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Englisc
Sunday, August 14th, 2016, 07:12 PM
Archaeologists need a new theory for the colonization of the Americas. Plant and animal DNA buried under two Canadian lakes squashes the idea that the first Americans travelled through an ice-free corridor that extended from Alaska to Montana.

The analysis, published online in Nature on 10 August and led by palaeo*geneticist Eske Willerslev of the University of Copenhagen, suggests that the passageway became habitable 12,600 years ago1. That’s nearly 1,000 years after the formation of the Clovis culture — once thought to be the first Americans — and even longer after other, pre-Clovis cultures settled the continents (see 'American trail').

http://www.nature.com/polopoly_fs/7.38335.1470848414!/image/nature-america-migration-11-aug-16.png_gen/derivatives/landscape_630/nature-america-migration-11-aug-16.png

Some 14,000 years ago, as North America was emerging from the last Ice Age, twin glaciers that blanketed central Canada receded, creating the ice-free corridor before the appearance of Clovis people across what is now the central United States. “That coincidence seemed too powerful to ignore,” says archaeologist and co-author David Meltzer of Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. “People who have been cooling their heels in Alaska for thousands of years see this new land open up and they come blasting down this corridor into the new world.”

Persistent idea
The ice-free-corridor theory began to crack in the 1990s, when researchers made a case that humans lived at Monte Verde in Chile more than 14,000 years ago. The discovery of other possible pre-Clovis sites in North America further shook the theory that Clovis people were the first Americans. But the idea that their ancestors at least trekked through the corridor persisted, says Meltzer, even though there was little consensus on when the passage opened or when it became habitable. “It’s 1,500 kilometres. You can’t pack a lunch and do it in a day.”

To build a picture of the habitat as it crept out of the Ice Age, Willerslev’s team analysed DNA in cores taken from beneath two lakes in what was the last stretch of the corridor to melt. The first plant life — thin grasses and sedges — dates back just 12,600 years. The region later became lusher, with sagebrush, buttercups and even roses, followed by willow and poplar trees. This habitat attracted bison first, and later mammoths, elk, voles and the occasional bald eagle. Around 11,500 years ago, the corridor began to resemble the pine and spruce boreal forests of today’s landscape.

The region’s bounty must eventually have tempted hunter-gatherers. But the dates rule out its use as a corridor by Clovis people and earlier Americans to colonize the Americas, says Willerslev. Instead, both probably skirted the Pacific coast, perhaps by boat.
read more http://www.nature.com/news/plant-and-animal-dna-suggests-first-americans-took-the-coastal-route-1.20389

Shadow
Monday, August 15th, 2016, 05:15 AM
On the West Coast of North America we have this seaweed called kelp. Kelp grows almost the entire length of both North and South America. Recently it has been learned the Japanese have a gene which allows them to digest kelp. This gene may be more widespread. So, for instance, if the settlers of the New World did come by boat, they could have lived on sea food, mammals, fish, shellfish as well as kelp, making their way to the tip of South America with no problem at all.

Catterick
Monday, August 15th, 2016, 08:59 AM
Which migration are they talking about? Nowadays the Australian-like component in S America disproves a singular Pleistocene migration from Siberia. Crude pebble tools from S America resemble those in SE Asia at the time, but not N Asia. Historically the Botocudos of Brazil were racially similar to Pleistocene people from Lagoa Santa. Something which "went dark" with Clovis-first though the media presented Luzia's non-Americoid affinities as something unprecedented. These are the "Lagide" type of v. Eickstedt and Imbelloni. Andrzej Wierciński confirmed them present along the coast of western S America alongside the more familiar Andid and Istmid types. Wierciński says the prototypical Andid type is the classical Quechua and emerged from the mixture of C American Istmids with Fuegids/Otamids. The Aymara on the other hand are mixed Istmid X Lagid.

Clovis people were probably Otamid. The Anzick child cannot be typed but no other human remains are definitively Clovis. All known N American Paleoindians were Otamid - think of the Fuegians. Wierciński hints at a possible relationship of Fuegian type S Americans with "Paleoeskimides" presumably Arctic Mongoloids. Georg K. Neumann also saw similarities between his Otamid Paleoindians and Inuids though Eskimo-Aleuts arrived much later. Now this fits a far northern route and Wierciński points out the Fuegid was present in the highlands down into Terra del Fuego itself. Sounds linked to cold adaptation and camelid-rhea hunting.

The Mal'ta boy was genetically White and closest to C Asians among living Whites. Amerinds have admixture from the Paleolithic Altai-Saiyan source though they are Sinodonts (northern Mongoloids) and the Altai-Saiyan race were not. Rather their teeth defy racial classification because of archaic traits - is this neanderthal or Denisovan admixture? Whyever this is they were White. They supposedly contributed to the Ancient North Eurasian (Indo-European) genome.

A curiosity is the 2015 study confirming Lagids were not of Mongoloid origins found them close to Easter Islanders. Other Polynesians clustered expectedly with Micronesia, China, Tupi-Guarani etc. It is a mystery how this might be explained. No pre-Polynesians lived on Easter Island - was the transportation of S American slaves extensive?

https://www.academia.edu/11643830/The_cranial_morphology_of_the_Botocudo_I ndians_Brazil

Paleoindian origins are being clarified in the present.

Shadow
Monday, August 15th, 2016, 07:30 PM
The coastal hypothesis proposes migration down the West Coast from the Old World using boats, a little at a time. But where these people came from is not settled. Homo sapiens is a creature I call a beach boy. Sapiens just follows the shoreline along, basically scavenging. Transfer this to the lakes of East Africa and we have the Bushman-types. There were people who did not hunt big game. What I am saying is the same people who left Africa for the Arabian peninsula may have just continued to Australia, to Japan and to the New World thousands of years later. Then, afterward, we go the more Mongoloid invaders from the Asian mainland.

You bring up the Australoids in South America. These are simply more island hoppers to me like the Polynesians. They may have been first to South America but most of today's genes came to that continent later.

Catterick
Monday, August 15th, 2016, 07:36 PM
Had island hoppers been present in Pleistocene Polynesia their ecological impact would've been detectable. There might be a case for an earlier settlement of places like Hawaii and New Zealand but not by too great a time depth. But the furthest north those SE Asian cobble tools go is Japan so someone must've crossed an ocean.

Shadow
Monday, August 15th, 2016, 07:40 PM
Had island hoppers been present in Pleistocene Polynesia their ecological impact would've been detectable. There might be a case for an earlier settlement of places like Hawaii and New Zealand but not by too great a time depth. But the furthest north those SE Asian cobble tools go is Japan so someone must've crossed an ocean.

I think Melanesian types did cross the ocean. The genes in the New World are just to close to theirs to think they migrated around the Pacific unchanged. There is not evidence for their boats yet but there is not evidence for boats to the Australian continent either but it does not mean they were not used.

Catterick
Monday, August 15th, 2016, 07:43 PM
I think Melanesian types did cross the ocean. The genes in the New World are just to close to theirs to think they migrated around the Pacific unchanged. There is not evidence for their boats yet but there is not evidence for boats to the Australian continent either but it does not mean they were not used.

There's evidence that later Austronesians (before Polynesians) got as far as North America without settling places such as Hawaii. So who knows?

Englisc
Monday, August 15th, 2016, 08:37 PM
Shadow - would you you know the earliest human site in the Americas? I googled but there are various times and places named, some links even clinging on to now-debunked Clovis-first theory.

Amerindians must have used boats to travel across to South America as even today the Panama rainforest connecting to Colombia is practically impenetrable.

Catterick - AFAIK the Aboriginal Australians did not have boats so they could not have made it across to America. I have read that SE Asians may have had Australian-like elements before the Austronesian expansion.

Catterick
Monday, August 15th, 2016, 08:52 PM
Catterick - AFAIK the Aboriginal Australians did not have boats so they could not have made it across to America. I have read that SE Asians may have had Australian-like elements before the Austronesian expansion.

All SE Asians are significantly descended from non-Mongoloid natives. Probably a Proto-Australoid Indodont population existed in S and SE Asia. Australians and New Guineans are descended from their southward migration and the Mongoloids (and our ancestors?) from their settlements north. Nowadays the Veddahs, Semang, Senoi and Andamanese would all be "purer" living descendants. Southeast Asian prehistory is confusing but at least Negrito relationships are being figured out finally. And Aboriginal Borneans are being confirmed racially strange.


In summary, if the results of Hawkey (1998) are combined with those of Matsumura and Hudson (2004; see Bulbeck 2011a), the inference would be that early to mid-Holocene Southeast Asians had a broadly Indodont dental morphology, retained by Andamanese and, to a lesser degree, at least some Philippine negritos. No indications have emerged that this Andamanese-like dental morphology is shown by any Southwest Pacific groups. (For their part, Southwest Pacific groups exhibit such a motley range of similarities, variably with Circum-Mediterranean, African, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asian “Mongoloid” groups, that there is no justification for recognizing an Australoid dental morphology complex. Just how wide-ranging the dental morphological resemblances of Southwest Pacific groups can be is further exemplified by their sporadic similarities with the Semang and Senoi.) While the dental morphology of the Batak negritos and Semang clearly diverges from Indodonty, it is also distinct from the dental morphology of other recent (and late prehistoric) Southeast Asians.

https://www.academia.edu/19683511/Craniodental_Affinities_of_Southeast_Asi as_Negritos_and_the_Concordance_with_The ir_Genetic_Affinities