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Wurfaxt
Wednesday, May 5th, 2010, 01:22 AM
Afrikaner Calvinism is, according to theory, a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking people of South Africa.

From 1652 to 1835, settlers primarily from the Netherlands, and migrant and refugee Calvinist Protestants from Germany, France, Scotland, and elsewhere in Europe, combined in South Africa to form a distinct people, called the Afrikaners. A significant number of the French progenitors of the Afrikaner people were Huguenots, who first began to arrive between 1687 and 1691 in flight from the persecution that lasted for one hundred years after the Edict of Nantes was revoked. Between the end of the 18th century and the end of the 20th century, these people increasingly considered themselves Afrikaner (originally meaning simply "African") rather than European. They spoke their own, indigenous language, called Afrikaans, and were bound together by a form of Calvinist religion. The Afrikaners negotiated a home-rule arrangement in the four British Colonies 10 years after the Anglo-Boer war and firmly established themselves as the ruling minority in South Africa until international pressure and increasing chaos within South Africa compelled them to dismantle their policies of exclusive control, called Apartheid.


Settlement period

The Dutch settlement of the Cape of Good Hope was the first colonial success in South Africa. The key to this success was the establishment of strict rules of trade between the settlement and the native population. No trade or Christian missionary ventures among the Africans were permitted without the permission of the company administrator. Stealing or shooting cattle was especially forbidden as a cause of inevitable conflict with the natives. The early Europeans were appalled by the appearance and the customs of the Africans, and the completely false report that the natives were cannibals reinforced their motive to avoid unnecessary contact. The Cape was a walled garden, with Africa on the outside and Europe within. This strict order minimized conflicts with the Africans during the early settlement period.

Yet, many of the settlers had arrived with a missionary motive. The synthesis of these attitudes of strict avoidance and a missionary conscience resulted in the widespread practice of indenturing the native Khoisan population, and within that master/servant relationship, to teach the Bible to them in hope that the message would filter back through the servant's family (along with reports of the superiority of European life) and thus bring about conversion.

The farmers who lived outside of the physical walls of the towns had a different arrangement than the townspeople. To them, occupation meant ownership, and ownership implied the right to protect their property. As they settled into the seemingly unoccupied territories surrounding the Cape, they enforced these assumptions of ownership and its rights when the wandering hunters or herding tribes would cross the Fish River into farm territories in search of grazing land or game. Thus, the farms represented an extension beyond the towns of the wall of separation between the white and the black occupants of the land. As in the towns, plantation slavery was sometimes seen as a means of evangelism.

Separation and rules of exchange were opposed very early in the Afrikaner mind to invasion and conquest. And, this anti-imperialism extended also to the theory of missionary obligation that developed within the Dutch Reformed Church: the kingdom of God will grow within the sphere of influence assigned to the church by divine providence, as children are taught the Gospel by their parents and family. If God deems it fitting for the Gospel to be received by the natives, and taught to their children, then this is his glory. Toward that end, Christians have a defining role given them from God, a calling, or covenantal responsibility as God's people, to keep themselves pure in the faith and just in their dealings with the heathen, and to be absolutely unyielding in their protection of what has been legitimately claimed in the name of the Triune God.


Folk religion

This history is essential to understanding the distinctive concept of "calling" that developed among the Afrikaners. These attitudes, very early adopted, went with them through later conflicts, formed in a way that seemed to them obviously crafted by the hand of God Himself. They believed themselves preserved by God's own wisdom and Providence. The things they suffered, and the strong bonds between them that were formed through it all, seemed to confirm this idea at every turn. Their history as a people has a central place in forming the Boer religion. In this way, a distinctive folk character became attached to their Calvinistic beliefs.

This folk religion was not articulated in a formal way. It was the experience of the Afrikaners, which they interpreted through their assurance that their absolutely sovereign Creator and Lord had shown special grace to them as a particular people.


Nationalism

However, the French Revolution brought these habits of thought more self-consciously to the surface. Because the Dutch of the Netherlands supported the French and American revolutions, the British declared war on the Netherlands and began seizing their trade routes. They landed at the Cape of Good Hope in 1797. After the Dutch declared bankruptcy, the British annexed the Cape and appointed British land administrators there in 1805, who were zealous propagators of the Enlightenment. They loosened the trade and labor regulations, speaking of the blacks as 'noble savages' whose untainted natural souls they professed to admire, finally outlawing slavery in 1835. They called the blacks equals, and gave them access to the courts in suit against white landowners. And, they professed to believe in their own autonomous Reason above all else.

A more antithetical message could hardly be imagined, as the English Enlightenment found itself with the Afrikaners for the first time. From the Boer point of view, the Enlightenment invaded their shores, seized their properties, annexed their farms, imposed alien laws, liberated their slaves without compensation, justified these actions by appeal to Reason alone, and claimed in all of this to be more virtuous than their God. They were exposed to the Enlightenment, and it appeared to them to be a revolution against their God and way of life.


Separation of Boer and Afrikaner Calvinists

Because the Cape Dutch Reformed Church was seen by the trekkers as being an agent of the Cape government, they also did not trust its ministers and emissaries, seeing them as attempts by the Cape government to regain political control. There were also religious divisions among the trekkers themselves. A minister from the Netherlands, Dirk Van der Hoff (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dirk_Van_der_Hoff)went to the Transvaal in 1853, and became a minister in the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk, which was constituted in 1856, and in 1860 recognised as the State Church of the South African Republic, separate from the Cape Church.

Meanwhile, back in the Netherlands, the Dutch church had been transformed by the Enlightenment, a change represented in the minds of those opposed it, by the loss of any meaningful profession of faith as requisite for adult church members, and the singing of hymns (in addition to psalms) and other innovations in worship and doctrine. In the Netherlands a movement grew in reaction to this perceived dismantlement of Biblical faith. It was called the Doleantie (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doleantie) (grieving), a movement that led to schism in the Dutch Reformed Church, and the formation of the Christian Reformed Church in the Netherlands. The writings of Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer, and the leader of the Doleantie, Abraham Kuyper (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Kuyper), began to become known to the Afrikaners. Highly critical of the Enlightenment, the "revolution" as they called it, the Doleantie in the church had counterparts in education and in politics. The timing of this influence was significant, coming on the crest of a wave of evangelical revival, the Reveil (Awakening) in the Dutch Reformed Church which had been led in South Africa by the Scottish preacher, Andrew Murray. The slogan of the Doleantie, which eventually rang with unintended nationalist nuance for the Afrikaners was, "Separation is Strength".


Doppers

In the South African Dutch Reformed Church in Transvaal, the more conservative party (known as Doppers) were opposed to singing hymns in church. They asked the Afgescheiden Gereformeerde Kerk in the Netherland to provide them with a minister. The Rev. Dirk Postma came from Zwolle to the South African Republic in 1858, and was accepted as a minister of the Hervormde Kerk, but on learning that he and his congregation could be required to sing hymns (rather than the Psalms only), he and the Doppers, numbering about 300 adults, among whom was the later President Paul Kruger, broke away from the state church to form the Gereformeerde Kerk in Rustenburg in February 1859. There were thus now three Dutch Reformed Churches in South Africa — the Afrikaner Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk (the Cape Synod), the Boer Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk, which was the state church of the South African Republic, and the Boer Gereformeerde Kerk, the smallest of the three, led by Postma.

The originally contemptuous name, Dopper, may come from the Dutch domp (wick-snuffers) for their opposition to candles and other innovations in worship, perhaps representing their contempt for the Enlightenment; or, Dopper may originate from Dutch dop (and thus drinkers), perhaps on account of their strong opposition to small, individual communion cups.

The separatism of the Doppers, expressed in the severity of their doctrine, the austere puritanism of their worship, and even in their distinctive dress and speech, set them in stark contrast to European influence. Nevertheless, the Doppers were symbolic of resistance to all things English in South Africa, and despite their small size and distinctiveness they were culturally sophisticated and disproportionately influential during and after the Great Trek. It was the Dopper church that established Potchefstroom University. It was from this sect that Paul Kruger arose.

The new Boer states which arose after the Great Trek needed a comprehensive philosophy upon which to organize a genuinely Boer society. Voortrekker 'Uncle' Paul Kruger, first president of the South African Republic upon its reacquired independence after the brief British annexation, adopted the Doleantie in its political form, and formulated the Boer cultural mandate based on the Afrikaner Calvinist conviction that the South Africans had a special calling from God, not unlike the people of Israel in the Bible. The Doppers waged an intellectual war against outlander culture which was flooding into South Africa through the mass settlements of foreign squatters lured by gold and diamonds, accompanied by British armies. To the Afrikaner mind, the British represented imperialism, viciousness, outlander oppression, covetousness, envy, and unbelief. When the Anglo-Boer wars broke out, Paul Kruger's idealized version of Afrikaner history forged the Afrikaners into a united and formidable force. The Afrikaner's Boer War experience, including the death of 28 000 civilians and the destruction of homesteads, reinforced their laager mentality, so as to preserve themselves and their way of life against the British melting pot.


Afrikaner Broederbond

The Boer Wars had left many of the Afrikaners utterly destitute. The ruined farmers were seen in the hundreds, following the war, lining the highways selling produce by the basket. After the British reorganized the Union of South Africa and relinquished control to democratic elections, a small, anonymous group of young intellectuals called the Afrikaner Broederbond (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afrikaner_Broederbond), formed in the years following the Second Anglo-Boer War to discuss strategies for addressing the overwhelming social problem of poor whites and other Afrikaner interests. By the account of Irving Hexham, according to Klaus Venter and Hendrick Stoker who were themselves disgruntled members of the secret organization, in 1927 the Broederbond moved to Potchefstroom University, asking that the school would take over leadership of the then-struggling group. That year, the Broederbond formally adopted the Calvinist philosophy based on the work of Abraham Kuyper. The Broederbond believed, with deep-rooted conviction, that what their past had provided them through the interpretation of faith was a model of anti-imperialism, self-discipline and responsibility, which in the end would preserve justice for all — blacks, coloured, and whites — against Communist deceit. These strategies that arose from the Broederbond were directly responsible for the establishment of apartheid, in 1948.

However some who had been members of the organization before 1927 preferred the philosophy of Fichte, and other versions of European Nationalism. A Fascist, social Darwinist agenda in sympathy with Hitler arose among some whites in South Africa during the Second World War, which became an unwelcome ally in support of these policies. The Calvinist party within the Broederbond tried to distance itself from this movement, with very limited success because of the secrecy of the organization, their later confessed complete misunderstanding of the real ambitions of non-Afrikaners and blindness to the agony of 'Coloureds' and 'Blacks' under apartheid, and the extreme unpopularity of the apartheid policies in the eyes of non-Afrikaners. The anti-Calvinist nationalists, led by H.F. Verwoerd, overcame the Calvinists in 1950 and used the Broederbond to advance his own political ambitions. International pressures mounted, increasingly isolating the Afrikaners and identifying their policies with the worst kind of godless oppression; but this was a long time in producing a crisis of conscience — or at least, it did not for some time produce sufficient energy to dismantle the complex social system that had been founded upon apartheid.

After the Sharpeville massacre in 1960, under enormous international pressure, the Broederbond began a slow and quiet re-examination of their policy proposals. And yet no significant changes took place to reform the apartheid system until the Soweto riots in 1976. Some time after this, the Broederbond declared apartheid an irreformable failure and began work to dismantle it. The conviction had finally become established, although not universally that, if the Afrikaner people, language and religion were to survive, they must take the initiative to emerge from the laager, and invite South Africa in. The Broederbond (dropping the policy of secrecy and with the new name Afrikanerbond) began proposing initiatives for land reform and the reversal of apartheid.

Although Afrikaner and Boer Calvinism was united during much of the 20th century, recently it has become increasingly clear that these are two separate forms of Calvinism.


Radical changes

The reversal of apartheid has cast the Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nederduits_Gereformeerde_Kerk)(NGK) into a period of change. While remaining confessionally Calvinist, the religious character of the church is now less cohesive and more difficult to assess. Having been thoroughly conflated with apartheid, historic Calvinism appears to have fallen out of favour. Liberation theology, which embraces the Enlightenment idea of Revolution, has gained a foothold in some quarters, and appears to have advocates both the left and right ends of the political spectrum.[citation needed] American-style evangelicalism and Arminianism also appear to have made inroads, which with its more individualistic emphasis has less potential for a full-scale civil religion. Certainly the old synthesis of revealed and natural theology is largely repudiated; officially at least. But, the folk religion of the Afrikaners is not dead. Some scholars and revisionist historians are attempting to draw lines of distinction between Calvinism per se, the history of the Afrikaners, and the civil religion of the apartheid regime in particular.

Source (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afrikaner_Calvinism)

Theunissen
Saturday, September 9th, 2017, 06:27 PM
Not the worst article on wikipedia and actually giving a bit of an outline, it still is tainted with some common propaganda versions of history.

At least some of the more famous personalities are mentioned and also how certain things came into being. Some problems are highlighted, but I don't think causality is always giving correctly. This would however require a deeper analysis of it all.

I'm happy the Hendrik Stoker has been mentioned there. Which was actually a quite prolific writer, while often ignored, even by those in the South African philosophical scene. Well he did say stuff that isn't actually politically correct. It's true nevertheless.

He also was imprisoned for his stance against world war two. Which is today taken as him being a "Nazi Sympathizer". Well, he went to a German school and could read German literature including National Socialist one first hand. He dealt with this in his compilation "The struggle about orders":
https://archive.org/details/HendrikGerhardusStokerDieStrydOmDieOrdes

(Die Stryd om die Ordes)

Spjabork
Saturday, September 9th, 2017, 08:52 PM
Between the end of the 18th century and the end of the 20th century, these people increasingly considered themselves Afrikaner (originally meaning simply "African") rather than European.That was not a good thing, but was a bad thing.

They spoke their own, indigenous language, called Afrikaans
The language was not "indigenous", but was till far into the 19th century considered as a sort, a rural dialect of Nederlandsch. The first newspaper in Afrikaans appeared in 1876, in whose first issue the editor testified this.

That Afrikaans evolved was due to several reasons. One -- and the main -- reason was a too high admixture of non-Nederlandsch native speakers into a "melting pot". Another reason was the lack of school education, and thus literacy, among the "boers" (=peasants). Afrikaners did passively read the Statenbijbel, but they did not often enough actively write, which led to a deficiency in the overall mastering of the language.

If someone really deems it necessary to point out the importance of "Calvinism", because he feels Calvinism was -- and might still be today -- of great use for self-preservation and self-maintenance, then he should rather underline that the Boers originally did not rely on negro slave labor, but did cultivate the soil with their own hands. That is why they were called "Boers" -- and not "Massa".

Whether this fact, that they worked themselves, had to do with "Calvinism" as such, may or may not have been so -- anyway that was the important, decisive point.

Bittereinder
Wednesday, December 19th, 2018, 05:16 AM
As far as I am concerned this is tripe,


Overcame the Calvinists in 1950 and used the Broederbond to advance his own political ambitions.

The Verwoerd's are Calvinist's to this day. Verwoerd was the target and the scapegoat if you ask me.


Regrettably, Hendrik Verwoerd lost his life at a time when the political scene in South Africa was on the brink of a total makeover. Perhaps his foresight and aspirations to develop, change and turn South Africa into a first class world country did not undoubtedly match the plans of international and local people.

In his book, Stephen Goodson’s HENDRIK FRENSCH VERWOERD – SOUTH AFRICA’S GREATEST PRIME MINISTER, he details mind-blowing information every South African should know about Apartheid, Rothschild bankers, and Verwoerd who was a man of fairness, dignity, and wanted equality for everyone.

The question is whether Verwoerd is responsible for apartheid, based on the perspective order of events.

• 1809 – The Native Pass Law of the British Government at Cape of Good Hope passed compel black people to carry a passbook.
• 1865 – British-born Sir Theophilus Shepstone prohibited blacks in Natalia from having any voting power.
• 1894 – Cecil John Rhodes prevented a colored man Krom Hendriks from joining the national cricket tour to England.
• 1895 – Cecil John Rhodes compelled schools in the Cape to teach separate for whites in English and Blacks in English. (Verwoerd was not born yet)
• 1901 – 8th September 1901 in Amsterdam.
• 1913 – The British Native Land Act 2 prohibited black people to own land. (Verwoerd 12 years of Age)
• 1915 – National Party of South Africa 2nd July 1915. The ideology of apartheid was never the ideology of the Boers but was a secret agenda propagated by the paid British press and their agents in the “Broederbond” to keep control over South Africa for Britain via the Nationalist Party, which shows a deliberate falsification of history in order to keep control over South Africa by design with conflict. The aforesaid is in addition confirmed by the Nationalist Party secret funds, mostly channeled to home in Britain, in institutions like Barclays Bank or the Bank of England who was affirmed by the “one stream” ideology of Jan Smuts and his predecessors with the land grab and dehumanizing legislation that preceded the Nationalist Party rule who had to content with the gross human right violations and a systemic ruggedness with secret control prevent change.

Away from the Smuts/Brittan ideology JBM Hertzog (Minister of Justice) employed a two stream ideology propagating equal rights towards English and Afrikaner Communities which was reflected in the election where Jan Smut (South Africa) seats were reduced from 67 to 54, Thomas Smartt (Unionist) maintain 39 and JBM Hertzog (National Party) gained 27.

• 1918 – Establishment of the “Afrikaner Broederbond” (Jong Zuid-Afrika) by the British as a secret extension of their influence in the same way it was portrayed in the film of Mel Gibson “The Patriot” (Verwoerd was not a member)
• 1925 – British minister HW Sampson promulgated the Labor Demarcation Act to divide black and white. (Verwoerd 32 years of age and not in politics)
• 1927 – Immorality Act was promulgated in Natal controlled by Britain prohibit intimacy between black and white (Verwoerd 34 years of age and not in politics).
British Union Genl Jan Smuts promulgated • 1936 – Separate representation in parliament. (Verwoerd was 43 and editor of a newspaper)
• 1945 – The Native Urban Area Act prohibited blacks to stay longer than 72 hours in a white urban area (Verwoerd was 52 years of age into politics but without a portfolio)
• 1948 – Nationalist Party took over on 4 June 1948 with the Pass Laws and No Voting rights and other discriminate laws still intact, established by the Britain.
• 1958 – Verwoerd 2 September 1958 in office as prime minister of South Africa. (State President –Charles Roberts Swart)
• 1966 – Verwoerd was murdered because he started to give the land progressively back to the black people who were against the rugged British plan, which was disowned by The British Native Land Act 2 passed in 1913, for which he was killed. He was not killed by a disgruntled black group or activists’ which is eminent from the following factual events;-
o Establishes “Black education” as a national law. Many African countries haven’t achieved that to date
o the inflation rate was 2% or less
o Interest rate was 3%
o there was peace as a result of the transformation and restoration process
o the national growth was 7.9% the second highest in the world.
o the living standards of blacks was rising by 5.4% versus the 3.9 % of whites
o had no needs for foreign loans and/or indebtedness versus the current indebtedness of approximately 50% and overall indebtedness approaching 70%. At present, the repayment to banks by the government is approximately R500 million per day.
o Stafendas worked for Anton Rupert in London prior his appointment as a messenger in the parliament while an illegal immigrant, appointed by Hendrik van der Berg who was promoted ±6 ranks by John Voster as minister of Justice at the time, to put him in control of security of the parliament.
o It is well known that Verwoerd was assassinated by Zionist Banking Cartel arranged through John Voster with specific input from the Rupert’s and the Oppenheimer’s being controlled from London promoting Voster to the prime minister.
• 1970 – Implementation of skimming from policies owners of Old Mutual Via Old Mutual Bank a non-entity and stash money across the globe for relocation and take over.
• 1989 – Implementation of SARB Act, Section 33 clause to suppress all evidence
• 1992 – ANC agree to take Political Power only and sign away all economic survivability of SA (Old Mutual, ABSA, SAB, de Beers, etc.) – MAS 57/08/92 – Pretoria North Case ref, investigation officer – Lt. Col. AE Botha conducted an investigation into the irregularities, but it was never made public or brought to court.
• 1994 – Project Hammer completed, ANC agree for Political Control only.

https://southafricatoday.net/south-africa-news/verwoerd-and-apartheid-what-every-south-african-should-know/