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Aeternitas
Thursday, May 19th, 2016, 01:12 PM
The case of ethnic Germans in South Tyrol is one of the most representative for what Germanic self-determination should be:

(It's just a shame the border/refugee (http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/31/austrian-border-plan-risks-turning-south-tyrol-into-emblem-of-eu-disintegration) crisis is affecting two sides of Germanic people who are normally comfortable with one another.)


A new study shows that 89 percent of Austrians are in favour of South Tyrol holding an independence referendum, and would welcome unification with Italy's German-speaking northern region.

South Tyrol is feeling Italy's economic woes and many MPs in the regional parliament are in favour of unification with Austria or creating a new independent country.

A survey carried out by the Linz-based market research institute Spectra, and commissioned by South Tyrol’s Heimatbund, showed that 89 percent of Austrians are also in favour of South Tyrol becoming part of Austria.

Out of 1,000 people questioned, 83 percent said they would be in favour of South Tyrolians having dual Austrian and Italian citizenship.

Heimatbund is an association of former South Tyrolian activists who are in favour of forming a new country together with the Austrian state of Tyrol.

West Austrians, who live closer to South Tyrol, were less in favour of a new independent country than East Austrians.
Full article (http://www.thelocal.at/20150126/austrians-in-favour-of-unification-with-south-tyrol)

A general description of such a town:


In Bolzano, an Italian mountain town on the Austrian border, most residents want independence from Italy and a right to speak German

People here speak in German and have a hard time replying in Italian. When they do, their strong Teutonic accent takes you aback.

They're Italian citizens but simply don't feel Italian. Bolzano's local authorities estimate that German is spoken by 75% of the 510,000 inhabitants of the Alto Adige region. Locals, however, call it by its original name – South Tyrol – and many wish it were independent.

Here, Italian speakers are a minority. Citizens' ID cards are different from the rest of Italy's as they are green and written in Italian and German. The local flag is red and white with an imperial Austrian-style eagle in the middle. Epiphany Day – a traditional Italian Christmas festivity when children's stockings are filled with sweets and toys – celebrates the coming of the three wise men and not of the Befana witch on her broomstick.

Then the sentiment of South Tyrolean Germans, which is largely shared, regardless whether they want independence or joining Austria:

Eva Klotz is a co-founder of the separatist party Süd-Tiroler Freiheit (South Tyrolean Freedom). She carries a yellow card in her wallet that says "German is my mother tongue".

Klotz says: "There are acts of racism each single day. Despite Italian and German both being official languages, I often bump into police officers who don't know German. They point at the Italian flag stitched on their uniform and require I speak Italian simply because we're in Italy. They don't even know that I have the right to speak in my mother tongue so I show them this card. It drives me mad. I call this linguistic imperialism."

Klotz, who wears long Tyrolese braids and dresses in traditional costume, recently launched a survey for a referendum on South Tyrol's right to self-determination. "It was a huge success: 90% of the 61,000 voters are in favour. In the future this could either translate into full independence from Italy or re-annexation to Austria," she says.

"My dream is to reunite with Austria. I'm an Italian citizen but don't belong to the Italian culture, state nor language. I have a Tyrolese identity. In my cultural backpack there's Schiller."
Source (http://www.theguardian.com/education/2014/may/30/south-tyrol-live-in-italy-feel-austrian)

Englisc
Thursday, May 19th, 2016, 03:22 PM
Austria's likely next President has called for South Tyrol to be returned to Austria:

http://www.krone.at/Oesterreich/Hofer_Suedtiroler._eure_Heimat_ist_Oeste rreich!-Brisantes_Video-Story-509242

Matteo Salvini, head of Lega Nord, has also stated he would support a self determination referendum in South Tyrol.

Quaestor
Thursday, May 19th, 2016, 11:18 PM
I can't understand people have an interest in these non-issues while the continent is trampled underfoot by the hordes from the Arabian deserts and African steppes :|

Siebenbürgerin
Friday, May 20th, 2016, 02:49 AM
It's good to hear the presidential candidate is concerned with the affairs of ethnic German enclaves. Interesting outcome if the Austrian establishment gets trumped in the elections. I keep my fingers crossed for the Austrians. :thumbup


I can't uderstand people have an interest in these non-issues while the continent is trampled underfoot by the hordes from the Arabian deserts and African steppes
Hmm, since you're a new member I think you should first familiarise yourself with what Skadi is about first.

Skadi is a forum about Germanic heritage. It's dedicated to the Germanic people, and to people with interest in the Germanic people and not to Arabian hordes or African steppe people.

If you've no interest in the affairs of South Tyrolean people and the struggles of ethnic Germanics who suffer discrimination and oppression over their German ethnicity and language, then perhaps you shouldn't browse a forum dedicated to "general historical, social, linguistic, political and cultural topics pertinent to the Germanic enclaves around the world; also discuss topics pertinent to the Germanic influences upon other ethnicities, cultures, countries and locations world-wide."

With all respect, but your post sounds like Stormfront people. :|

SaxonCeorl
Friday, May 20th, 2016, 03:32 AM
Skadi is a forum about Germanic heritage. It's dedicated to the Germanic people, and to people with interest in the Germanic people and not to Arabian hordes or African steppe people.

There won't be any more Germanic people if we don't deal with the Arabian hordes and African steppe people in our midst. Crying about some quasi-Austrians living in Italy is indeed a bit out of proportion when considering the bigger problems going on.

Thorburn
Friday, May 20th, 2016, 07:56 AM
There won't be any more Germanic people if we don't deal with the Arabian hordes and African steppe people in our midst. Crying about some quasi-Austrians living in Italy is indeed a bit out of proportion when considering the bigger problems going on.Sorry, but by merit of this argument, we could close 90+ percent of all threads.

Skadi is a discussion forum, meant to inform, to enlighten and to educate people about all sorts of issues. Current affairs of relevance to all of us as much as regional issues. There is room for both topics — for issues related to Tyrolean self-determination as much as for posts discussing the current immigration crisis. One does not exclude the other. Nor does the existence of this thread prevent that solutions to „bigger problems”, whatever they may be, can be discussed and developed. :)

SpearBrave
Friday, May 20th, 2016, 11:10 AM
It is about time South Tyrol is returned to Austria. The Italians have been trying to Italianize the area for generations with no success. The people there are Germanic and either should have their own state or be part of Austria that has the same language and culture.

If I remember right the Italians gained the area by switching sides at the very end of WWI, or at least I read that somewhere. So just as parts of modern day France and Poland should be returned to Germany. These are historic Germanic lands and they should be returned to Germanic hands.

Aeternitas
Friday, May 20th, 2016, 11:40 AM
Perhaps reading the articles and links I provide in full would make it easier to understand? :) If one actually takes a closer look at the issue, the refugee crisis and South Tyrolean identity are currently closely linked.

It was the Brenner Pass in the Alps, where old-fashioned border controls were introduced, this is the gate to South Tyrol. The friction between Italy and Austria over refugees opened up some old wounds. As such, the issue of South Tyrol is very much a current affair and those Austrians who have a basic understanding of the history in that region cringe at the thought of selling out their Germanic brethren. Just as South Tyroleans feel once again treated like second class citizens, suffering the consequences due to Italy not taking enough measures to halt the "refugee" flow. Here are the words of another South Tyrolean:

“It is something that strongly touches us and is felt in the heart when we here see a a new border to the fatherland going up in this way,” says Martha Stocker, the provincial official in charge of migration and health.

“After the border opened, you didn’t have the feeling anymore that we were somehow boxed-in in this state and that we are another nationality. And now suddenly that we are closing it once more, one feels boxed-in again.”
For it's not South Tyroleans who are illegals, they don't hide in trunks or backseats, neither do they expect an income from the government just because. It's also not South Tyroleans who are left-wing thugs and cause riots and violence at the border.

Those who do make use of the freedom of movement within the EU and move to Austria are honest, hard working people who seek jobs, nothing is handed out to them.

The fact that Austria made the South Tyrol question a back-seat issue already speaks volumes: it was and is ready to cooperate in order to tackle the uncontrolled flow of illegals. It's also Austria's image that risked to deteriorate within the EU due to this emergency measure, particularly it was criticized by Italy, what is ironic -- a sad kind of ironic -- considering Italy's measures weren't tight enough to contain the flow.

In fact just recently Austria took an even further measure to pass a law (https://www.rt.com/news/343015-austria-law-refugees-border/) permitting a shut-off of the border in case the refugee flow becomes too great. By now most politicians have realized the gravity of the outcome and particularly the fact that Austria simply can't house such a great number of refugees. It's only after this threat, or "reality check" that Italy followed suit and introduced tighter measures to deal with the crisis. As a result, Austria backed down (http://www.dw.com/en/no-austrian-border-controls-for-now-at-brenner-pass/a-19257199) on border controls at the Pass. Nothing against the Italians, but this wasn't the best example of cooperation between two European nations.

It sadly opens an old wound and reminds of a past era which almost lead to their dissolution. South Tyroleans, not much unlike the Swiss, place a good deal of importance on autonomy. After its annexation, South Tyrol became a project of italianization, where ethnic Germans became second class citizens and their organisations, centers, clubs, papers, were dissolved, forcing them to establish "underground" schools where German language was taught. Mussolini supported and continued this process and together with Hitler agreed to give the South Tyroleans two options: stay and become italianized or move to the Reich. The Dableiber, those who did not wish to leave, were considered traitors. Despite the fact that the immigration option helped to preserve their German language and ethnos, it essentially robbed them of their soil. The plan didn't go much further though, as WWII broke out. So that was a pretty hard blow the preservation of their regional identity which time and again seems to be compromised.

Furthermore the preservation of any Germanic ethnic group is a timeless question. It's as important nowadays as it was back then.

e.g. In 2013 a South Tyrolean referendum (http://www.nationalia.info/new/10126/yes-to-self-determination-wins-unofficial-referendum-in-south-tyrol-gets-92-of-the-votes) registered a result of 92% in favor of self-determination -- the percentage include both those who want independence, and those who would rather join Austria. Unfortunately the referendum was not binding, because the main party in the Parliament, SVP (South Tyrolean People's Party) prefers autonomy within the Italian Republic.

It's also not a handful of people but a strong, significant German majority. This is a map of South Tyrol, notice the dominant language, which in this case correlates with ethnic background.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/05/Language_distribution_in_South_Tyrol%2C_ Italy_2011%2C_en.png/800px-Language_distribution_in_South_Tyrol%2C_ Italy_2011%2C_en.png

Huginn ok Muninn
Friday, May 20th, 2016, 01:17 PM
There won't be any more Germanic people if we don't deal with the Arabian hordes and African steppe people in our midst. Crying about some quasi-Austrians living in Italy is indeed a bit out of proportion when considering the bigger problems going on.


Sorry, but by merit of this argument, we could close 90+ percent of all threads.

Skadi is a discussion forum, meant to inform, to enlighten and to educate people about all sorts of issues. Current affairs of relevance to all of us as much as regional issues. There is room for both topics — for issues related to Tyrolean self-determination as much as for posts discussing the current immigration crisis. One does not exclude the other. Nor does the existence of this thread prevent that solutions to „bigger problems”, whatever they may be, can be discussed and developed. :)

Moreover, there is something some have not considered... Discussing matters of ethnicity and belonging makes people more mindful of who they are and why they should fight to remain who they are in the places they have lived for centuries. Mindless leftists like to say that "people are people" and "we are all the same," but that's an outright lie. We are special, and our heritage is special, and that heritage cannot exist if we are not here, and we are not in sole possession of our lands. Instilling a positive feeling for ones' own people is therefore an essential thing, because why would the lost souls of today care about saving their unique people and heritage if they don't even recognize that they have one?

Englisc
Friday, May 20th, 2016, 02:21 PM
(Here follows a little - kinda relevant - Italian history...)


If I remember right the Italians gained the area by switching sides at the very end of WWI, or at least I read that somewhere.
At the start of the war, Italy was theoretically part of the Triple Alliance with Austria and Germany. But the Italians didn't join the war until mid 1915, on the Anglo-French side.

To be fair, it hardly made much sense for Italy to be on the side of the Austrians and Germans. Britain was very sympathetic to the Italian national cause - many Risorgomento leaders had spent time in England - and Napeleon III had supported Italy against Austria 50 years before. Ofcourse, Austria had been the ruler of north-eastern Italian territories before the 1860s.

Britain did promise new territories for Italy in secret in 1915, but these were more on the Adriatic side - former territories of the Venetian republic in Istria and Dalmatia. At Versailles they were awarded only South Tyrol and part of Istria, angering most Italians for their perceived lack of reward for joining the war. And part of the outcome of this was increasing unrest and the rise of Mussolini's fascists...

Here's a Tyrol chronology: http://www.dorf-tirol.it/public/pdfs/The%20History%20of%20Tyrol.pdf

and a 1927 FA article on Tyrol:
https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/germany/1927-04-01/italian-rule-german-south-tyrol

Catterick
Friday, May 20th, 2016, 02:54 PM
I was curious how many ethnic Germans might live in the Italian Tyrol today knowing Mussolini encouraged German emigration. Turns out there are 250,000 Germans in South Tyrol. Then there's Cimbro in the Veneto which is also Bavarian/Austrian.

Siebenbürgerin
Friday, May 20th, 2016, 03:09 PM
There won't be any more Germanic people if we don't deal with the Arabian hordes and African steppe people in our midst. Crying about some quasi-Austrians living in Italy is indeed a bit out of proportion when considering the bigger problems going on.
Hmm, I'm not understanding your point? Who is crying? It's a discussion forum. Are you saying we forum members shouldn't be discussing the topic of South Tyrol Germans? Or are you saying Austria shouldn't care about the topic of South Tyrol Germans?

The people of South Tyrol are caught in the middle of a sad scenario but maybe if you don't understand it you should leave it to the Austrians of the forum to decide how big or small the issue is?

By the way, an educated Germanic person is able to be concerned with more than one thing at the same time. It's a quality of our peoples, we're not a simplistic people.

Even Stormfront has fora about philosophy, women's issues and some other side-topics, it gets tiresome and boring even for their members to always focus on African people, Jewish or Muslim people. But the South Tyrol topic it's not a side topic, it's a topic directly about Germanic peoples. Why instead haven't you a picky attitude about fluff topics? Television, celebrity gossip, comical videos, whatever. What future should we expect from our generations if we aren't able to preserve our culture and at the same time protect our borders?! It's not the same worth to preserve a rich Germanic culture than to preserve a trailer park culture.

Listen, I'm not sure of your media, but the topic refugee people are every day shoved by the media here and liberal peoples and I get tired to hear of it. Doesn't anyone else? Other races and cultures don't focus even half of their attention on us as we do on them.

Leliana
Friday, May 20th, 2016, 08:06 PM
Uhm, we Northern Bavarians must continue to remind our Southern Bavarian brethren and sisters in South Tyrol that the achieved relative autonomy can't be the end of the line. Sadly there're some South Tyroleans who have learnt and have been teached to feel okay and alright with the current situation. South Tyrol as a quasi autonomic region in Italy seems the best scenario to a larger portion of South Tyroleans. :/

I'm not sure if a referendum about the reunion of South Tyrol with the rest of Tyrol would achieve a majority atm. :| Too many Italians in South Tyrol and many brainwashed Tyroleans who say 'Whatever, it's okay, we can have free contact and cooperation by open Brenner, Reschenpass and Felbertauern as as much we want'.

But injustice never expires!

SaxonCeorl
Friday, May 20th, 2016, 09:24 PM
Hmm, I'm not understanding your point? Who is crying? It's a discussion forum. Are you saying we forum members shouldn't be discussing the topic of South Tyrol Germans? Or are you saying Austria shouldn't care about the topic of South Tyrol Germans?

I was defending Quaestor. I agree with his sentiment, but wouldn't have chimed in otherwise. As for "crying," I was referring to the woman from one of the referenced articles, saying she's the victim of "racism," as if some ethnic Austrians living in northern Italy is somehow akin to the whites being murdered in South Africa.


Other races and cultures don't focus even half of their attention on us as we do on them.

I'm sure if we moved into their countries en masse and acted as if they should accommodate us, they would focus on us quite a bit ;)

Sigurd
Saturday, May 21st, 2016, 12:39 AM
Crying about some quasi-Austrians living in Italy is indeed a bit out of proportion when considering the bigger problems going on.

As someone from the Tyrol, I find your attitude very offensive. We are reminded day and day, that our brethren speaking virtually the same dialects, the home of our most renowned regional heroes, the place where the Tyrol was founded, our traditional diocese, and our highest mountain are caught within Italy as a reward for its treason in WWI.

I keep on seeing people drool over the idea of getting Prussia, Silesia and Pomerania back? How about starting in places where there actually still is a German majority. Note that Italians have since Day 1 settled in a very colonial manner, favouring the large cities and neighbouring villages thereto.

103 out of 116 communities are majority German (eight are Ladin, five are Italian) with some 77 in excess of 90%. By the way, the Italianisation and the racial bastardisation go hand in hand: Whilst "only" 7% of children in German language schools have a 'migrational background', the same is the case of 21% of Italian schools. And indeed, recently visiting Bozen, it's really become a cesspool of all sorts of people.

By the way, South Tyrol is the place where such people as Andreas Hofer, Michael Gaismair, Oswald von Wolkenstein, Walter von der Vogelweide, Luis Trenker came from. It's like our 'holy land', and it's been stolen by Italians who've been bleeding it dry ever since. :|


As for "crying," I was referring to the woman from one of the referenced articles, saying she's the victim of "racism," as if some ethnic Austrians living in northern Italy is somehow akin to the whites being murdered in South Africa.

You have no idea how these things happen. Some people such as Dr. Josef Noldin were killed for teaching the German language to children between the wars. In 1921 they already shot a teacher dead during a march in traditional garb, injuring over fifty people with bullets, handgrenades and the likes.

Some other people such as Luis Amplatz, Anton Gostner, Sepp Kerschbaumer, Franz Höfler were captured and tortured to death in the 1960s - and most others that fought for self-determination in the 1960s were banned until their death from entering their home soil.

It was once very much akin to whites being murdered in South Africa and it's still a sad story. The difference is, this place of Germanendom is yet to be saved. :)

Siebenbürgerin
Saturday, May 21st, 2016, 12:41 AM
As for "crying," I was referring to the woman from one of the referenced articles, saying she's the victim of "racism," as if some ethnic Austrians living in northern Italy is somehow akin to the whites being murdered in South Africa.
From your statement it's clear you're not very informed with the realities of peoples in South Tyrol. The woman in the article was complaining about "language imperialism" which isn't the same as physical violence but it's psychological violence towards the German ethnicity.

The region of South Tyrol is an autonomous region with a majority of Germans. Language wise it's a model like Switzerland, with more than one official language, one language for each ethnic group. So all citisens have a right to use their mother language even in court. Where I live it's the same, German is an official language and officially an ethnic German is entitled to be serviced in the German language.

In South Tyrol, traffic signs are bilingual or trilingual in the Ladin areas. Schools are separated for each language group. Magazines and media also.

So if you're an ethnic German there you get taught, read and learn in your native language. One day, you need the help of the authorities or police. You go to them politely, knowing they train officials for all languages or that at least you get an interpreter.

But then when you get there they pretend they don't speak your language and point to a flag which is foreign to you. You've to each time remind them of the laws in the region which they are supposed to serve in.

Now change the scenario a little bit and replace South Tyrol with USA and German with English. English is the majority language, a language you've the right to be serviced in, but the officials or customer service refuse to help and service you unless you speak Spanish. Or England with Urdu or Punjabi. It would be immediately frown upon.

The fact is, South Tyroleans aren't under an obligation to learn Italian and refusing to help them and even ridiculing them because of the language they speak is a form of discrimination, so it's the same principle as in racism. It's racism against the German people. We don't accept it from the Turkish people, why should it be a non-issue if it's from Italians?

Their struggle is dear to me because I'm also an ethnic German so I follow their situation with great interest. I must tell you I encountered this form of racism in my everyday life and it's not pleasant at all. :| I don't have ridiculous expectations from all Romanians to speak German and I learned Romanian myself, so I can speak it without problems if I need to. The emphasis is on "if I need to". I'm part of a German community where German is an official language, so if for example, I need an official document in German language, it should be provided, I mustn't have to go to a certified translator and pay money so that the document gets recognised. Or if I go to a German restaurant with my German-speaking friends or relatives, I expect a German menu and German-speaking staff. I've acquaintances who for example don't speak Romanian, they only speak German or Hungarian. They shouldn't have to face discrimination because they happen to be descendants of a long lineage of Saxons who were once the builders and main population of the community.

The story of the South Tyroleans is similar: the region was forcefully italianised, and South Tyroleans could stay behind or leave everything and move to Germany. This is what many of them did, just like many Transylvanian Saxons who moved to Germany during the Ceausescu regime. But there are those who didn't wish to leave their ancestral lands, their relatives and long history in the region to move to Germany. My family also made that decision: we're ethnic Germans, but Transylvania is our fatherland. Germany is the land of our distant ancestors who settled in Transylvania, so we call it the motherland. We're Saxons, we have our own unique history and culture, we have our lands and properties which we didn't want taken by the state and given to someone else. Mostly we didn't do it for money - if someone wants to move to Germany, it should be because they want to and made the decision independently, not because they were forced and driven out of their lands. So those South Tyroleans who stood behind in the region shouldn't have to pay because they valued their region, family ties and properties. Nationalists should be able to understand it, regionalism is a cousin of nationalism...

To the rest I'm not going to take the thread more off-topic by responding.

Irminson
Sunday, May 22nd, 2016, 09:24 PM
As an Austrian (not from the Tyrol) I am very proud that our FPÖ is more and more strongly demanding a referendum to be held in South Tyrol about the matter of returning to Austria or staying with Italy.

It is about the right of nations to self-determination. And that's exactly the point - it's not up to us Austrians to decide, though I am strongly in favor of our South Tyrollean brethren returning to Austria. It must be the South Tyrolean's decision and the most important thing is, they have to be asked for their opinion because so far nobody ever bothered.
Austria did a lot to make things better for the German population of South Tyrol when they suffered from persecution. When they got minority status in Italy, the official Austria was satisfied and chose to forget about them. Only the FPÖ is making more and more clear that this cannot be the end of it and that the people in South Tyrol need to be heard in the matter.

Closing down the Brenner is of course terrible. Getting rid off the border between the two Tyrols was one of the very few advantages the EU brought. It is sickening that we must close it now again but we have to because it is the border between Italy and Austria right now and we have to stop the invaders (and Italy clearly won't do much to help, as usual)

Nachtengel
Sunday, June 5th, 2016, 10:17 AM
Italy's South Tyrol: where an identity crisis lingers

The stunning mountainous region of South Tyrol, or Alto Adige, has been part of Italy for almost 100 years. But many of those among the population of 511,000 still don’t feel Italian. In fact, identity is a delicate talking point, as The Local discovers.

“I feel neither German, Italian or Austrian, I am from South Tyrol,” Mrs Verdorfer, who runs a hotel that has been in her family since 1920 in Renon, a hiking paradise that sits on a high plateau overlooking the regional capital of Bolzano, tells The Local.

It’s easy to feel disorientated when arriving in the country’s richest region, which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until it was annexed by Italy after the First World War, as part of Rome's reward for entering the conflict on the winning side.

Although the area is officially bilingual, 75 percent of the population speak German, and people seem uncomfortable conversing in Italian.

Switch on the TV or radio, and German-language channels dominate, while the newspapers provided in hotels cater mostly for German-speaking guests.

Speck, a type of ham, and schnitzel, are more prevalent on menus than pizza, and the so-called Hugo, a cocktail made up of sparkling wine, elderflower syrup and mint leaves, is the favoured drink at aperitivo time over Aperol Spritz.

There is also a palpable sense of pride among the people here, something often lacking in Italians elsewhere.
http://www.thelocal.at/20150930/south-tyrol-where-italians-still-lack-identity

Nachtengel
Saturday, December 30th, 2017, 08:30 PM
Italy indignant after Austria offers passports to South Tyroleans

Rome was up in arms Monday over a proposal by Austria's new conservative and far-right coalition government to offer passports to the German-speaking residents of the northern Italian province of South Tyrol.
The mountainous region, also known by its Italian name Alto Adige, was part of the Austrian-Hungarian empire before being annexed by Italy after World War I as an autonomous province.

Some 70 percent of locals said they were German speakers in the last census carried out in 2011.

Whatever language they speak, Italy did not take kindly to the idea they could be offered a second passport.

"Hands off Italy," said Giorgia Meloni, head of the far-right Brothers of Italy party, while foreign ministry official Benedetto Della Vedova said the proposal had a decisive whiff of "ethnic nationalism".

It was "a fanciful move" on Vienna's part, the Italian European Parliament President Antonio Tajani said, insisting "the season of nationalism in Europe is over".

The proposal also irked South Tyrol's German-speaking neighbours in the Trentino province, who enjoy the same autonomous status but have not been offered the same deal by Vienna.

For his part, South Tyrol's governor Arno Kompatscher brushed off the controversy, saying the "nationalist policy" went against their status as "committed Europeans".

"We will continue to play our role as hinge, bridge, mediator," he said.https://www.thelocal.at/20171218/italy-austria-passports-south-tyrol