsman. Many Estonians came to Sweden after WWII and started newspapers, schools etc. Many were blue-collar workers, but their sons and daughters were educated at the universities and many of them became more "Swedish" than the Swedes themselves [sic! Many were Swedish Estonians and Nazis. Guess which political group offered the latter shelter]. The same can be said of the [small numbers of] Italians who came in the 1950s or the Yugoslavs who came in the 1960s.

Along with almost every other European country, in the 1920s and 1930s Sweden was infected by racist ideas. The worst in Swedish politics came from the Bondefrbundet, although some leading Social Democrats, such as Rickard Lindstrm, made statements which today would be considered clearly racist. This was, however, certainly not unique to Swedish Social Democrats. The most advanced institutionalization of these ideas in Sweden was the Rasbiologiska Institutet (The Race-Biological Institute), which was started in 1921.[26] Throughout this century, up to the Holocaust, there was a great interest in eugenics. The research carded out by the Rasbiologiska Institutet influenced the Program of the Agrarian Party of 1933, but also Alva and Gunnar Myrdal's Kris i Befolkningsfrgan [Crisis in the Question of Population] -- a widely read book which discusses the Swedish "race," not, however, as something contraposed to "other races." It was merely an internal concept, referring to genetics: the Swedish people should grow and become more efficient with the help of scientific expertise, and thus build a strong, rational society. Unlike Germany, Sweden never had any expansionist ambitions. The writer of An American Dilemma can hardly be considered a racist.

The Rasbiologiska Institutet was also instrumental in the formulation of the 1941 Sterilization law, which was not repealed until 1975. It was a very radical law, outdone only by Germany. It provided for the sterilization of retarded people, as well as those with an "asocial way of life" (e.g., gypsies).[27] This law is often seen as "evidence" of the totalitarian nature of the Swedish model. Broberg and Tyden argue that this law was not central to the SAP ideology. Rather, it was both a product of the predominant international mood and part of the project of modernity understood as a struggle against ambivalence.[28] In order to reduce this ambivalence, things are either/or. It is up to the master -- most often the state and the scientist -- to define, include and exclude. This master is a kind of "gardener," who has to watch out for bad plants. In fact, the first day-care centers were called Barntrgrdar (Children's Garden) in Sweden and Kindergarten in Germany.


Grossraum?

Von Kreitor claims that "Sweden also designated Scandinavia, and above all Finland and Norway, as part of a Swedish "Grossraum." Who did so, and when? According to Carl Schmitt's definition, a "Grossraum" is a territory which can secure its own borders against enemies.[29] It also has expansionist implications. Along with other nations, Sweden has had, and still has, particular national interests. So far, they have taken the form of "neutrality." This, however, has never been a neutral "neutrality." During WWII Sweden had to make compromises with Germany in order to reduce the risk of a German occupation, and during the Cold War it was practically a member of NATO. But this does not mean von Kreitor is right.


Prussian Socialism?

According to von Kreitor, Swedish Social Democracy "was heralded as 'the third way,' a social formation between capitalism and socialism. It was very similar to Prussian socialism." While "Prussian socialism" simply attempted to develop national mobilization, the Swedish model sought a "mixed economy" and practiced classical Keynesian state-interventionism. The Saltsjbadsavtalen -- the attempt to reach a compromise between labor and capital -- is said to have "outlawed strikes." This is not entirely true. Strikes were not outlawed, but the local sections of the various unions could be punished if they struck before central agreements were reached. Thus there seems to have been very little "Prussian socialism," and much more of an interventionist state and a common interest in economic growth.


Volksgemeinschaft, Organic Whole, etc. ?

After correctly identifying the concept "Folkhem" (people's home) as the most central image in the Social Democrat project, von Kreitor argues that the project prefigured a "racially defined Folkgemenskap (Volksgemeinschaft)." The Nazi concept Volksgemeinschaft was never used in official Swedish Social Democratic literature. Furthermore, Folkhem has nothing to do with racism. This concept was originally developed by Kjelln in the 1910s. It was then picked up by the SAP leader Per Albin Hansson, who used it in a speech in parliament in 1928. It was to be a safe place for all the people in what was at that time a poor, undeveloped country. The people (Folk) did not constitute a racial unity but a poor mass majority in Swedish society. The Social Democrats knew that they had to appeal to more than the working class in order to build a society predicated on political, social and economic democracy. According to Hansson, the Folkhem was to be a classless society: "The foundation of a home is community and we-feeling. . . . In the good home we have equality, care, co-operation and help. . . . This means breaking down all social and economic barriers that now divide the citizens into privileged and neglected, ruling and dependent, rich and poor."[30] This is a radical, egalitarian vision, not a racist or totalitarian utopia. Whatever can be said about the Conservative Revolution, it can hardly be accused of supporting the idea of equality. Furthermore, the rationalist-modernists wing of the party, such as the Myrdals, never, or at least very rarely, used the concept of Folkhem. Rather, they preferred to talk about "the new man," "the new morality" and "the rational society." The Myrdal project of overcoming the old and the metaphysical in order to build a rational new society, morality and man produced a new metaphysics. This was common among the legal thinkers associated with Hgerstrm.

When all is said and done, von Kreitor provides a deeply self-contradictory account: after trying to prove that the SAP was based on the Conservative Revolution, he claims that the breakdown of the Swedish model may lead to a renewed interest in the Conservative Revolution. While the second may be true, the first is totally wrong. Under Social Democracy, Sweden was neither a technocratic, totalitarian state, nor a paradise. It was plagued by the problem of a rapidly growing bureaucracy that transformed citizens into clients and patients. There were also problems with the legislature. On this point, von Kreitor is absolutely right. The so-called "general clause" protected civil servants from the justice system.

Von Kreitor writes as if he is a lonely voice in the desert, revealing the math. But a more balanced, critical and informed analysis of the Swedish model has also a long tradition in Sweden. This tradition (some of whose thinkers were SAP members) has emphasized concepts such as civil society and autonomy, and have called for strong legal protection of individual rights against the state. But this critique does not overlook the positive side of solidarity and equality. Von Kreitor's explanation of the collapse of the Swedish model is also questionable. It was not merely a matter of "corruption." As a part of the global world economy, Sweden has fallen victim to the dramatic decline in economic growth. This has meant the disappearance of two important preconditions of the Swedish model: an economy that could be controlled on a national level, and an ever-growing economic pie whose new pieces could be consumed in the form of transferences and new projects.

Yet the Swedish model did not disappear for economic reasons alone. During the 1980s there was a growing discontent with its paternalist aspects - bureaucracy, regulations, lack of alternatives, etc. This is one important reason for the 1991 electoral loss, when a liberal-conservative government took over. During their three years in power they began dismantling some vital parts of the Swedish model -- a process which, however, had already been started by the Social Democrats. But the Social Democrats came back in 1994 and have now formed a new government. The main reason for their comeback seems to have been a certain nostalgia -- the need for security and the rebuilding of the health sector. This is unlikely to result in any dramatic changes. The differences between Social Democrats, conservatives and liberals today are relatively minor. More important, both for the future and for an the eventual breakthrough of radical conservative ideas, is the referendum in November 1994 concerning whether Sweden should join the European Union. The strongest argument of the people opposing it is the national myth -- the fairy-tales of Folkhem, neutrality and the Swedish model. It is a sign of the times that Bo Cavefors, a former leftist who published translations of Benjamin, Lukacs, Brecht, Marx etc., now has a new journal, Svarta Fanor [Black Flags], which is full of articles on Schmitt and Ernst Junger. Cavefors now writes that "the enemies of capitalism and liberalism must fight not only politically but also militarily." Even if this journal is read only by a few people, it is a document of an emerging Zeitgeist. The most extreme positions usually reveal something about "normal" structures of thinking.


1. Nikolai-Klaus von Kreitor, "The 'Conservative Revolution' in Sweden," in Telos 98-99 (Winter 1993-94), pp. 249-259.

2. It does provide some misleading information. For example, von Kreitor intimates that the introductory article, "Den magiska nollpunkten," [The Magical Zero Point] is mostly based on Mohler's classical study on the German Conservative Revolution. This is only half true. Mohler is only discussed at the beginning, since he is a true insider. The rest of the article discusses things such as generational factors and the dialectics between poetry and politics.

3. See Conny Mithander, "Reaktionr Modernism i Sverige," [Reactionary Modernism in Sweden] Mikael Hard/Conny Mithander, Teknik som Diskurs. Moderniseringsdebatter i Tyskland och Sverige 1905-35 [Technology As Discourse. Modernization Debates in Germany and Sweden 1905-35] (Gothenburg: Department of Theory of Science, 1990).

4. Die Ideen von 1914. Eine Weltgeschichtliche Perspektive: Zwishen Krieg und Frieden (Leipzig, 1915), p. 29.

5. See, e.g., his Vrldskrigets Politiska Problem [The World War's Political Problem] (Stockholm: Bonniers, 1915).

6. Jan Larsson, Hemmet vi rvde [The Home We Inherited] (Stockholm: Arena, 1994), p. 63 ff.

7. Engdahl developed a voluntarist answer to Spengler's cultural pessimism in his Vsterlandets frnyelse [The Renewal of the West], two volumes (Malm: Bok och Tidskrift, 1950-51).

8. See his biography, Fribytare i Folkhemmet (Lund: Cavefors, 1979). He did, however, meet Carl Schmitt in the 1930s.

9. Karl Kilbom, Cirkeln slutes [The Circle Closes] (Stockholm: Tiden, 1955).

10. Hans Zetterberg has recently written that SAP acted like a "colonial power" which had colonized the country, especially everyday life. See Dagens Nyheter (August 22, 1994).

11. Ron Eyerman, Between Culture and Politics. Intellectuals in Modern Society, (Cambridge: Polity, 1994).

12. Yvonne Hirdman, Att Lgga Livet Till Rtta [To Put Life in Right Place] (Stockholm: Carlssons, 1989), p. 110f.

13. Wigforss (1881-1977) was Minister of Finance between 1932 and 1949. A brilliant writer and a Keynesian, he was the main architect of the policy of comparatively high taxes as a means to achieve the egalitarianism of the Swedish model.

14. This term was coined by Tage Erlander (Swedish Prime Minister, 1946-1969).

15. See his Socialistisk Vardag [A Socialist Weekday] (Stockholm: Bonniers, 1928) and En Socialist [A Socialist] (Stockholm: Bonniers, 1930).

16. See Dick Pels, "Hendrik de Man and the Fascist Temptation" in History of the Human Sciences (May, 1993).

17. This book, as well as most of de Man's other works from the period 1926-31 were readily translated into Swedish.

18. Socialistisk Vardag, op. cit., p. 169ff.

19. En Socialist, op. cit., p. 118.

20. Hansson was the Swedish Prime Minister from 1932 to 1946.

21. See Lars Trgrdh, "Varieties of Volkish Ideologies," in Bo Strath, ed., Language and the Construction of Class Identities (Gothenburg: Gothenburg University Press, 1990).

22. In Germany, however, the SPD was not smart enough to do this, which left the field open for the Nazis to use it for their purposes. See George L. Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964).

23. See Klas Amark in Strath, ed., op cit., p. 127f.

24. The Swedish Constitution, Riksdagen, p. 37.

25. Ibid., p. 41.

26. See Gunnar Broberg and Matfias Tyden, 0nskade i Folkhemmet [Unwanted in the People's Home] (Stockholm: Gidlunds, 1991).

27. See Bosse Lindquist, Fordlade Svenskar [Refined Swedes] (Stockholm: Alfabeta, 1991).

28. Zygmunt Baumann, Modernity and Ambivalence, (Cambridge: Polity, 1991).

29. Carl Schmitt, Volkerrechtliche Grossraumordnung (Berlin: Deutsche Rechtsverlag, 1941).

30. Per Albin Hansson's speech in the Swedish parliament (Riksdag) in 1928, quoted by Yvonne Hirdman, Vi Byggde Landet [We Built the Land] (Stockholm: Tidens Forlag, 1990) p. 186f.


By Gran Dahl

ginoJDA
Saturday, September 4th, 2004, 08:59 AM
:hrm Interesting.................

I know a Swedish girl that goes to school with me here at UT Austin. She's half Swedish/Finnish, looks predominantly white, but says that she keeps her Finnish ancestory a secret back home. I know at one time Finns were considered to be non white here in the US, because of their Asiatic features some of them have.

Evolved
Saturday, September 4th, 2004, 10:08 AM
I've never heard of 'racism' against Finns in America. There were language problems and cultural misunderstandings. Even though most of them were peasants they had very high literacy rates (98%) compared with other immigrants (76%). They were very hard-working. The history of Finnish settlement in America goes back to the 17th Century in Delaware and Pennsylvania.

Evolved
Saturday, September 4th, 2004, 10:41 AM
The original Finnish settlements of the US in the mid-17th century came with the Swedes who were encouraged by the Dutch to form colonies in the New World. These were Finns assimilated with Swedes - Swedish speaking people having Swedish names. Finnish immigration in the US basically stops until the 1830s (you can read baout Canadian Finns (http://collections.ic.gc.ca/albertans/people/finnish.html) here). Between 1870 and 1920, approximately 340,000 Finns immigrated to the United States, about 70,000 Swedish-speaking. In the late 19th Century 34-40% of all Finnish immigrants lived in Michigan.

Oskorei
Saturday, September 4th, 2004, 12:18 PM
All in all, I dont understand what this anti-eugenics propaganda is doing on Skadi.

You just have to board a public bus or enter a shop in todays Sweden, and you will immediately see lots of human specimens who should not be allowed to procreate. Usually these same specimens drag a bunch of children with them.

It is a crime both towards society, our race, and their children, to let these people procreate, since they have bad genes and are bad parents. We urgently need another sterilization-program, the only problem being that I dont trust in our bureaucrats enough to let them handle it (and I do not have the time, nor the diplomatic immunity to do it myself).

Tommy Vercetti
Saturday, September 4th, 2004, 12:26 PM
Swedish racism
http://forums.skadi.net/attachment.php?attachmentid=18916



Lies (http://www.itv.se/boreale/lies.htm)

One of the eyeopening books dealing with Swedish racism is [I]Finns in the Shadow of the "Aryans" written by Aira Kemiläinen. The nature of this racism is xenophobia towards other peoples such as Finns, Saami and Baltic peoples and even distant Asians (often called Mongols by the Swedish racialists, referring to Asians).

Kemiläinen, Aira. Finns in the Shadow of the "Aryans": Race Theories and Racism. Helsinki: Finnish Historical Society, 1998. 320 pp., ill.

The founder of the organized Swedish racism was A.O. Freudenthal in the 19th century. Organized racialists awarded in the 20th century a medal named after Freudenthal. Here is a list of the Freudenthal medalists (http://www.suomalaisuudenliitto.fi/sm-vast.htm#freu).

The Time published on September 22, 1997 James Walsh's article Unnatural Selection.



Genocide suggested by Nesselius

Swedish professor I. Nesselius suggested in 1708 - 1711 a genocide of the Finns. According to Nesselius' plan the Finns would have been replaced by the Swedes everywhere in Finland, except in Lapland. There 3 per cent of the Finns were to be left as a historical relic. The rest of the Finns would have been victims. This genocide plan was however not accepted.

Case Sweden (http://www.suomalaisuudenliitto.fi/case.htm)





These articles are from site of pro-finnish movement which have political goals at modern day finnland (they try to fan hatred towards swedish speaking minority)

This guy A.O.Freudenthal was actually swedish speaking finn who wanted to be distinguished from common folk

Evolved
Saturday, September 4th, 2004, 03:31 PM
All in all, I dont understand what this anti-eugenics propaganda is doing on Skadi.

Read some of the ridiculous excuses they used to sterilize/lobotomize/experiment on people, and you'll understand:


15-year-old teenagers were sterilised for..going to dance halls. One woman was sterilised...for being in a motorcycle gang. Orphans were sterilised as a condition of their release from children's homes. Others were pinpointed on..gossip and personal grudges.

..sterilisation continued based on an agenda to promote social conformity..

(In other words, it had nothing to do with race.)

One woman..was sterilized "because she couldn't read a blackboard because she did not have eyeglasses and was deemed to be retarded."

...government of Sweden hoped to discover whether "lobotomies could cure alcoholics and criminals." Sweden also "forced hundreds of 'mentally deficient' Swedes to let their teeth rot after being force-fed candy in dental experiments."

Oskorei
Saturday, September 4th, 2004, 03:43 PM
Read some of the ridiculous excuses they used to sterilize/lobotomize/experiment on people, and you'll understand:
I read the excuses, however it is hard to know if these were the real reasons, or if they are just partial explanations. Ie. the parents of one who was sterilized may say "and all of this only because she was in a motorcycle gang", and the truth may be totally different. I do agree with you though, that as soon as people are involved, mistakes will be made.

But the bottomline is that certain sterilization is necessary, because right now we are breeding idiocy.

Gesta Bellica
Saturday, September 4th, 2004, 07:15 PM
:hrm Interesting.................

I know a Swedish girl that goes to school with me here at UT Austin. She's half Swedish/Finnish, looks predominantly white, but says that she keeps her Finnish ancestory a secret back home. I know at one time Finns were considered to be non white here in the US, because of their Asiatic features some of them have.

I have heard something about how Finns were not considered "first class" immigrants , like Italians and so on..
it was on article about a school that was attacked in the USA in the '800 because they hated Italians and other immigrants.
Many children died and the majority were of Finnish, Portuguese and Italian origins.

Evolved
Saturday, September 4th, 2004, 10:52 PM
Am I on drugs (don't answer), or does more than 1/2 of Julius' post read backwards in ISO-8859-1 encoding? Bizarre. :-O (see attachment)

Tommy Vercetti
Saturday, September 4th, 2004, 10:57 PM
Am I on drugs (don't answer), or does more than 1/2 of Julius' post read backwards in ISO-8859-1 encoding? Bizarre. :-O (see attachment)

Does that babbling have some secret meaning perhaps?

Tribunale Dei Minore
Sunday, September 5th, 2004, 01:07 AM
I have heard something about how Finns were not considered "first class" immigrants , like Italians and so on..
it was on article about a school that was attacked in the USA in the '800 because they hated Italians and other immigrants.
Many children died and the majority were of Finnish, Portuguese and Italian origins.
It is normal bearing in mind that the majority of american emigrants were of
germanic stock and finns, italians, and even the irish (also sometimes discriminated as non-germanic) were minorities compared to them.
The same way the german barbarians were not equal to the roman citizens
within the boundary of the Roman empire.