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Euclides
Sunday, April 18th, 2004, 09:08 PM
The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East

Almut Nebel,1 Dvora Filon,2 Bernd Brinkmann,4 Partha P. Majumder,5 Marina Faerman,3 and Ariella Oppenheim1

1Department of Hematology, Hebrew UniversityHadassah Medical School, 2Hadassah University Hospital, and 3Laboratory of Biological Anthropology and Ancient DNA, Hebrew UniversityHadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem; 4Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster, Germany; and 5Anthropology and Human Genetics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta

Received June 18, 2001; accepted for publication August 27, 2001; electronically published September 25, 2001.

A sample of 526 Y chromosomes representing six Middle Eastern populations (Ashkenazi, Sephardic, and Kurdish Jews from Israel; Muslim Kurds; Muslim Arabs from Israel and the Palestinian Authority Area; and Bedouin from the Negev) was analyzed for 13 binary polymorphisms and six microsatellite loci. The investigation of the genetic relationship among three Jewish communities revealed that Kurdish and Sephardic Jews were indistinguishable from one another, whereas both differed slightly, yet significantly, from Ashkenazi Jews. The differences among Ashkenazim may be a result of low-level gene flow from European populations and/or genetic drift during isolation. Admixture between Kurdish Jews and their former Muslim host population in Kurdistan appeared to be negligible. In comparison with data available from other relevant populations in the region, Jews were found to be more closely related to groups in the north of the Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turks, and Armenians) than to their Arab neighbors. The two haplogroups Eu 9 and Eu 10 constitute a major part of the Y chromosome pool in the analyzed sample. Our data suggest that Eu 9 originated in the northern part, and Eu 10 in the southern part of the Fertile Crescent. Genetic dating yielded estimates of the expansion of both haplogroups that cover the Neolithic period in the region. Palestinian Arabs and Bedouin differed from the other Middle Eastern populations studied here, mainly in specific high-frequency Eu 10 haplotypes not found in the non-Arab groups. These chromosomes might have been introduced through migrations from the Arabian Peninsula during the last two millennia. The present study contributes to the elucidation of the complex demographic history that shaped the present-day genetic landscape in the region.

norda
Monday, October 11th, 2004, 09:07 PM
Jews from Krakow
http://img84.exs.cx/img84/9417/jkr10.jpg
http://img3.exs.cx/img3/8910/jkr2.jpg
source: J Talko Hryncewicz “Czlowiek na ziemiach naszych”

left: laponoid Jew,
right: armenoid Jew
http://img84.exs.cx/img84/3383/j20.jpg
left: mix oriental/mediteranean types
right: Jew- noridid type
http://img84.exs.cx/img84/1074/j10.jpg
source: J.Czekanowski “Czlowiek w czasie i przestrzeni”

Willigut
Sunday, March 6th, 2005, 07:26 PM
Both Carleton S. Coon and Hans F.K. Gunther agreed that Jews are a mixture of races especially from the time of Diaspora (70 A.D.), when they have mixed with European and some Asiatic gentile populations.


The Southern Jews make up the main Jewish population of Africa, the Balkans, Italy, Spain, and Portugal, and part of this population in France, Holland, and England. They show a mixture of Oriental, Hither Asiatic, Mediterranean, Hamitic, Nordic, and Negro, the Oriental predominating. The Eastern Jews make up the Jewish population of Russia, Poland, Galicia, Austria, and Germany; probably the greater part of that of North America; and part of that of Western Europe. They show a mixture of Hither Asiatic, Oriental, East Baltic, Inner Asiatic, Nordic, Hamitic, and Negro, the Hither Asiatic predominating to a certain extent.

-From THE RACIAL ELEMENTS OF EUROPEAN HISTORY by Hans F.K. Gunther.


The Jews have been left to the end because they do not as a whole fit into any single
racial classification heretofore outlined.

-From THE RACES OF EUROPE by Carleton S. Coon.


But even today, by my experience in Serbia, many Jews especially from tribes of Levi and Kohanim (which are from rabbinic pure blood lines) kept theirs unique Racial substance from Biblical times. That is Oriental/Hither Asiatic (Armenoid) mixture with Hamitic and Negro strain; they also get some Nordic blood from Amorites and maybe Philistines. This is "classic Jewish" type from anti-Semitic cartoons. See pictures bellow.

Willigut
Sunday, March 6th, 2005, 09:05 PM
Excellent study by famous Racial theoretician in Third Reich! Taken from http://www.jrbooksonline.com

Hannah
Friday, January 13th, 2006, 03:23 AM
Can you provide pictures as examples? Thanks for the references as I was looking for this type of information.

Willigut
Saturday, January 14th, 2006, 11:14 PM
Can you provide pictures as examples? Thanks for the references as I was looking for this type of information.

Attached files are deleted after site restoration; I put some relevant images on links bellow:

http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/expuls.gif
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/Jewpop.gif
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/49812.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/49811.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/94184.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/classification_charts_lg.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/17609.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/49813.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/49801.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/49790.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/49808.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/49807.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/021_hi.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/49817.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/49806.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/49821.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/49776.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/49804.jpg
http://i37.photobucket.com/albums/e64/Lobesam/49782.jpg

http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/ - huge German propaganda archive.

RusViking
Thursday, April 6th, 2006, 01:19 AM
http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.pdf

"Rather, modern Jews exhibit a diversity of genetic profiles, some reflective of their Semitic/Mediterranean ancestry, but others suggesting an origin in European and Central Asian groups. The blendings of European, Semitic, Central Asian and Mediterranean heritage over the centuries has let to today's Jewish population."

visigodo
Wednesday, December 27th, 2006, 07:23 AM
By Joseph Jacobs & Maurice Fishberg


Anthropometry

Measurements of Jews have been taken sporadically in most European countries with the following results: The average height of Jews is 162.1 cm.; span of arms, 169.1 cm.; and girth around the chest, about 81 cm.: so that they are the shortest and narrowest of Europeans. Their skulls are mainly brachycephalic; that is, the breadth is generally over 80 per cent of the length. This has been used as an argument against the purity of race, as most Semites—like the Arabs and Syrians—are dolichocephalic, or longheaded. But, as Jewish skulls are almost the broadest in all Europe, it is difficult to say how this characteristic could have arisen from any mixture: it is probably due to cerebral development.

As regards complexion, Jews are darker than the surrounding peoples in Europe, except Galicia. The hair is also darker; on the average 15 per cent having black hair as against 3 to 4 per cent in the general European populations. Curiously enough, there is a larger proportion of red-haired men among Jews than in any other race; possibly due to want of nutrition. Jewesses seem to be more keen-sighted and to have greater strength of grip than other women. Among Jews about one-fifth have blue eyes, against one-third in the general populations. Altogether about one-fourth of the Jews can be described as fair, as against one-half of the populations among whom they dwell. The nose is generally considered the characteristic feature of the Jews, who have, on the average, the longest (77 mm.) and narrowest (34 mm.). Its characteristic shape is due to the accentuation of the nostrils, which gives it the "figure 6" formation. The lips of Jews are also characteristic, as large a proportion as 48 per cent being thick.

These features are the elements that go to make the marked Jewish type, which has been defined "as Semitic features with ghetto expression": it is found in the Assyrian bas-reliefs as well as in the ghetto of today. From composite portraits of Jewish lads, the Jewish face has been defined as possessing "accentuated flexible nostrils; largish mouth, with ends well marked, and pouting under-lip; heavy chin; broad forehead with prominent superciliary ridges scantily covered with hair toward the outer extremities; and large, brilliant, dark eyes, set closely together, with heavy upper and protuberant lower lid, having a thoughtful expression in youth, transformed to a keen and penetrating gaze in manhood."

The above results are averages taken from different numbers and different classes, and consequently vary in trustworthiness. The details as to hair, eye, and complexion are based upon the examination of no less than 120,000 individuals; those with regard to the nose, upon only 119. Differences in social position are found to affect results considerably; thus, while 12,000 Jews gave an average height of 162.1 cm., that of 130 English Jews of the better class was 170.8 cm. The predominantly narrow girth of Jews would give them what is technically known as the lowest "index of vitality"; but statistics prove otherwise.



ANTHROPOLOGICAL TYPES
Correlated norms of racial qualities. Individuals who present an interrelation between the color of the hair and that of the eyes are considered typical representatives of their race. In the blond races fair hair is generally accompanied by blue eyes; in brunette races brown or black hair is generally accompaniedby dark eyes. The former are considered anthropologically blond types; the latter, brunette types. Individuals who do not exhibit such an interrelation of the color of the hair and eyes, having dark hair with blue eyes and vice versa, are called mixed types. Owing to the preponderance of dark hair and eyes among the Jews (see Eye (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Fview.jsp%3Fartid%3D 557%26letter%3DE) (1); Hair (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Fview.jsp%3Fartid%3D 93%26letter%3DH) (2)), anthropologists have counted them among the races of a brunette type.

From extensive investigations of the color of the hair and eyes of the school-children in Germany, Virchow has shown that the Jews have not maintained their type in as pure a state as has been generally supposed. Of 75,377 Jewish children examined, only 46.83 per cent were brunettes having both dark hair and dark eyes; 11.17 per cent were blonds having light hair and light-colored eyes; and 42 per cent were of the mixed type having either dark hair with fair eyes, or vice versa. In Austria, according to Schimmer, 32 to 47 per cent (according to the province) of the Jewish children are pure brunettes, and 8 to 14 per cent are pure blonds. In Bulgaria, Wateff has found that only 49.57 per cent of Jewish children are brunettes, while 8.71 are blonds and 41.72 are of mixed type; and even in North Africa, where the dark type predominates among the Jews, 76.40 per cent are brunettes, 4.62 per cent are blonds, and 18.98 per cent are of mixed type.

See Types of Pigmentation in Jews of Various Countries. (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D463%26volid%3D12%26title%3DTYPES%2C% 2520ANTHROPOLOGICAL%3A)
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/table.jsp?table_id=463&volid=12&title=TYPES, ANTHROPOLOGICAL:


Among Jewish adults anthropological investigation has shown that the brunette type is not in the majority. From the accompanying table it will be observed that the percentage of brunettes is only 43 among the Galician Jews, while it reaches as high as 74 per cent among Lithuanian Jewesses. Blonds are very rare among the Jews of Russian Poland; but among other classes they are encountered quite often. Among the Little-Russian Jews the proportion reaches 16 per cent. The mixed types are everywhere found in the proportion of from 30 to 40 per cent of all the individuals examined.


Origin of Blond and Mixed Types

The origin of the blond and mixed types among the Jews has been a favorite topic of discussion for many anthropologists. Some have maintained that they are the product of intermixture with the indigenous peoples of the European countries in which the Jews have lived; others show that even among Jews who do not live among blond races, as, for instance, those of Syria, Tunis, Morocco, and Algiers, many blonds are met with. It is also shown that if intermixture with northern European races were the origin of the blond Jews, the countries whose non-Jewish populations present the largest percentage of blonds, as Prussia, Lithuania, etc., should have the largest proportion of Jewish blonds also. On the other hand, in the south and the east of Europe, where the Gentiles are darker, more Jewish brunettes and fewer blonds should be found. That this is not the case is shown by the following figures, taken from Virchow's census of the color of the hair and eyes of school-children in Germany:

See table (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D464%26volid%3D12%26title%3DTYPES%2C% 2520ANTHROPOLOGICAL%3A)
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/table.jsp?table_id=464&volid=12&title=TYPES, ANTHROPOLOGICAL:


These figures show in a striking manner that in the provinces of Germany where the percentage of brunettes is smallest among the Christian population—in Prussia, for instance, only 14.05 per cent—the Jews have 42.34 per cent of brunettes; while in Alsace-Lorraine and Bavaria, where the Christians show 25.21 and 21.1 per cent of brunettes respectively, the Jews have only 34.59 and 39.45 per cent respectively of such. This is further confirmed by the following figures (from the works of Virchow and Schimmer) showing the distribution of Jewish pure blond and brunette types in Germany and Austria:

See table (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D465%26volid%3D12%26title%3DTYPES%2C% 2520ANTHROPOLOGICAL%3A)
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/table.jsp?table_id=465&volid=12&title=TYPES, ANTHROPOLOGICAL:


Distribution of Blonds

It is evident from these figures that the farther one goes south and east in Europe, the smaller is the percentage of brunettes encountered among the Jews and the larger the percentage of blonds. With the non-Jewish-population the reverse is the fact. Most of the blonds are found in Prussia, Pomerania, Sleswick-Holstein, Hanover, Westphalia, etc., while farther east, reaching to Posen, Silesia, Bohemia, Moravia, Upper and Lower Austria, Bukowina, and Galicia, the percentage of pure blonds decreases and that of brunettes increases. It is also noteworthy, as has been pointed out by Virchow, that in localities where, owing to religious and social prejudices, the Jews have lived for centuries in strict isolation from other races, and presumably have not intermarried with their Gentile neighbors, the proportion of blond types is larger than in the Prussian provinces, where they have not been socially isolated, but, on the contrary, have entered into general social intercourse with the non-Jewish inhabitants. Here the largest proportion of brunettes is found among the German and Austrian Jews. But it must be mentioned that in Algiers, Tunis, and Morocco, where the indigenous population is of a dark type, the Jews also are darker.

It has been suggested that the blond type among the Jews is due to intermixture with the so-called Aryan, or north-European, races, in proof of which the following argument has been advanced: The Aryan type is known to consist in the combination of blond hair, blue eyes, tall stature, and dolichocephalism or long-headedness. Among the Galician Jews, Majer and Kopernicki found that while among the brunette Jews 6.2 per cent are dolichocephalic, 20 per cent of the blond Jews of the same section are so. This has been repeatedly cited as evidencing a relation between blondness and long-headedness among the Jews in Galicia, and is thought to be due to Teutonic intermixture. In Odessa, Pantukhof ("Proc. Russian Anthropological Society," pp. 26-30, St. Petersburg, 1889) has found that the Jews who have dark hair and eyes are of short stature, while those who have fair eyes and hair are taller. In Caucasia the same author has observed that the Jews with fair eyes measure on the average 1.644 meters, and those with dark eyes 1.617 meters only. But all these conclusions are based on a small number of cases, and other investigations tend to disprove them. In Baden, Otto Ammon found no relation between blond hair, blue eyes, and dolichocephalism, while in Poland, Elkind noticed that Jews with dark hair and eyes were taller than those with fair hair and light eyes, which phenomena are the reverse of those in the so-called Aryan type.

Similar results were obtained by Fishberg in his observations of the immigrant Jews in New York. The darker Jews had practically the same head-form (cephalic index 81.97) as the blond-haired (82.35). The same was the case with tall Jews as compared with those of short stature: the craniometrical lines were about the same. Indeed, Jews with fair hair and eyes were taller than those with dark hair and eyes. Fishberg concludes from all the statistics gathered by him that the ideal Aryan type is not to be observed among the Jews. On the contrary, the rule appears to be that tall persons have darker hair and eyes, and that a smaller percentage of them are dolichocephalic; while Jews of short stature are of fairer complexion and include a larger percentage of dolichocephalic persons. This tends to exclude the hypothesis that Aryan influence is the cause of the Jewish blond type; but it tends to confirm the theory of admixture from the Slavonian type.

Bibliography:
M. Fishberg, Materials for the Physical Anthropology of the Eastern European Jews, in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1905; S. Wateff, Anthropologische Beobachtungen der Farbe der Augen, der Haare und der Haut bei den Schulkindern von den Türken, Pomaken, Tataren, Armenier, Griechen und Juden in Bulgarien, in Correspondenzblatt der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, 1903, xxxiv., Nos. 7, 8.

What is popularly known as "the Jewish type" is not a correlation of definite anthropological measures or characteristics, but consists principally in a peculiar expression of face, which is immediately and unmistakably recognized as "Jewish" in a large number of cases of persons of the Jewish race. It has been observed that children in New York, Gentile as well as Jewish, can unerringly distinguish between Jew and Gentile, whether juvenile or adult. The negroes of the Gold Coast are said to differentiate the two types of Europeans with equal exactitude, saying "here come two whites and a Jew," instead of "here come three whites" (Andree, "Zur Volkskunde der Juden," p. 38).

Yet when taken together in large numbers, a considerable proportion of Jews fail to betray their racial provenience. In collective photographs of Jewish school-children and inmates of institutions it has been found that while about 53 per cent of the subjects can be more or less certainly identified as Jews by their facial expression, the remaining 47 per cent fail to show any distinctive feature which would definitely mark them as Semites, though if compared with Gentiles of the same class they could probably be differentiated. It has also been remarked that persons who do not have the Jewish expression in their youth acquire it more and more as they grow from middle to old age. Although Jewesses appear to be more variable in appearance than Jews, they seem to show the type in its greatest purity when they actually are Jewish in features.


Expression

The precise nature of this Jewishness is very difficult to determine with any degree of certainty or accuracy. Evidently it is not in any one feature, for whenever any single trait, such as the shape of the nose or the brilliancy of the eyes, is assumed to be characteristic, the very next example is liable to disprove the validity of the test. The sole attempt to obtain any scientific discrimination of the Jewish expression was made by F. Galton and Joseph Jacobs in 1885, by means of composite portraiture. In their experiments Jewish boys of the Jewish Free School, London, were selected as being typically Jewish in appearance, and full-face and profile photographs were first taken on a uniform scale, and then superimposed on a single plate, so that the eyes and mouth in each case fell upon the same spots on the plate. By this means all the varying traits and features blurred out, while the common characteristics were emphasized and became stronger. The results were given in "The Photographic News," April, 1885, and in "The Journal of the Anthropological Institute," 1885.


Composite Portraits

The full-face composite here given is made up of (a) that of five Jewish lads, (b) that of another five, and (c) one of (a) and (b), thus giving the summary of the characteristic features of ten typically Jewish boys. The result is remarkably Jewish in appearance, and it will be found that this character is given by the eyebrows, eyes, nose, and lips, while the position and contour of the cheek-bone also serve to determine it. The eyebrows are generally well-defined, somewhat bushy toward the nose, and tapering off toward the extremities. The eyes themselves are generally brilliant, both lids are heavy and bulging, and it seems to be the main characteristic of the Jewish eye that the upper lid covers a larger proportion of the pupil than among other persons. This may serve to give a sort of nervous, furtive look to the eyes, which, when the pupils are small and set close together with semistrabismus, gives keenness to some Jewish eyes. The lymph-sac beneath the eye is generally fuller and more prominent than among non-Jews. The high cheek-bone gives as a rule the hollow cheek that adds to the Jewish expression, while the nose in full face can be discerned only by the flexibility of the nostrils, the chief Jewish characteristic of this organ (see Nose (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Fview.jsp%3Fartid%3D 345%26letter%3DN) (3)). The upper lip is generally short, and the lower projects, giving a somewhat sensual appearance to the face. The chin almost invariably recedes from the lip, leaving an indentation beneath it in the great majority of instances. The ears of many Jewish persons project, and in boys increase the impression of Jewishness.


Adults

With growth, as already noted, the Jewish expression becomes even more marked. In males this may be due to the appearance of the mustache and beard, and it is frequently found that the mustache is somewhat sparse, a rather bare portion intervening between the tuft under the nostril and the mustache proper. The beard is in some cases comparatively thick and in others luxuriant, curling, and parting naturally. It is to be observed that some Jewish faces have almost all of these stigmata. The miniature of Spinoza (Jew. Encyc. xi. 512) shows the brilliant and sensitive eye, the conspicuous nostril, and the thick underlip. That of Benfey (ib. iii. 16) has the projecting ears, the thick underlip, and the conspicuous alæ of the nose, while the lymph-sac is well developed and the pupil of the eye is nearly half hidden by the upper lid. The same characteristic will be seen in the portrait of Moses Berlin (ib. iii. 80), which has, in addition, the marked eyebrows and the curved nostril.

Besides all these details, there is something in the whole formation of the face which is generally found in the Jewish type. As a rule, the face is oval in shape, especially in the best type of Jewesses, and if regarded in profile, it is distinctly convex, the nose being, as it were, an appendix to the ellipsoid. It is rare indeed that a Jew is found with a prognathous jaw.

Notwithstanding the similarity of expression found in large measure among all Jews, there are a number of distinctions which enable a close observer to distinguish between various subtypes of the Jew. Close attention to Talmudic study, combined with the peculiar work of the sweat-shop, produced in eastern Europe what is known as "the ghetto bend." The need for wearing phylacteries on the forehead while the head is covered has led in many instances to the hat being worn upon the back of the head. These two characteristics often enable observers to identify Jews from eastern Europe, even before their faces are seen. Among them, too, it has been claimed, various subdivisions can be discerned, consisting mainly in differences in the projection of the cheek-bones, the formation of the eyelids, and the thickness of the lips. It has even been held by those who believe in a strong admixture from surrounding nations that there is a Slavonic, Mongoloid, and Armenioid type of the Jew, due to admixture of Slavic, Tatar, or Armenian blood. Luschan indeed professes to regard the last-named as the original source of the Jewish race.

Numbers of Jews are found, on the other hand, who possess none of the characteristics here noted, and yet are recognizable as Jews. This is especially true of the Little-Russians, who apparently resemble their Gentile neighbors in every facial characteristic, but are differentiated from them by some subtile nuance which distinguishes them as Semites. It is seemingly some social quality which stamps their features as distinctly Jewish. This is confirmed by the interesting fact that Jews who mix much with the outer world seem to lose their Jewish quality. This was the case with Karl Marx, Halévy the musician (Meyerbeer (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Fview.jsp%3Fartid%3D 546%26letter%3DM) was remarkably Jewish), Sir Julian Goldsmid (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Fview.jsp%3Fartid%3D 322%26letter%3DG), Sir John Simon (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Fview.jsp%3Fartid%3D 233%26letter%3DB) (in whom there was a mixture of Gentile blood), Sir David Salomons (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Fview.jsp%3Fartid%3D 89%26letter%3DS), and Rubinstein (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Fview.jsp%3Fartid%3D 457%26letter%3DR). Two illustrious living Italians, Lombroso (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Fview.jsp%3Fartid%3D 530%26letter%3DL) and Luzzatti (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Fview.jsp%3Fartid%3D 637%26letter%3DL), would scarcely be taken for Jews; and even the late Theodor Herzl (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Fview.jsp%3Fartid%3D 671%26letter%3DH) was not distinctively Jewish, all observers drawing attention to his resemblance to the Assyrian rather than to the Jewish type.

(1) Eye.
Bibliography: Jacobs, Jewish Statistics, pp. xxxii.-xxxiv.J.


— Biblical Data:

This important organ is mentioned more than 800 times in the Bible, but is described only in its external appearance and significance, according to the experience of daily life. The following parts are mentioned: the eyeball ("bat 'ayin" = "girl of the eye," "little doll"; Lam. ii. 18; "babat 'ayin," Zech. ii. 12; comp. Levy, "Chal. Wörterb." i. 419b); the pupil ("ishon" = "little man," whose image appears in the eye as in a mirror; Deut. xxxii. 10; Ps. xvii. 8; Prov. vii. 2; comp. Prov. vii. 9, xx. 20); the eye-socket ("ḥor"; Zech. xiv. 2); the eyelashes ("'ap'appayim"; Ps. xi. 4; Prov. vi. 25; by synecdoche = "the eye"; comp. Job xli. 10); the eyelids ("shemurot"; Ps. lxxvii. 5), and the eyebrows ("gabbot 'enaw"; Lev. xiv, 9).

The eye of the Oriental is not only large, but it is also very strong. It appears from Gen. xxix. 17 that weak eyes were an exception. Near-sightedness, far-sighteduess, and weak-sightedness are not mentioned. The eye became weak, heavy, or fixed in old age (Gen. xxvii. i.; Deut. xxxiv. 10, I Sam. iv. 15; compare also Eccl. xii. 3). The sight was also impaired by sorrow and misfortune (Ps. vi. 8, xxxi. 10, lxxxviii. 10; Job xvii. 7). The eye is the source of tears (Jer. viii. 23); and tears flowed often and copiously (Lam. i. 16; iii. 48, 49; Ps. cxix. 136), injuring and even ruining the eyes (Lam. ii. 11, iii. 51; I Sam. ii. 33; Jer. xiv. 6). Sorrow dims and obscures the eyes (Lev. xxvi. 16; Deut. xxviii. 32, 65; Job xxxi. 16; Lam. v. 17); while under favorable circumstances they light up (I Sam. xiv. 27, 29). The eye is said to be affected by emotions in general (Ps. lxix. 4; cxix. 82, 132). The fat eye of persons addicted to high living protrudes (Ps. lxxiii. 7); much drinking of wine makes the eye deep red (Gen. xlix. 12; Prov. xxiii. 29). The son closed the eyes of his dead parent (Gen. xlvi. 4).


Diseases and Care of the Eye

How far blindness—very frequent in antiquity—prevailed in ancient Israel can not be determined from the references found in the Bible. Blind persons are spoken of comparatively seldom (see Jew. Encyc. iii. 248, s.v. Blind, The (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Fview.jsp%3Fartid%3D 1139%26letter%3DB)). If a priest became blind or had a spot on his eye ("teballul be-'eno"; Lev. xxi. 20), he was not allowed to officiate at the sacrifice. Diseases of the eye were not recognized as such, since the oculist's art was not at all developed among any ancient people except the Egyptians; hence nothing has been transmitted on this point, and the nature of the diseases mentioned can not be definitely determined. The reference to the "shut" eyes (Isa. xliv. 18) indicates that an inflammation of the eyes is generally meant; and the same may be assumed from the expressions used to denote "opening the eyes" (Isa. xlii. 7, xxix. 19, xxxv. 5; comp. ib. xliii. 8; Num. xxii. 31; Ps. cxix. 18). The original inhabitants of Palestine are called figuratively "pricks" and "thorns" in the eyes (Num. xxxiii. 55; Josh. xxiii. 13). In regard to the care of the eyes, it is said that smoke injures them (Prov. x. 26). Women used a cosmetic for the eye consisting of a mixture of plumbagin and zinc, which they applied to the inner surface of the eyelids in such a way as to produce a narrow black rim, making the eyes appear larger (II Kings ix. 30; Jer. iv. 30; Isa. liv. 11; Ezek. xxiii. 40).


Blinding as a Punishment

The barbaric custom of putting out the eyes was practised quite frequently. Samson was blinded by the Philistines, and King Zedekiah by the Babylonians (Judges xvi. 21; II Kings xxv, 7; Jer. xxxix. 7, lii, 11). The Ammonites consented to make peace with the inhabitants of Jabesh only on condition that all of them would submit to having their right eyes "thrust out" (I Sam. xi. 2). The "lex talionis" is expressed by the phrase "eye for eye" (Ex. xxi. 24; Lev. xxiv. 20; Leut. xix. 21; comp. Ex. xxi. 26). The custom of putting out the eyes was so widely spread that it became a figurative term for deceiving (Num. xvi. 14).


Emotional Significance of the Eye

The ancient Israelites had very expressive eyes. Desire, love, hatred, pride, etc., were all expressed in the eye; and in the Hebrew language are found separate terms for all modes of seeing and not seeing (Gen. iii. 6; Num. xv. 39; I Kings ix. 3; II Chron. xvi. 9; Job x. 4, xv. 2, xvi. 9, xxxi. 7, xxxix. 29; Ps. x. 8, xxxv. 19; Prov. vi. 13, x. 10, xxiii. 5, xxviii. 27, xxx. 13; Eccl. ii. 10; Cant. iv. 9; Ecclus. [Sirach] xxvi. 29, xxvii. 22; Isa. iii. 16, vi. 10; Ezek. vi. 9, xxii. 26; God's eye, Ps. xciv. 9). According to Ecclus. (Sirach) xxiii. 19, God's eye is 10,000 times brighter than the sun. Good will and malevolence are mirrored in the eye (Prov. xxii. 9, xxiii. 6; I Sam. xviii. 9; Deut. xv. 9; xxviii. 54, 56). The raising of the eyes expressed a wish, as it still does among children (Ps. cxxiii. 1; Isa. xxxviii. 14). "Eye" is often used metaphorically (Ex. x. 5, 15 and Num. xxii. 5 ["the eye (= "face ") of the earth"]; Prov. i. 17 ["the eye (= "sight") of any bird"]; Cant. i. 15, iv. 1, v. 12 ["eyes of doves"]; Ezek. i. 4, 7; x. 9 ["like the eye(= "color") of amber," etc.]; Zech. ix. 1 ["the eyes (= "sight") of all men"]).E. G. H.


— In Rabbinical Literature:

Much more was known regarding the anatomy and physiology of the eye during the period of tradition in the centuries immediately preceding and succeeding the beginning of the common era than in Biblical times. The eyeball of man is round, while that of a beast is oblong. It consists of a dark and a white mass separated from each other by a narrow rim. The white part preponderates in the human eye, while the black preponderates in the eyes of beasts. The white is derived from the father; the black, from the mother. The black part is the means of sight. Eyes and eyesight differ in size and strength in various persons. "Persons with large eyes often have a peculiar expression. Heavy eyelids droop. The eyebrows are sometimes close to the eye; sometimes they are so long that they hang far down the face; and again there are no eyebrows at all. The eyelashes also may be heavy or sparse, or there may be none at all. Sometimes the eyes are very deeply set, a formation that may be regarded as a bodily defect" (Rosenzweig, "Das Auge in Bibel und Talmud," pp. 12, 19).


Care and Diseases of the Eye

Pain in the eyes is dangerous, as the sight is connected with the heart ('Ab. Zarah 28b). Some kinds of food are beneficial and others harmful to the sight. Fine bread and old wine are good for the eyes, as well as for the entire body. Rapid walking consumes one five-hundredth part of the sight. Much talking hurts one whose eyes are affected. Dirt is harmful, and many diseases are caused by touching the eyes with unwashed hands. The salt taken from the Dead Sea is especially dangerous. The eyes of the inhabitants of Palmyra twitch because they live in a sandy region (Rosenzweig, l.c. pp. 20 et seq.). Water is excellent for the eyes. A drop of cold water in the eyes in the morning and washing the hands and feet at night are better than all the eyesalves in the world (Shab. 78a, 108b). Tears contain salt in order that they may not flow unrestrictedly in sorrow and distress, which would be very injurious. Tears produced by smoke or weeping injure the eye, while those that are produced by laughter or incense are beneficial. A collyrium made of stibium or antimony is often mentioned (comp. Levy, "Neuhebr. Wörterb." s.v. ). This salve was forbidden when made by the heathen (Niddah 55b; Yer. 'Ab. Zarah 40d). The veil of the Arabian Jewish women left the eyes exposed (Shab. 65a; Yer. Shab. 7b). Several diseases of the eye are mentioned, but they can not be definitely identified. Professional and popular therapeutics are found side by side. Either Galen influenced the rabbinical physicians, or both he and they drew from the same source. Artificial eyes made of gold are mentioned (Yer. Ned. 41c; comp. Yer. Sanh. 13c).

With the rise of Arabian culture the art of medicine was more highly developed, and physicians acquired a scientific knowledge of the eye, although this was not advanced beyond the point reached by Galen, either by the Arabian or the Jewish physicians, or by Christian practitioners, down to the eighteenth century. The general history of medicine, therefore, presents also the theories of the Jewish physicians regarding the eye. For the history of the sense of sight as recorded by the Jewish philosophers, exegetes, and other non-medical writers of the Middle Ages, see D. Kaufmann's exhaustive monograph, "Die Sinne," in "Jahresbericht der Landes-Rabbinerschule," Budapest, 1884.


Bibliography:
A. Rosenzweig, Das Auge in Bibel und Talmud, Berlin, 1892; Friedmann, Der Blinde, Vienna, 1873; G. Brecher, Das Transeendentale; Magie und Magische Heilarten im Talmud, ib. 1850; Hamburger, R. B. T. i. 134 et seq., 193; Hastings, Diet. Bible, i. 814.S. S. L. B.


— Color:

The color of the eyes is an important racial trait. The various colors are due to the amount of pigmentation, and can be reduced to three; viz., fair (blue, gray), dark (black, brown), and intermediate (green, yellow, etc.). The Jews have usually black or brown eyes. The appended table (No. 1) shows the colors of the eyes of 147,375 school-children in various countries:

see Table No. 1. (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D144%26volid%3D5%26title%3DEYE)
JewishEncyclopedia.com - EYE (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D144%26volid%3D5%26title%3DEYE)

Observations on children must, however, be taken with reserve, because their eyes grow darker when they reach maturity. The appended table (No. 2), showing the colors of the eyes in more than 7,000 Jews, brings out this point clearly:


see Table No. 2. (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D145%26volid%3D5%26title%3DEYE)

Table Heading: Table No. 2.

JewishEncyclopedia.com - EYE (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D145%26volid%3D5%26title%3DEYE)

It will be observed that the frequency of light, particularly blue, eyes among Jews reaches 25 per cent in some series (Ammon, Beddoe, Fishberg, Weissenberg). Some anthropologists claim that this trait points to intermixture of foreign, non-Semitic blood, especially Aryan. In support of this view it is shown that in those countries where light-colored eyes are frequent among the indigenous population the Jews also show a larger percentage of blue and of gray eyes. This can be seen in Table No. 2. In Baden over 50 per cent of Jewish recruits have blue or gray eyes; in Russia the percentage is less; while in Caucasia, where the native races have dark eyes, the Jews show 84.31 per cent of dark eyes. The English Sephardim show even a higher percentage of blue eyes than the Ashkenazim.

An important phenomenon in connection with the eyes of Jews is the variation of color according to sex. It appears from the figures in Table No. 2 that the eyes of Jewesses are darker than those of Jews. Joseph Jacobs sees in this a comparatively small variability of type among Jewesses as compared with Jews ("Racial Characteristics of Modern Jews," in "Jour. Anthropological Institute," 1885, v.).


The Jew's Eye

The appearance and form of the Jewish eye have attracted much attention. It is stated that a Jew may be recognized by the appearance of his eyes even when his features as a whole are not peculiarly Jewish. Ripley ("Races of Europe," p. 396) gives this description: "The eyebrows, seemingly thick because of their darkness, appear nearer together than usual, arching smoothly into the lines of the nose. The lids are rather full, the eyes large, dark, and brilliant. A general impression of heaviness is apt to be given. In favourable cases this imparts a dreamy, melancholy, or thoughtful expression to the countenance; in others it degenerates into a blinking, drowsy type; or again, with eyes half-closed, it may suggest suppressed cunning." Similar descriptions of the Jewish eye are given by Leroy-Beaulieu ("Israel Among the Nations," p. 113) and also Jacobs (Jew. Encyc. i. 620a, s.v.).


Bibliography:
Majer and Kopernicki, Charakterystyka Fizyczna Ludnosci Galicyjskiej, in Zbior Wiodom. do Antropol. Kraj. i. 1877, ii. 1885; Blechman, Ein Beitrag zur Anthropologie der Juden, Dorpat, 1882; J. Talko-Hyncewicz, Charakterystyka Fizyczna Ludnosci Zydowskiej Litwi i Rusi, in Zbior Wiodom. do Antropol Kraj. xvi., 1892; S. Weissenberg, Die Südrussischen Juden, in Archiv für Anthropologie, xxiii. 347-423, 531-579; J. Jacobs, On the Racial Characteristics of Modern Jews, in Jour. Anthropological Institute. xv. 23-62; idem and I. Spielman, On the Comparative Anthropometry of English Jews, ib. xix. 76-88; L. Glück, Beiträge zur Physischen Anthropoloie der Spaniolen, in Wissenschaftliche Mittheilungen, aus Bosnien und der Herzegowina, iv. 587-592; I. I. Pantukhof, Observations Anthropologiques an Caucase, Tiflis, 1899; O. Ammon, Zur Anthropologie der Badener, Jena, 1899; J. Beddoe, On the Physical Characteristics of the Jews, in Tr. Ethnological Soc. i. 222-237, London, 1861; Yakowenko, Material for the Anthropology of the Jews (in Russian), St. Petersburg, 1898; M. Fishberg, Physical Anthropology of the Jews, in American Anthropologist, Jan.-March 1903.

— Color-Blindness:

Inability to distinguish colors may be the result of disease or of injury, or it may be congenital. Among Jews the defect is known to be extremely frequent, as is shown very clearly by the first table following, taken from Jacobs. In a later communication Jacobs gives his own investigations on the subject ("On the Comparative Anthropometry of English Jews," in "Jour. Anthropological Institute," xix. 76-88), which show a yet larger proportion of color-blindness among English Jews:

see table (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D146%26volid%3D5%26title%3DEYE)
JewishEncyclopedia.com - EYE (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D146%26volid%3D5%26title%3DEYE)

see table (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D147%26volid%3D5%26title%3DEYE)
JewishEncyclopedia.com - EYE (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D147%26volid%3D5%26title%3DEYE)


The average percentage of color-blindness among Jews examined by Cohn, Carl, Ottolenghi, and others, is about 4 per cent. Among the English Jews Jacobs has found that it is more than three times as large as this. These investigations confirm the general observations that color-blindness is more frequent in men than in women (Havelock Ellis, "Man and Woman," pp. 138-145). They also show that the East End (London) Jews, who are poorer, have a larger percentage of color-blindness than their wealthier brethren of the West End.

Jacobs attributes color-blindness to the fact that the Jews are town-dwellers, where comparatively so little color, and especially so little green, is to be met with. To this high proportion of color-blindness he also attributes "the absence of any painters of great ability among Jews, and the want of taste shown by Jewesses of the lower grades of society," which manifests itself in the preference for bright primary colors for wearing-apparel.

It must also be remembered that in the main the Jews in almost every country are poor. They are consequently the class of people which is most predisposed to color-blindness. In the "Report" of the Committee on Color-Blindness appointed by the Ophthalmological Society of London it is stated that the reason for the high percentage of color-blindness found among the Jews lies in the fact that those of them who were examined were priacipally of the poorer class.


— Defective Vision:

Jacobs and Spielman in their investigations on the comparative anthropometry of English Jews ("Jour. Anthropological Institute," 1889, p. 79) showed that London Jews could read a test-type at a distance of only 19 inches as against 25 inches by other Londoners; Jewesses were not so markedly inferior, 23 inches as against 24 inches. On the other hand, the better-nurtured Jews had a range of 29 inches.

Botwinnick reports his observations on 829 Jews and 2,763 Christians in Russia. Of the Christians 2.21 per cent were affected with near-sightedness, while about 4½ times as many Jews—9.88 per cent—were thus affected. The same observer shows that cases of myopia of a high degree (technically known as "10D") are more frequent among Jews than among non-Jews. His investigations in the Jewish schools in St. Petersburg revealed the fact that among Jewish school-children 16.7 per cent (16.5 per cent in boys and 16.8 per cent in girls) suffered from near-sightedness, as against 2 to 7.5 per cent in Christian children. Beginning with the twelfth year of life, when 18.2 per cent were affected with myopia, the percentage rose, nearly one-half of all the Jewish children from 16 to 18 years of age being near sighted.

Astigmatism is also very frequent among Jews. Javal and Wecker have shown that it is of a peculiar kind. The horizontal meridian of the cornea presents the maximum of curvature. This is contrary to the rule, the maximum of curvature being usually perpendicular (Wecker, "Sur l'Astigmatisme dans Ses Rapports avec la Conformation des Os du Crâne," in "Bulletin de la Société d'Anthropologie," June 15, 1869, pp. 545-547).

Botwinnick attributes the near-sightedness of the Jews to hereditary predisposition to weakness of the organ of sight. But this does not by any means explain the problem. The fact that the Jews are town-dwellers must not be overlooked. Besides this, the Jews are a nation of students.


Bibliography:

Joseph Jacobs and I. Spielman, On the Comparative Anthropometry of English, Jews, in Jour. Anthropological Institute, xix. 76-88;
N. R. Botwinnick, Materiali k Voprosu o Blisorukosti u Evreev, in Vratch, 1899, No. 42.


— Pathology:

Jews are known to be great sufferers from diseases of the eyes. The most frequent of these appears to be trachoma or granular conjunctivitis. Pilz ("Augenheilkunde," 1859) was the first to direct attention to this fact. In the city of New York the board of health recently (1903) investigated the frequency of trachoma among school-children. The results show that the disease was very prevalent in schools where the majority of the pupils were Jewish.

Glaucoma is another disease of the eyes prevalent among Jews. The characteristics of this disease are steadily increasing hardness of the globe of the eye, with pressure and cupping of the optic nerve; and forward pressure of the iris and dilation of pupil. It is very injurious to the eyesight. As a result of these diseases blindness is very frequent among Jews (see Jew. Encyc. iii. 249, s.v. Blindness (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Fview.jsp%3Fartid%3D 1141%26letter%3DB)).

The most important sequela of trachoma is entropion, which consists in a distressing distortion of the lid-borders, due to the formation of contracting scar-tissue, which causes misdirection of the eyelashes, so that they turn against the globe. This condition is frequent among the Jews of eastern Europe, Egypt, and Palestine, who are huddled together in unhealthful dwellings and live under the worst conditions of poverty and misery.

Hervé states that lacrimal tumors are very frequent among Jews. He attributes this to an anatomical peculiarity, the narrowness of the nasal canal among Jews ("Bulletin de la Société d'Anthropologie," Dec. 20, 1883, p. 915). Of the other diseases of the eyes frequent among Jews may be mentioned simple conjunctivitis, and particularly blepharitis, which consists in an inflammation of the lid-borders, with a resulting falling out of the eyelashes. In extreme cases, because of the destruction of the eyelashes and consequent distortion of the eyelids, it proves to be a most unsightly facial blemish. This disease is frequent among the Jews of eastern Europe, Egypt, and Palestine. It can be stated that the conditions predisposing to this disease are identical with those causing trachoma.J. M. Fi.

(2) Hair.


Biblical Data:

The hair of the ancient Hebrews was generally black (comp. Cant. iv. 1, v. 11). In Eccl. xi. 10 black hair is designated as a sign of youth in contrast with the white hair of age. Josephus narrates ("Ant." xvi. 8, § 1) that Herod dyed his gray hair black in order to appear younger. Black hair was in any case considered beautiful, black being the general color, while light or blond hair was exceptional. David is designated as "admoni" = "ruddy" (I Sam. xvi. 12, xvii. 42), this expression being also applied to Esau's hair (Gen. xxv. 25). The Hebrews had thick hair (Ezek. viii. 3). Long, heavy hair was considered as a sign of vitality. In the case of Samson, traced back to religious reasons (he having been dedicated to God), the connection of long hair and bodily strength was based on the current views. Absalom's famous hair (II Sam. xiv. 25 et seq.) was considered not only as an ornament, but as a token of strength. A bald head, therefore, was an object of mockery (II Kings ii. 23; comp. Isa. iii. 17, 24).


Fashion Among Men

From the Old Testament it may be gathered that it was customary for the men to have their hair cut from time to time. The Nazarites allowed theirs to grow uncut for religious reasons. Absalom, proud of his thick head of hair, had it cut once a year only. But generally the hair was cut oftener. It was never shaved save on special occasions; the high priests and the priests in general were expressly forbidden to have theirs shaved. They were neither to shave their hair according to heathen custom, nor to allow it to grow uncut like that of the Nazarites (comp. Ezek. xliv. 20). There is no other information in the Bible concerning the care of the hair.
As the ancient Egyptians had combs, and as the Assyrians, also, were very careful in dressing their hair, it may be due to mere chance that combs are not mentioned in the Old Testament. The Hebrews, however, did not follow the Egyptian custom of wearing wigs. The Assyrians wore their hair in several braids reaching down to the nape of theneck. Samson's seven braids ("maḥlefot"; Judges xvi. 13, 19) indicate that this fashion obtained, for a time at least, in Israel.


Fashions Among Women

Among women long hair is extolled as a mark of beauty (Cant. iv. 1, vii. 6). A woman's hair was never cut except as a sign of deep mourning or of degradation (Jer. vii. 29; comp. Deut. xxi. 12). Women gave much thought to the care and decoration of their hair (II Kings ix. 30; Cant. iv. 1, vi. 4, vii. 5; Judith x. 3). The prophet Isaiah derides the many aids used by the women in curling and tending their hair (Isaiah iii.). Josephus mentions the custom—still obtaining in the East—of sprinkling gold-dust on the hair in order to produce a golden shimmer ("Ant." viii. 7, § 3).


Religious Customs

As a sign of mourning, part of the head, especially in front, was shaved. Although this was forbidden by the Law as a heathen superstition (Deut. xiv. 1; Lev. xxi. 5), the words of the Prophets indicate that it was customary among the people (Isa. xii. 12; comp. ib. iii. 24; Jer. vii. 29, xvi. 6; Ezek. vii. 18; Amos viii. 10; Micah i. 16; compare also the same custom among Arab women). The practise can not be interpreted as indicating a renunciation of everything considered in ordinary life to be a mere ornament (comp. Jer. vii. 29).

The Law regards it in an entirely different light, as it forbids shaving of the head on the ground that Israel belongs to Yhwh only (Deut. xiv. 1). Originally, shaving in times of mourning indicated that the hair was sacrificed to the dead (comp. Lucian, "De Dea Syria," 60). The Law also regarded as a heathen custom the shaving of the head in a circle, so that only a strand remained in the center (comp. Jer. ix. 26, xxv. 23, xlix. 32), and forbade it as such to the Israelites (Lev. xix. 27). Herodotus (iii. 8) says expressly that the Arabs intended to imitate thereby the fashion of their god Orotal-Dionysus, and he correctly ascribes to the custom a religious reason. The ancient conception, mentioned above, that the continuously growing hair, like the blood, is a sign of vitality sufficiently explains the sacrifice of the hair.E. G. H. I. Be.


— In Rabbinical Literature:

The hair was regarded by the Rabbis as so powerful an augmentation of beauty that married women were recommended to hide it. In connection with this recommendation the Talmud relates the following: Ḳimḥit, the mother of seven sons who successively held the office of high priest, was once asked by what merit of hers she was so blessed in her sons. "Because," said she, "the beams of my house have never seen my hair" (Yoma 47a). In Talmudical times it was the custom for women to plait their hair. "Because she [the wife accused of adultery] plaited her hair to please him [her alleged paramour] the priest loosened her hair" (Num. R. ix.). A man who curled his hair was regarded as a vain person. At the age of seventeen Joseph was still termed "lad" ("na'ar"), because he was childish enough to curl his hair (Gen. R. xxxiv.). Elijah had naturally curly hair; his enemies, however, mocked him, declaring that he curled it (Pesiḳ. R. 26 [ed. Friedmann, p. 129a]). While Samson was filled by the Holy Spirit his hair made a noise like bells, and the sound was heard from Zorah to Eshtaol (Yer. Soṭah 17b). The Midrash finds in the name "Joel ben Petuel" an indication that the prophet who bore it curled his hair like a maiden (Midr. Teh. lxxx.). Absalom was very vain of his hair, and therefore he was hanged by his hair (Soṭah 9b). One who does not wash his hands after shaving his hair has spells of anxiety for three days (Pes. 112a).

In enumerating the wonders of Creation, God pointed out to Job the wisdom shown even in the making of human hair. Each hair () has a separate follicle, for should two hairs derive their nourishment from one follicle, the human eye would be dimmed (B. B. 16a).

Because such was the custom of the heathen the Rabbis forbade the Jews to trim the hair over the forehead, but let it hang down over the temples in curls (Sifre, Aḥare Mot, xiii. 9). A certain Abṭalion ben Reuben, however, was allowed to wear his hair in that fashion () because he associated with the court (B. Ḳ. 83a). David had four hundred children who wore their front hair in that fashion, while their back hair was in long locks, as in a wig (; Ḳid. 76b). This way of wearing the back hair is disapproved by the Rabbis. "He who grows his back hair in the form of a wig [] does so for an idolatrous purpose" (Deut. R. ii.). The king had his hair cut every day; the high priest, every week; an ordinary priest, once a month. The high priest had his hair cut in the "Lulian" (= "Julian") style (), which consisted in having the top of one row of hairs touching the root of the other (Sanh. 22b; Ned. 51a). A penalty of one hundred "sela'im" is imposed by the Rabbis for pulling an antagonist's hair (Shulḥan 'Aruk, Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, 420, 41). The washing of the dead () begins with the hair, because human hair is associated with the thoughts ("Sifte Renanot" to "Ma'abar Yabboḳ," ch. xi.).

The number of the hairs of the human head is one billion and seven thousand; according to another statement the human head has a billion locks, each lock containing 410 hairs, equivalent to the numerical value of ("holy"); and each hair has 410 worlds (ib.).S. S. I. Br.


— Superstitions:

The hair of children is not cut till they are at least three years old. In Palestine this is done on the grave of some saint, as on the "Iṭilula" of Rabbi Simson ben Yoḥai (Reischer, "Sha'are Yerushalayim," p. 24). Among the Beni-Israel, if the child comes as the result of a vow, its hair is not cut till its sixth or seventh year. It is usual in all these cases to weigh the hair cut off against coins which are given by the parents to charitable purposes. If a person's body is very hairy, it is a sign that he will be very lucky. The hair cut from the head should be burned, or hidden in a crevice where it can be found; if thrown away it will cause a headache. Red-haired persons are supposed to be very passionate and traitorous; hence, perhaps, the red hair attributed to Judas in early Christian art. Albinos can never become great.In Talmudic times, when a man was to be buried, his hair was cut (M. Ḳ. 8b). This custom seems to be no longer followed. J.


— Anthropology:

Among Jews the color of the hair has attracted special attention because, while the majority have dark hair, there is found a considerable proportion with blond and red hair, as shown by the appended table (No. 1):

see Table No. 1: Color of Hair Among 145,380 Jewish School Children. (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D159%26volid%3D6%26title%3DHAIR.)
JewishEncyclopedia.com - HAIR (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D159%26volid%3D6%26title%3DHAIR).


From these figures it is seen that the proportion of dark hair (black and brown) is quite high—66 per cent in Germany, and reaching 76.3 per cent in Hungary. The proportion of fair hair is lowest in Hungary (23.7 per cent) and highest in Germany (32 per cent). In a fair proportion of blond-haired children the hair becomes darker as age advances; it is therefore essential to take observations upon adults. In the appended table (No. 2) are given the results of investigations upon Jews of both sexes and in various parts of the world:

see Table No. 2: Color of Hair Among 7,505 Jews. (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D160%26volid%3D6%26title%3DHAIR.)
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Red Hair

The figures in this table show again that dark hair predominates. The percentage of blond Jews varies only slightly, but is greatest in those countries in which the non-Jewish population is blond. Thus in northern Russia (the Baltic Provinces) Blechman found 32 per cent of blonds; in England, according to Jacobs, 25.5 per cent have blond hair.

On the other hand, in Caucasia, where the natives are dark, the Jews show 96 per cent of dark hair. The proportion of red hair is also quite high, reaching 4 per cent in some observations. This has been considered characteristic of the Jews by some anthropologists. It appears to be not of recent origin, and was not unknown among the ancient Hebrews (Esau was "red, all over like a hairy garment"; Gen. xxv. 25). Races are also differentiated, more or less, by straight, curly, or woolly hair. Among the Jews the distribution of these varieties of hair is shown in the following table (No. 3):

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The next table (No. 4) shows that the beard is usually darker than the hair:

see Table No. 4: Color of the Beard (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jewi shencyclopedia.com%2Ftable.jsp%3Ftable_i d%3D162%26volid%3D6%26title%3DHAIR.)
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By comparing these figures with those in No. 2 it is found that in the beard the proportion of light to dark is much higher. The number of red beards also increases perceptibly.


Hair of Jewesses

The differences in the color of the hair between the sexes have also been investigated. Jacobs shows that the Jewesses in England have darker hair. Similar observations have been made by Weissenberg in South Russia, by Talko-Hryncewicz in Little Russia, by Yakowenko in Lithuania, and by Majer and Kopernicki in Galicia. On the other hand, Elkind in Poland and Fishberg in America have found conditions different: the males have darker hair than the females.


Cause of Blond Hair

The true explanation of the existence of Jewish blonds has been the subject of lively discussions among anthropologists. Some believe that it is due to climate and environment (Pruner, Bey, Pritchard, Jacobs), while others attribute it to racial intermixture, particularly to the admission of Aryan blood into modern Jewry (Broca, Virchow, Schimmer, Ripley, and others). Elkind shows that the color of the hair is independent of the cranial index. Virchow's investigations show that in the eastern or darkest provinces of Germany the proportion of blond types among Jews does not decrease; whereas in the Prussian provinces, which are predominantly blond, the Jews show the highestproportion of brunettes, and in Silesia, where the non-Jewish population is of very dark complexion, the Jews have a high percentage of blonds. The same has been shown by Schimmer to be the case in Austria. Andree ("Zur Volkskunde der Juden," pp. 34-40) points out that the fact that red and blond Jews are found in North Africa, Syria, Arabia, Persia, etc., is proof that intermarriage has had little to do with the production of the blond type in eastern Europe. He is of the opinion that there were blonds among the ancient Hebrews, and that the modern red and blond Jews are their descendants. Luschan agrees in this view. Jacobs attributes the erythrism of the Jews to defective nutrition, and shows that it is present not only among the European Jews, but also among those in Algiers, Tunis, Bosnia, Constantinople, Smyrna, and Bokhara, where the presence of Aryan blood could not be admitted.


Grayness and Baldness

The color of the hair undergoes changes with the advance of the age of the individual. Up to the age of thirty-five or forty the hair remains the same color in the majority of people. If grayness occurs earlier it is considered premature. It has been stated that premature grayness is very frequent among Jews (Weissenberg); but investigations by Fishberg and Yakowenko show that it appears rather later—at about the age of forty-five.

Baldness also is considered premature before the age of forty-five, at which age other signs of decay, such as loosening of the teeth and weakening of sight, begin to appear. It occurs most often among brain-workers and among those exposed to prolonged mental worry and anxiety. Weissenberg found that among Jews between the ages of twenty-one and fifty 16 per cent are more or less bald. Others point out that normal baldness (that is, baldness not due to favus) is not more frequent among Jews than among others. Yakowenko shows that it is found only as an exception among Jews before forty-five, and that when it occurs before this age it is usually due to favus. Fishberg reports only 83 individuals wholly or partially bald among 1,188 Jews over the age of twenty. Only 12 Jews among those less than forty were thus affected.

Bibliography:
Jacobs, On the Racial Characteristics of Modern Jews, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xv. 23-62; idem, On the Comparative Anthropometry of English Jews, ib. xix. 76-88; Virchow, Gesamtbericht . . . über die Farbe der Haut, der Haare und der Augen der Schulkinder in Deutschland, in Archiv für Anthropologie, xvi. 275-475; Schimmer, Erhebungen über die Farbe der Augen, der Haare und der Haut bei den Schulkindern Oesterreichs, in Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft, Vienna, Supplement i., 1884; Fishberg, Physical Anthropology of the Jews, in American Anthropologist, Jan.-March, 1903; Elkind. Evrei Trudi Antropologitshes-kavo Amdilla, xxi., Moscow, 1903; Majer and Kopernicki, Chakterystyka Fizyezna Ludnosci Galicyjskiej, in Zbior Viadam do Antrop. Kraj, Cracow, i. and ix., 1877-85; J. Beddoe, On the Physical Characters of the Jews, in Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, 1861, i. 222-237; Pantukhof, Observations Anthropologiques au Caucase, Tiflis, 1893.J. M. Fi.

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Anthropologists who consider the nose an important racial index (Topinard, Bertillon, Deniker, and others) in their classifications of varieties of noses have one class which they call "Jewish," or "Semitic"—prominent, arched, and "hooked" noses. It has been pointed out that this Semitic nose appears in ancient Egyptian monuments, in figures representing Semites. On the other hand, some authors show that this form of nose is not characteristically Semitic, because the modern non-Jewish Semites, particularly such as are supposed to have maintained themselves in a pure state, as the Bedouin Arabs, do not possess this characteristic nose at all. Their noses are as a rule short, straight, and often "snub," or concave. Luschan holds that the hook-nose is by no means characteristic of the Semites, and contends that the small number of arched noses that are found among the Jews is due to ancient intermixture with the Hittites in Asia Minor. He shows that other races also, as the Armenian, for instance, who have a good portion of Hittite blood in their veins, have hook-noses.

Among the modern Jews the hook-nose is not as frequently encountered as popular belief and caricaturists would lead one to believe. In the appended table are given figures of the percentage of four varieties of noses—straight ("Greek"), aquiline, or arched ("Jewish," "Semitic"), flat and broad, and "snub," or retroussé:

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From these figures it can be seen that the majority of noses in Jews are straight, or what is popularly known as "Greek." Over 60 per cent of the noses of Jews in the table above are of this variety, in some groups exceeding even 80 per cent. "Jewish" or arched noses are in the minority, less than 25 per cent being of this kind; in Poland, Elkind found only 6.5 per cent of Semitic noses among the Jews in Warsaw; Weissenberg, in South Russia, only 10 per cent; Yakowenko, in Lithuania, 9.79 per cent. The proportion of "snub" noses—from 3 to 6 per cent—is of interest.

A comparison of the statistics of noses in Jews and non-Jews in Russia and Galicia shows that the percentage of straight noses is about the same in both; aquiline and hook-noses are somewhat more frequently met with among the Jews, while "snub" noses are oftener encountered on non-Jewish faces. The "Jewish" nose is thus seen by statistical evidence to be not the one which is prominent, hooked, or arched. The question why artists and scientists have always considered a certain nose characteristic of the Jew has been variously explained. Beddoe claims that it is due to a characteristic tucking up of the wings. Joseph Jacobs concludes that "the nose does contribute much toward producing the Jewish expression, but it is not so much the shape of its profile as the accentuation and flexibility of the nostrils." From his composite photographs of Jewish faces he shows that when the nose is covered the Jewish expression disappears entirely, and that it is the "nostrility" which makes these composites "Jewish." "A curious experiment illustrates this importance of the nostril toward making the Jewish expression. Artists tell us that the best way to make a caricature of the Jewish nose is to write a figure 6 with a long tail (Fig. 1); now remove the turn of the twist as in Figure 2, and much of the Jewishness disappears; and it vanishes entirely when we draw the continuation horizontally as in Figure 3. We may conclude, then, as regards the Jewish nose, that it is more the Jewish nostril than the nose itself which goes to form the characteristic Jewish expression." Ripley agrees with Jacobs on this point, and concludes that next to dark hair and eyes and a swarthy skin the nostrils are the most distinctive feature among the Jews ("Races of Europe," p. 395).

The relation of the breadth of the nose to its length, known as the "nasal index," has been considered one of the best means of distinguishing the various races of mankind. Those in whom the breadth of the nose exceeds 85 per cent of its height are considered as platyrhine; those in whom the width of the nose is less than 70 per cent of its height are leptorhine; and lastly those races in which the width of the nose varies between 70 and 85 per cent of its height are classed as mesorhine. Measurements of Jewish noses show that they are mostly leptorhine, or narrow-nosed, as can be seen from the following table:

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Bibliography:
y: N. D. Elkind, Evrei, Moscow, 1903; Joseph Jacobs, On the Racial Characteristics of Modern Jews, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, 1886, xv. 23-62; A. A. Ivanowski, Ob Antropologitchekom Sostave Naselenia Rossii, Moscow, 1904; Oscar Hovorka, Die Aeussere Nase, Vienna, 1893; P. Topinard, Eléments d'Anthropologie Générale, Paris, 1885; S. Weissenberg, Die Südrussischen Juden, in Archiv für Anthropologie, 1895, vol. xxiii.J. M. Fi.

CRANIOMETRY

The methods of measuring skulls for the purpose of determining certain topographical relations, the most important measurement of the skull being the cranial index, or the cephalic index in case the measurements are taken on the living. This consists in the ratio of the width of the head above the ears to the length of the head from the forehead to the most distant point at the back of the head. The cephalic index is expressed by multiplying the width of the head by 100 and dividing the product by the length. Thus, supposing a head to be 153 mm. wide and 186 mm. long, then 153 × 100/186 = 82.26, the cephalic index. The broader or rounder a head is, the higher is its cephalic index, and vice versa. When the cephalic index is above 80 anthropologists term it "brachycephalic"; between 75 and 80, "mesocephalic"; and less than 75, "dolichocephalic." There have been but few measurements of Jewish skulls, most of the measurements of Jews having been taken on the living. The following is a list of the measurements of 100 Jewish skulls taken by various anthropologists:

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The 30 Crimean skulls measured by Ikoff, being those of Karaites, can not, perhaps, be considered Jewish in the strict sense of the word; and no conclusion can be drawn from the remaining 70.


Cephalic Index

Resort must be had to an analysis of the measurements of the living for the determination of the Jewish cranial type. Appended is a table of nearly 3,000 Jewish heads, from various countries, measured during the last twenty years:

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On an examination of the figures in this table a remarkable uniformity of the cephalic index of the modern Jews will be noticed. Excepting the Caucasian Jews, of whom but few have been measured, it is shown that nearly 90 per cent are between 81.5 and 83. This indicates a limited variability and differentiation. In fact, the differences are so slight (from 80 to 83) that they may be fairly assigned to the usual discrepancies between different series of measurements of a single and homogeneous race. Another remarkable fact is the striking absence of the dolichocephalic type, which is characteristic of all the other modern Semitic races and tribes, as the Arabs, Syrians, Abyssinians, etc. Among the modern Jews this ranges, as is seen in the table, from 1 per cent, in Blechman's series, to 7.3 per cent in Glück's. On the other hand, the brachycephalic type predominates, nearly all the series showing more than 60 per cent of heads having a cephalic index of over 80.


Arrangement by Curve

Modern anthropologists do not rely solely on averages for the purpose of ascertaining the character of a given race. The best test at present at the command of the anthropologist, of the homogeneity or variability of a race, is the seriation and coordination of the figures obtained by measurement, and the representation of them graphically in the form of a curve. In case the people investigated is a mixed race, its component elements are shown in the curve by different culminating points. From the literature on the anthropology of the Jews 1,071 measurements of Jewish heads in various countries have been collected, and the data has been arranged in curve-form. The figures from which the appended diagram is derived were obtained from the following sources:

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These 1,071 heads are classified as follows: dolichocephalic, 17 = 1.58 per cent; mesocephalic, 235 = 21.94 per cent; brachycephalic, 819 = 76.48 per cent. What is most worthy of notice is the small percentage of dolichocephaly—only 1.58 per cent—and the large preponderance of brachycephaly, 76.48 per cent. The graphic representation of these 1,071 measurements is shown on the accompanying diagram. The cephalic index is marked from left to right, the percentage of persons having a given index being indicated above each index. Thus, 10.46 per cent of heads have an index of 80; 14.19 per cent, one of 82; and so on. The curve culminates at the index of 82—corresponding exactly to the average and also to the mean index. The largest percentage of people have this cephalic index; and around them are clustered the majority of heads—those having larger indexes to the right, and those with smaller indexes to the left. At the index of 75 the line of the curve begins to ascend regularly and rapidly, until it reaches 82, when it rapidly descends. It thus forms an acute pyramid with its apex almost in the middle. "A sharp pyramid generally denotes a homogeneous people: if they were all precisely alike, a single vertical line, 100 per cent, would result" (Ripley).

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Cephalic Index of 1,071 Jews and 345 Jewesses.The index is indicated along the base-line. The percentage of a given index is indicated by the altitude. The cephalic indexes from which this curve was obtained were those of Jews in various parts of the world. Russian Jews are those observed by Yakowenko, Blechman, Weissenberg, etc.; Italian Jews (Sephardim), by Lombroso; Causasian Jews, by Pantukhof; while those measured by Fishberg include Russian, Polish, Austrian, Hungarian, Rumanian, German, and American Jews. Some, though very few, in the last-mentioned series are of African origin. When figures taken from such diverse elements of Judaism present such a homogeneity, it can safely be concluded that the cranial type of the modern Jews shows very little if any intermixture of foreign blood. So little has this been anticipated that Lombroso, in his frequently quoted comparison of 95 Italian and 112 Jewish heads, insists upon the variability of the latter;whereas, if he had drawn a curve, the result would have shown several apexes among the Italians and only one, and that a steep one, for the Jews at the usual index (82—), leading to an exactly opposite conclusion to that of Lombroso. There appears no perceptible difference between the cephalic index of Jews and that of Jewesses, as can be seen from the following table:

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Skulls of Jewesses

In the measurements of 345 heads of Jewish women collected by Fishberg (50 from Weissenberg's measurements, 80 from Yakowenko's, and 215 from Fishberg's), the following distribution is found: dolichocephalic, 9 = 2.61 per cent; mesocephalic, 67 = 19.42 per cent; brachycephalic, 269 = 77.97 per cent. These figures agree with those cited above for men. A curve drawn from the measurements of 345 heads of Jewesses here recorded has the appearance indicated in the accompanying diagram. It will be observed that this curve is not a smooth pyramid, as is the curve of the cephalic index of Jews. It shows, in fact, a decided double apex. one pointing at an index of 81, the other at 84, which seems to indicate a greater variability and differentiation in Jewish females than in Jewish males. This is contrary to what has been observed throughout the organic world. This point, recently brought out by Fishberg ("American Anthropologist," Oct.-Dec. 1902), is of sufficient scientific interest to merit further investigation.

The absolute figures obtained by craniometry of modern European Jews show a striking uniformity unknown among other civilized races. In the accompanying table the length of the head varies from 183 mm. in Majer's and Kopernicki's, Weissenberg's, and Yakowenko's series, to 188 mm. in Blechman's—a difference of only 5 mm., which is comparatively insignificant. The same is the case with the width of the head, which varies from 150 to 156 mm.—a difference of only 6 mm.

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Circumference of Jewish Skulls

Of the other measurements of the head, the horizontal circumference is important enough to be mentioned here. A table giving figures on this subject is appended:

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As is the universal rule, the circumference of the head of the male is greater than that of the female by about 2.5 cm. (1 inch). Another point worth noting is that (wherever data are obtainable) the circumference of the head among the Jews is, as a rule, greater than that among the races with whom they dwell.

The most important problem suggested by a study of craniometrical results concerning Jews is the relation of the type head of the modern Jews to that of the ancient Hebrews and to the modern Semitic skulls. The pure Semitic skull is dolichocephalic, as may be seen from a study of the heads of modern Arabs, Abyssinians, Syrians, etc. The cephalic index of these races is from 73 to 77. As is at present accepted by nearly all anthropologists, the shape of the head is the most stable characteristic of a given race. It is little if at all influenced by climate, environment, nutrition, or sexual and social selection. The only way the type of the head may change is by intermixture with other races. If the ancient Hebrews were of the same stock as the modern non-Jewish Semites, and if the modern Jews are their descendants, then a pure dolichocephalic type of head would be expected among the Jews. As has been seen, all the results of craniometry prove that the Jews are brachycephalic, and that the dolichocephalic form is only found among them in less than two per cent of cases.


Ancient Jewish Skulls

This can be explained in two ways: either the modern Jews have very little Semitic blood in their veins, as Lombroso, Luschan, and others are inclined to think, or the ancient Hebrews may have been a brachycephalic race. In order to establish this, an examination is necessary of more skulls of ancient Hebrews, which are not available at present. The only skulls of ancient Hebrews recorded are five obtained by Lombroso from the catacomb of St. Calixtus in Rome, dating back to 150 C.E. Lombroso aptly remarks that these skulls are of great importance, because at the period from which they are derived (second century), there could not have been any considerable racial intermixture of the Jews with other peoples, and the cranial typethey represent should be considered pure. The cranial indexes of these skulls are 80, 76.1, 78, 83.4, and 75.1, giving an average cephalic index for the living of 80.5, which is far above the cephalic index of the non-Jewish Semites.

Of course, no positive conclusion can be drawn from only five skulls; still, the fact that among these are found two brachycephalic and only one dolichocephalic, points strongly against the opinion that the ancient Hebrews were a purely dolichocephalic race.
The twelve skulls from a Jewish cemetery in Basel, of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, which have been examined by Kollmann, are even more brachycephalic than those of contemporary Jews. The average cranial index of these skulls is 84.66; i.e., a cephalic index of 86.66. This again shows that the brachycephalism of the modern Jews is not of recent origin.

It can therefore be stated that the modern European Jews are shown by craniometrical evidence to be a pure type, and that no evidence of appreciable racial intermixture is discoverable. The opinion that the Sephardim are dolichocephalic, while the Ashkenazim are brachycephalic, is not supported by craniometrical research on European Jews. The measurements by Jacobs, Lombroso, Livi, and Glück prove that the Sephardim are almost as brachycephalic as are the Ashkenazim, as can be seen from the accompanying table. Jacobs' measurements of the Jews in London show that the percentage of dolichocephalic is even larger among the Ashkenazim, being 28.3 per cent, as against only 17 per cent among Sephardim.


Bibliography:
Majer and Kopernicki, Charakterystyka Fizyczna Ludnosci Galicyjskiej, in Zbior Wiad.do Antrop-Kraj. 1877-85, Cracow; B. Blechman, Ein Beitrag zur Anthropologie der Juden, Dorpat, 1882; L. Stieda and W. Dybowski, Ein Beitrag zur Anthropologie der Juden, in Archiv für Anthropologie, xiv. 167-182; J. Jacobs and I. Spielman, On the Comparative Anthropometry of English Jews, in Jour. Anthropological Institute, xix. 76-88; K. N. Ikoff, Neue Beiträge zur Anthropologie der Juden, in Archiv. für Anthropologie, xv. 369-389; S. Weissenberg, Die Süd-Russischen Juden, in Archiv für Anthropologie, xxiii. 347-423, 531-579; C. Lombroso, L'Antisemitismo ele Scienze Moderne, Turin, 1894; L. Glück, Beiträge zur Physischen Anthropologie der Spaniolen, in Wissenschaft. Mitt. aus Bosnien u. d. Hercegovina, iv. 587-592; O. Ammon, Zur Anthropologie der Badener, pp. 643-673, Jena, 1899; I. I. Pantukhof, Anthropologitcheskia Nabliudenia na Kavkase, pp. 33-41, Tiflis, 1893: M. G. Yakowenko, Materiali k Anthropologii Evreev, St. Petersburg, 1898; J. Talko-Hryncewiez, Anthropologia Ukrainskikh i Litowskikh Evreev, in Proc. Russian Anthrop. Soc. 1890-91, pp. 70-75, St. Petersburg; J. Kollmann, Schädel und Skeletreste aus einem Judenfriedhof des 13. und 14. Jahrhunderts zu Basel, in Verh. der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, viii. 115-126, Basel, 1885: Maurice Fishberg, The Physical Anthropology of the Jews: I, The Cephalic Index, in American Anthropologist, Oct.-De

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Saxnot
Saturday, May 9th, 2009, 05:42 PM
Are they European? Middle Eastern? Both? A new race in the making? Are they really psychologically different from Europeans (from a biological level), or is it merely their culture that makes them who they are?

One of the things I've noticed is that, when it comes to Jews, taxonomy doesn't seem to matter much, at least when speaking in terms of basic psychology or ability. Of course, I know that not everybody believes that the mental characteristics of an individual are influenced by race, but for many a Nordid looking European will be expected to display a particular character or behavior, but a Nordid looking Jew will invariably be a Jew, regardless of how much much Nordic blood can be found in his or her own veins.

I guess my question is, if you believe the physical characteristics of a person can be a determining factor on what to expect from that individual, should we extend the same rule on Jews (I.E, a Nordid looking Jews acting like a Nordic individual), or does ancestry overrule all considerations in this case?

Nachtengel
Saturday, May 9th, 2009, 05:51 PM
Jews are an ethno-religious group which is generally racially mixed. The typical Jew, the one portrayed in caricatures is Armenoid with maybe some Orientalid traits. There are Europid and Nordid Jews but Europid and European are not the same thing. Jews have a very strong ideology of chosenitism which enables them to act as a group regardless of racial characteristics.

rainman
Saturday, May 9th, 2009, 08:24 PM
There are a lot of moron trashy Jews but in general Jewish has replaced royalty in the west- it is the new royalty. In the past many smart people converted to Judaism to get out of the oppressive rules of Christianity. Jews continued to mingle with royalty and the new elite today and the people that control almost everything are Jews. At least Ashkenazi western european Jews.

The only thing is the very nature of Jewish culture is opposed to traditional European values. Jewish culture by definition is one of multiculturalism, race mixing etc. with themselves being a mixed race.

It goes back to Rome. Christianity was created to control and oppress the masses of people. The leaders were truly pagans or Jews. No one can publicly say they are pagan though. So overtime the term "Jewish" has come to define a person set apart from the commoners.

Though there are several tribes of Jew still alive today (sephardic, ashkenazi) the western european ashkenazi Jew has almost no genetic relation to the original biblical Jews. They are most related to Aryans and second most to other Jews around the world and perhaps more Roman/Southern European. More or less a racial cocktail of people. Though at the same time to be accepted in most elite Jewish circles you have to be highly successful. They purposely go out and try to woo the rich and successful to intermarry with them whereas they make no attempt to get the average people converted. This is why most European royalty, movie stars, old money are either Jewish, part Jewish or related to Jews today. The only people that have no Jew in their family are rural and poor folk for the most part.

The Nazis tried to preserve something that was dying: the old nobility not tainted by Judaism and its race mixing ways. They knew the German peasants were the most pure. Jews themselves are mixed with all races, though are overwhelmingly caucasion and many trace their Jewish bloodlines back as being pure for many generations. Their ancestors may have converted in the middle ages or earlier.

Strangely I've talked to Jews about Jews being a mixed race and many of them oppose this. They deny it and pretend they are this pure race that traces themselves back to biblical Jews. Its all easily disproven with genetic tests. Even today many Eastern Europeans claim to be Jewish even when they have little to no Jewish ancestory. There are many blond haired blue eyed Jews. They just do it for the social benefit they gain from it. Mainly Israeli immigrants from east europe aren't really Jewish. But they'll mix into the racial cocktail and assimilate to the culture and such and be just as Jewish as ever.

American culture with its ideas of individualism, multiculturalism, focus on money and material gain etc. is one and the same with Jewish culture. I guess we are all Jewish to some extent. Jewish slaves perhaps. Christianity is a Jew slave religion too.

TheGreatest
Saturday, May 9th, 2009, 11:36 PM
There are a lot of moron trashy Jews but in general Jewish has replaced royalty in the west- it is the new royalty. In the past many smart people converted to Judaism to get out of the oppressive rules of Christianity. Jews continued to mingle with royalty and the new elite today and the people that control almost everything are Jews. At least Ashkenazi western european Jews.

The only thing is the very nature of Jewish culture is opposed to traditional European values. Jewish culture by definition is one of multiculturalism, race mixing etc. with themselves being a mixed race.

It goes back to Rome. Christianity was created to control and oppress the masses of people. The leaders were truly pagans or Jews. No one can publicly say they are pagan though. So overtime the term "Jewish" has come to define a person set apart from the commoners.

Though there are several tribes of Jew still alive today (sephardic, ashkenazi) the western european ashkenazi Jew has almost no genetic relation to the original biblical Jews. They are most related to Aryans and second most to other Jews around the world and perhaps more Roman/Southern European. More or less a racial cocktail of people. Though at the same time to be accepted in most elite Jewish circles you have to be highly successful. They purposely go out and try to woo the rich and successful to intermarry with them whereas they make no attempt to get the average people converted. This is why most European royalty, movie stars, old money are either Jewish, part Jewish or related to Jews today. The only people that have no Jew in their family are rural and poor folk for the most part.

The Nazis tried to preserve something that was dying: the old nobility not tainted by Judaism and its race mixing ways. They knew the German peasants were the most pure. Jews themselves are mixed with all races, though are overwhelmingly caucasion and many trace their Jewish bloodlines back as being pure for many generations. Their ancestors may have converted in the middle ages or earlier.

Strangely I've talked to Jews about Jews being a mixed race and many of them oppose this. They deny it and pretend they are this pure race that traces themselves back to biblical Jews. Its all easily disproven with genetic tests. Even today many Eastern Europeans claim to be Jewish even when they have little to no Jewish ancestory. There are many blond haired blue eyed Jews. They just do it for the social benefit they gain from it. Mainly Israeli immigrants from east europe aren't really Jewish. But they'll mix into the racial cocktail and assimilate to the culture and such and be just as Jewish as ever.

American culture with its ideas of individualism, multiculturalism, focus on money and material gain etc. is one and the same with Jewish culture. I guess we are all Jewish to some extent. Jewish slaves perhaps. Christianity is a Jew slave religion too.


I've pointed out before that France was once the largest hub of Judaic peoples but this is no longer the case. It's incredibly rare to find a Jew in France, unless he or his parents were born in the ghettos of Eastern Europe (i.e. Sarkozy).

Napoleon and men like him had succeeded in his goal of assimilating the Jews of Europe. Because today, how often do we encounter a Jew who is wholefully "100% French Jew?"

Never... Even the British Jews, all have documented ancestry from Eastern Europe and within the past couple hundred years.


It's true that there are certain phenotypes which are common among Jews. That's because almost all the Jews are descended from Tatar communities in Poland and Russia. Men like Wolfowitz (Politician) had parents born in a Jewish Ghetto in Poland.



There is no such thing as a pure Jewish race. It's nothing more but a social construct, which is a legacy instilled on these people when Jewish practitioners entered Central Asia and Eastern Europe a thousand years ago.

It's been documented that plenty of Mongolian tribes converted to Christianity (i.e. the Chuvash), others to Muslim and some to Judaism (Khazar).


However I am opposed to accepting these people as our kin, because that's not the case. Most of the Jews today are nothing more but Tatars and Mongols. They belong in Central Asia. It's a bit amusing to see a bunch of blond haired Tatars going "ISRAEL IS JEWISH", to a bunch of darker-skinned, Mohamed-worshiping Palestinians.

Matrix
Saturday, June 20th, 2009, 05:25 PM
Jews aren't a race, but a multitude of races (often mixed), even Europids.

Some Europid-looking Jews (plates from Coon):

Nordic

http://forums.skadi.net/attachment.php?attachmentid=102147&stc=1&d=1245514781


Alpine

http://forums.skadi.net/attachment.php?attachmentid=102148&stc=1&d=1245514781


Something on Jewish genetics:

Advanced genetic testing, including Y-DNA and mtDNA haplotyping, of modern Jewish communities around the world, has helped to determine which of the communities are likely to descend from the Israelites and which are not, as well as to establish the degrees of separation between the groups. Important studies archived here include the University College London study of 2002, Ariella Oppenheim's study of 2001, Ariella Oppenheim's study of 2000, Michael Hammer's study of 2000, Doron Behar's study of 2008, and others.

Key findings:

The main ethnic element of Ashkenazim (German and Eastern European Jews), Sephardim (Spanish and Portuguese Jews), Mizrakhim (Middle Eastern Jews), Juhurim (Mountain Jews of the Caucasus), Italqim (Italian Jews), and most other modern Jewish populations of the world is Israelite. The Israelite haplotypes fall into Y-DNA haplogroups J and E.

Ashkenazim also descend, in a smaller way, from European peoples such as Slavs and Khazars. The non-Israelite Y-DNA haplogroups include Q (typically Central Asian) and R1a1 (typically Eastern European).

Dutch Jews from the Netherlands also descend from northwestern Europeans.

Sephardim also descend, in a smaller way, from various non-Israelite peoples.

Georgian Jews (Gruzinim) are a mix of Georgians and Israelites.

Yemenite Jews (Temanim) are a mix of Yemenite Arabs and Israelites.

Moroccan Jews, Algerian Jews, and Tunisian Jews are mainly Israelites.

Libyan Jews are mainly Israelites who may have mixed somewhat with Berbers.

Ethiopian Jews are almost exclusively Ethiopian, with little or no Israelite ancestry.

Bene Israel Jews and Cochin Jews of India have much Indian ancestry in their mtDNA.

Palestinian Arabs are probably partly Israelite.


Source: http://www.khazaria.com/genetics/abstracts.html (http://forums.skadi.net/redirector.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.khaz aria.com%2Fgenetics%2Fabstracts.html)

teutonicscult
Sunday, March 21st, 2010, 11:01 PM
I couldn't find a proper racial description for Jews here so I thought of posting this here I found.

http://i39.photobucket.com/albums/e181/Borntobeking/Baker4.jpg
Excerpts from his chapter on Jews:

Quote:


The characters that have just been described are very close to those of the Armenid subrace of the Europid race. Facial characters of the Armenid type are illustrated in Figs 32A and 33. The Armenians themselves, from whom the name of the subrace is derived are of remarkably uniform physical type. A good description of the Armenians was published by Chantre in 1895. Essentially the same type was represented in ancient times by the Hittites and Assyrians; indeed, the type was named Assyroid by Deniker. The fact there are strong resemblances between many Jews and Armenians was pointed out a t meeting of the Royal Anthropological Society in 1895 and is generally accepted.
There are two groups of European Jews, the Ashkenazim and the Sepharim, who differ in physical characters. When it is said that a person has a Jewish appearance, the speaker usually has persons of Ashkenazic stock in mind. The members of this group are typical Jews of Russia, Poland, and England, and they constitute the great majority, perhaps 90% of all the people in the world to whom the name of Jews is applied(cf. Jacobs and Ripley).

Persons of Ashkenazic stock can generally be recognized by certain physical characters that distinguish them from other Europeans. It will be understood that not every member of this group exhibits all the distinctive characters, but many of them show most of the ones that will now be described.

The description will apply in particular to adult male.

Typically the Ashkenazim are brachycranial, though some of them fall within the range of mesocranial. The relative breath of the skull is produced in a special way. In several ethnic taxa the brachycranial condition arises simply from the fact that the head is particularly broad, but is not so here. It is caused by the head being very short, the cranial capacity being maintained by the unusual height of the vertex. The shortness of the head is due to the suppression of the occipital region. A skull of this type is aid to be hypsibrachycranial. An example is show in Fig. 32B, which should be compared with the skull in Fig. 28C. In some cases the impression is given in side view that the back of the head has been sliced off by a vertical cut(Fig. 33B). The forehead is special in two respects. It tends to recede rather noticeeably(Fig.33B), and also be rounded in the horizontal section. Thus in the Ashenazim the front and sides of the head tend to curve smoothy upwards to a high vertex. In front view the face is seen to be rather wide above and narrow at the rounded chin, which somewhat recedes.

The upper and lower eyelids, especially the later, tend to be somewhat puffed out. The iris is large. The ear is large, wide in its upper part, and provided with large lobe.

The mouth is large. The lower lip is everted as to appear thick, but is is not swollen out like that of a Negro; on contrary, it tends to be rather flattened(Fig. 33A).



Quote:


It is thought, however that another subrace besides the Armenid enters into the composition of the European Jewish stock, and perhaps entered into that of the Hittites and Assyrians. This is the Orientalid subrace, which includes many of those commonly called by the vague name 'Arabs'. It is seen in its most typical form in the interior of Arabia, but also among the population of Syria and Iraq. The Orientalids are slender people of moderate stature. In certain respects they differ markedly from the Armenids, for they are very dolichocranial, with prominent occiput, and the nose is narrow, with compressed alae. The selltion is situated high up towards the forehead. The profile of the nose is sometimes straight, but often somewhat aquiline(that is to say convex, with a nearly straight or slightly convave border to the nasal septum). The face is long and narrow, and tend to appear oval in front view. The lower lip is not everted. The slit between the lids of the open eye is wide on the side towards the nose, so that the visible part of the eyeball has the form of an almond, the iris is black. The hair is almost black, the skin rather swarthy.



Quote:


It does not seem possible to reach certainty about the origin of Near Eastern and European Jews. From the account in Genesis xi it would appear that Abram's family lived in the great city of Ur in southern Sumeria, near the northern extremity of the Persian Gulf. It has been argued, however, that 'Ur of the Chaldee's' should properly have been described as ' Ur of the Khassedites', and the fact Abram's family lived in the Ur of northern Syria, some 600 miles away. An interesting hypothesis about the ethnic origin of the Jews has been founded on this argument, which deserved careful consideration. On the whole, however, it seems more likely that the patriarch's family started its travels from the Sumerian Ur. The influence of Sumeria on the writer of Genisis xvi is clear enough. The incorporation into the Bible story of Sumerian myths, interestingly recounted by Kramer, points in this direction. The behavior to one another of Abram, his wife Sarai, and the latter's handmaiden Hagar, as recounted in Genesis xvi, was in exact accordance with Sumerian custom. These facts, however, do not imply that Abram was a Sumerian. It seems best to accept the common opinion that if the Hebrew patriarchs could be seen today, they would be taken for Bedawin; that is to say, they belonged to the Orientalid subrace. When the lower delta of Mesopotamia began to dry up, the new expanse of land was occupied not only by the Sumerians, with highly developed culture, but also by Accadians(Orientalids) coming from the north, and by a much less advanced Orientalid people who entered the eastern extremity of the 'Fertile Crescent' from the west. The latter seem to have established themselves before the Sumerians came, and to have survived under Sumerian domination. It is to this stock that we must look, in all probability, for the origin of the Jewish people.

The question arises, when did the amalgamation with the Armenid stock occur? Even the patriarchs themselves were not endogamous, for Abram's second wife, Hagar, was Egyptian, and the angel of the Lord promised that her progeny would be multiplied exceedingly(Genesis, xvi, 10). When the Hebrews returned to Egypt to Palestine, they almost certainly found a large Armenid element among the population of that country, for the Hittites and the Assyrians were Armenids, and there were no rigidly fixed national boundaries that would prevent the interpenetration of ethnically distinct types. There is evidence in the Bible that the early Jews intermarried with people of other stocks. Solomon, it will be remembered, 'loved many strange women', including Hittites(I Kings, x, 1). Conquering nation in this part of the world were accustomed to remove whole populations and replace them with their own nationals. This happened, for instance, when the Assyrians brought a new Armenid stock to Samaria after removing most of the inhabitants (the 'Lost Tribes') to Mesopotamia in 722 B.C. It is noteworthy that the Jewish prisoners of the Assyrians at this period, as represented in Assyrian sculptures, were already 'thoroughly Jewish' (that is to say, partly Armenid) in appearance.

The hybridization of the early Jews is not surprising, for at first they were, not denied the opportunity of intermarriage with 'proselytes of righteousness'. Nevertheless, during the exile in Babylon(586-538 B.C.), that frenzied prophet Ezekiel attributed the downfall of Judah largely to the wrath of God at the intermarriage of the Jews with strangers. The Lord instructed him to tell the people of Jerusalem, '...thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother an Hittite...Thou hast played the whore with the Assyrians' Ezekiel, xvi). It is partclaly interestuing that two Armenid peoples, the Hittites and Assyrians, are mentioned in this passage. Nevertheless, those who were not taken away to Babylon are thought to have intermarried freely with the non-Jewish inhabitants of Palestine, and intermarriage continued after the return from exile(Ezra, x, 11; Nehemiah, xiii,23). There thus arose a people of mixed Orientalid and Armenid stock, united principally by religious bonds.

At the 'Golus' or 'Diaspora' that followed the sacking of Jerusalem by the Romans in A.D. 70 and continued for more than a century, two principal routes were used, one northwards toward the part of Europe adjacent to Asia Minor, the other to the southern shores of the Mediterranean. It is sometimes claimed that the Sepharim have retained the original (mainly Orientalid) physical features of the Jews, while the Ashkenzim are descended from those who had intermarried extensively with Armenid peoples in ancient times. This would imply that the Ashkenazim and Sepharim were already separate communities before the Diaspora. There is no direct evidence of this. It seems much more likely that the Jews had become a mixed Orientalid-Armenid community before the Diaspora, and that the Sepharim subsequently became modified by intermarriage with Mediterranids.

The fates of the two streams were different. Those who followed the northern route necessarily passed at first through Armenid territory. Hauschild attributes the Armenid character of the Ashkenazim to the consequences of this migration. The extent to which the Armenid composition of the people was increased during this slow migration cannot be determined, but there can be no doubt that those who eventually found their way by this route into Russia, Poland, Germany and other parts of Europe were ethnically much more Armenid than Orientalid.

The Jews had already been established for a long time in a colony at Alexandria. Those who fled to Africa at the Diaspora spread widley along the north Africa coast and seem to have intermarried with the Mediterranid peoples of this area; that is to say, with people of the same general physical type as those of Southern Italy and Spain today. Jews entered Spain freely during the period of Moorish domination, some presumably from Africa, others elsewhere, including a group descended from those who had remained Babylonia or had gone to Mesopotamia after the exile. The Jews flourished at first in Spain under the Muslim regime , but eventually every unconverted Jew was expelled in 1492, when Christianity had reestablished itself and the Inqusition had done its work. The exiles or 'Sepharim' (Hebrew for Spaniards) established themselves at fist in North Africa, Asia Minor, the Balkan states(where they were called 'Spagnuoli') , and Italy; some also in Holland and elsewhere.

The Sephardim are distinguished from the Ashkenazim by physical characters. No full analysis of the blood-groups of Sephardic Jews would appear to ahve been undertaken, but it is clear fro morphological evidence that the Armenid element is much less evident in the than the Ashkenazim. Intermarriage either in North Africa or in Spain or in both places produced an approximation to the Mediterranid type. The Sephardim are typically more slender than Ashkenazim. They are mostly mesocranial; an index of 78.1 has been quotes. It is sometimes said that theya re actually dolichocranial, but this is denied by Jacobs. The head-hair is less wavy than that of the Ashkenazim and almost always dark, the irises are particularly dark. The nose is narrow, and there less tendency to convexity in this organ.



Quote:


The reader who has studied the evidence presented in this chapter will agree that the meanings of the word 'Jews' cannot be satisfactorily summarized: the subject is too complicated. Nevertheless, certain conclusions do stand out.
Various communities scattered over the world are Jews simply in the sense they adhere to a particular religion(in various forms); they are not definable on an ethnic basis. These communities, however, comprise only a small proportion of those who call themselves and are regarded by others as Jews. The great majority are persons of Ashkenazi stock. Many of these do not practise the rites of the Jewish religion. Whether they do or do not, they show in their physical characters a genetic relationship to the Armenians, and they must be associated with the Armenid subrace, even though there has been an Orientalid element in their remote ancestry. They are this related to the Assyrians and Hittites of antiquity, as well as to the modern Armenians. They do not constitute, and never have constituted, a subrace of their own, because there are and always have been persons who do not call themselves Jews and are not regarded by others as Jews, but belong to the Armenid subrace.

It may be added that the contribution of the Armenid subrace to civilization will bear comparison with that of any other. The contributions of the Assyrians, Hittites, and the Armenid Jews are too well known to require emphasis here. The achievements of the Armenians themselves are perhaps less familiar. Almost continuously their country has been the scene of struggles for mastery by much greater powers. Nevertheless they had developed a civilization while many European countries were stll illiterate. Early in the fifth century A.D. they had devised and standardized an alphabet to meet the special needs of their language. A curious feature was that very consonantal sound, whether simple or compound, was represented by a single letter. Thus, for instance, a single letter represented ts, though there were also letters for t and s.
Remarkable contributions to scholarship, the arts(especially architecture), and Christian theology were made from the seventh century onwards, until the Armenian nation was shattered by the Slejuk Turks in the eleventh, never to become independent again. Some of their early illuminated manuscripts and other works of art are beautifully reproduced in a recent book on the achievements of the so-called 'Dark-Ages'.

Ralf
Monday, March 22nd, 2010, 12:18 AM
The reason modern so called Jews look dont look Semetic, but more like Armenians is that they are not decendents of Abraham at all, Abraham was from Shem, hense Semetic, the current Jews are from Japath like all the Europeans.

The modern Jews where not even of the Jewish religion until 700 years after God had ended the Jewish religion when he rent the curtain to the sanctuary at Jesus death and then totally in 70 AD when the Romans destroyed the Temple and all the records.

What happened in Kazakhstan 700 years after Christ was a Pagan and aggresive people where under pressure from Muslims in thier East, and Christians in thier West, they decided to therefore chose to become Jewish en masse and converted to this abandoned religion.

Interestingly the Bible, which they have taught most of us to not belive, correctly and in advance described the people who rule the Kings of the world in the last days, to say they are Jews, but are not real Jews, but are of the synagoge of Satan.

Revelation Chapter 2 verse 9

"9 I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan. "

Revelation Chapter 3 verse 9

"9 Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee. "

Makes a nonsense the pretend Jews claim that God gave them Israel so it is thier God given right to kill all Palestianians and steal thier land when the real decendants of Abraham, the real Semetics, the reall decendants of the real Jews who carried on living in Palestine are the current Palestinians, they are the true genetic Jews!

OneWolf
Monday, March 22nd, 2010, 02:39 AM
Origin of Jews.Khazarian Zionists are Hunnish.They where from a tribe of people who worshiped phalluses.Some king,I cant remember who,converted them to Jews.They are a revolting people.They are Turkic people.

http://www.palestineremembered.com/Acre/Maps/Story800.html

Lothringen
Monday, March 22nd, 2010, 05:07 PM
The reason modern so called Jews look dont look Semetic, but more like Armenians is that they are not decendents of Abraham at all, Abraham was from Shem, hense Semetic, the current Jews are from Japath like all the Europeans.

The modern Jews where not even of the Jewish religion until 700 years after God had ended the Jewish religion when he rent the curtain to the sanctuary at Jesus death and then totally in 70 AD when the Romans destroyed the Temple and all the records.

What happened in Kazakhstan 700 years after Christ was a Pagan and aggresive people where under pressure from Muslims in thier East, and Christians in thier West, they decided to therefore chose to become Jewish en masse and converted to this abandoned religion.


Right modern Judaïsm is a religion rather than an ethny. Large part of them are "converted". By the way, even in the time of Solomon, Queen of Sheba set a converion among her people while only Solomon & Queen son was "Afro-Jewish by blood"

Concerning "synagoge of Satan." I would make no comment as such attitude was as well the one of some catholic leaders against the first Lutherian that today nobody would accuse of being satanist.



Makes a nonsense the pretend Jews claim that God gave them Israel so it is thier God given right to kill all Palestianians and steal thier land when the real decendants of Abraham, the real Semetics, the reall decendants of the real Jews who carried on living in Palestine are the current Palestinians, they are the true genetic Jews!

Well, what is exactly "Palestine" and what were the "Jews".
King David land was a federation that regrouped more than the 12 Hebrew/Israel Tribes, just look who were the lords under David rule:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_David's_Warriors#The_Thirty
Canaanite (Shammah), Ammonites (Zelek), Hitite (Uriah),..
Despite of the Prophets & Bible writer propaganda, I doubt that monotheism was the main belief among the kingdom.

Giving "Palestine" to Hebrew (or the one who claim this culture) is therefore the same than giving "France" to the Franks, the Burgunds, the Romans, the Gauls,... or England to Britons, Angles, Saxons,...

That's true the Philistines were, for the Egyptian Empire what the Franks were for the Roman one.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philistines
Warrior tribes set at the march/Limes to protect from others power incursion (Hitites / other Germans or Huns) and cool down some "independantists" (Hebrews rebels in mountains / Gauls in forests)

What is quite interesting is that (except from ever-philistian/palestian Gaza) the Hebrew core was more inside the country in "mountainous badlands" while the Palestine were much more on the seaside (Sea-People like Phenician/Libanese) and in good fields (that Egyptian kingdom wanted them to protect). Now, it is much more the contrary, but these positions were actually artificially set by UN sharing.

David then Solomon Kingdom seems to be an exception for the early independant Hebrew/Jewish "nation" as after "Israel" was only Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Roman... province that the dominator shows less interest for religion/ethny than food production, use of the ports and buffer state aspect.

Prior this, for Hittite, Egyptian, Assyrian, the Hebrews were nothing more than a bunch of (Viet-nam like) Mountaineers, escaped slaves (you know that Mose story...) that could get easily calmed but strenght demonstration of an ass-kicker like Goliath and his grunts.
Until one day that started one of the first jewish heroic-fantasy novel.

As David enrolled himself as a phillistine (so egyptian) mercenary, he could be compared to these "Auxilliae" leaders of the dark ages that proclaimed themselves Dux, Patricius, Consul,... of an ephemer kingdom of Gaul or whatever province during the Fall of the West.

David (Ben-Gurion) story is nothing else than the repetition of David (Ben Ishaï) one.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Gurion#Early_life

As this sionist leader started to fight with England inside the "Jewish Legion" then against England by helping "illegal immigration of thousands of European Jewish refugees to Palestine during a period when the British placed heavy restrictions on Jewish immigration."

France had to give Normandy to Rollo the Norse Man, Palestine to give Israel to Ben Gurion the Jew...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duchy_of_Normandy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Mandate_of_Palestine

For miscellaneous reasons the Israelians didn't get as efficiently as the Vikings and have still to deal with Cisjordania (West Bank) & Gaza needle in foot from the Egyptian & Jordan respectively.
Not very fair-play the war loosers...
Just having at least the Egptian getting people of Gaza and later Jordanian the Cisjordanian would some everything but:
http://www.alterinfo.net/photo/772614-945568.jpg
http://www.oilinisrael.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/gasmap.jpg
http://images4.wikia.nocookie.net/whatreallyhappened/images/3/39/Turkey_to_israel_pipes.gif
http://www.protection-palestine.org/IMG/jpg/israel_palestine_pipeline.jpg
No really, somebody there seriously believed all my pro-sionist ethno-cultural story and thought it could be anything else than another hydrocarbon (*) stuff ?

Personnaly, as european, I thank the "Jews"(or whatyoucallthem) for having an alternative to the Arab/Egyptian-controlled Suez Canal to bring oil from Indian Ocean to Mare Nostrum and splitting in 2 a potential World Caliphate
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OttomanEmpireIn1683.png

(*)and perhaps little water too, in Askhelon (you know thay city that if bombed "cast lead" on bomber)
http://www.water-technology.net/projects/israel/

The question is not if "Jews" are grandchildren of Hebrew that were given Holy Land by God or converted Armenian that steal it for the real Hebrew
BUT
Do we want Arab League to have a Monopy on oil transit between (Middle/Far) East and Europa in a continous Empire/Caliphat ?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_League

Since the Crusades, answer is NO.
Crusader Kingdom for the Christ Tomb has just been replaced by Exodus for Abraham's one that was more accepted by public opinion after Shoah, but the occidental geo-strategy stays the same.

If "sionism" means wish for energetical freedom for Europe, then yes I am "sionist".

All that ethnical, religious, cultural stuff maybe good things to die for (on the side of Tsahal, Hamas,...) but gives little to live with..

With all the "respect" some may have for "Mein Kampf", the fact is that Stalingrad was the key to caucasian oil and the Battle of the Bulge was lost not because von Rundstedt skill neither german fighting spirit nor technology nor proto-Mossad spies but maily because the gas station was closed for the Panzers, even those of 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler.

Roderic
Monday, October 18th, 2010, 12:03 AM
Abraham's Children in the Genome Era: Major Jewish Diaspora Populations Comprise Distinct Genetic Clusters with Shared Middle Eastern Ancestry

http://www.cell.com/AJHG/retrieve/pii/S0002929710002466

On the left we have panel B from Figure 1 in the paper, which shows the first two principal components in a regional context. Capitalized labels represent Jewish groups. Note that Iranian and Iraqi Jews don't show a particular relationship to Arabs (Bedouins and Palestinians). It would be interesting to see if there is a relationship with Iraqis or Iranians, which might indicate whether admixture with these local groups is responsible for Iranian/Iraqi Jewish distinctiveness. As in previous studies, most other Jews, including Syrian Jews, are located between Europeans and Druze; the lack of non-Jewish Euranatolian populations is especially baffling.

I am particularly interested in the seemingly very close relationship between Greek, Turkish, and Italian Jews. The GRK-TUR relationship is not that puzzling, as these are mostly Ottoman Jews who found themselves on different sides of national borders, and we would not expect them to be any different. But, why would they be so similar to Italian Jews? Speaking of Greek Jews, how many of them are of Romaniote and how many of Sephardic extraction?

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_Ish7688voT0/TAimWIpgDAI/AAAAAAAACao/0uuOXPXvqcQ/s1600/pc-jews.jpg

The STRUCTURE analysis is also quite interesting. Jews seem to lack appreciable levels of East Asian (orange) or Sub-Saharan African (yellow) admixture, or of Central/South Asian admixture (green). The lack of E/C/S Asian admixture is especially damning of the Khazar hypothesis.

We should probably not interpret the three main visible components ("European" blue, "Mozabite" purple, "Near Eastern" pink) as representing ancestral proportions of European, North African, and Near Eastern elements. For example, Mongoloids have some "purple" while it is unlikely that they have North African admixture; so, while purple has an obvious relationship to Mozabites, it is not a good fit for an ancestral population group. Its substantial presence in the Near East also precludes such an easy interpretation.

Nor can we easily infer the percentage of "European" and "Near Eastern" admixture in Jews. The "Pink" element seems to grade from prominence among Iranian Jews to insignificance among Basques, but what did the original European and Jewish groups look like? Depending on how close they were to the Basque and Iranian Jewish end of the gradient, quite different admixture proportions would arise.

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_Ish7688voT0/TAirf0c_k3I/AAAAAAAACaw/M8qf6gJN4GM/s1600/structure-jews.jpg

http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2010/06/two-major-groups-of-living-jews-atzmon.html

Roderic
Monday, October 18th, 2010, 12:28 AM
On the left, PCA from Supplementary Figure 3, shows clearly at least three different Jewish clusters. Note the main Ashkenazi/Sephardi cluster halfway between Tuscans and Near Eastern populations, a Yemeni Jewish cluster coinciding with Bedouins and Saudi Arabians, and a West Asian cluster encompassing Georgian, Iranian, Iraqi, etc. Jews.

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_Ish7688voT0/TA_tjcMrcnI/AAAAAAAACb0/iMP8YJM3D8E/s1600/pca.jpg

Below is ADMIXTURE analysis in the global context.

There is a ton of information in the above figure, for Jews and non-Jews alike.


http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Ish7688voT0/TA_8jYWZQRI/AAAAAAAACcc/3quI0JWu2ls/s1600/admixture-caucasoid.jpg

Some observations:

Ethiopians and Ethiopian Jews look identical, between Sub-Saharan Africans and West Asians .

Sub-Saharan admixture in Egyptians and Yemenites is quite evident; lack of such admixture in Europe and non-Arabs from West Asia.

A little Caucasoid admixture in Mongols

Split of Mongoloids into two clusters, which appear to be "northern" and "southern"

Central Asian Turkic speakers (Uygur, Uzbek) derived from both Mongoloid sub-clusters; their Caucasoid components are mainly West Asian (light green) rather than north European (dark blue)

Non-European components in Russians are resolved into Caucasoid light green and "north Mongoloid" (see above)

A little of the "north Mongoloid" component in Turks and some populations from the Caucasus, not much elsewhere in West Eurasia

South Asian (green) component in Cambodians

Russians and Lithuanians lack south European (light blue) component but have some west Asian (light green)

Cypriots are split between West Asia and Southern European components, with minority Semitic (Phoenicians or Syrian Christians?) and northern European ones.

French Basque and Sardinians lack West Asian component (light green)

The regional ADMIXTURE analysis is also quite enlightening.

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_Ish7688voT0/TA_8VX3jGkI/AAAAAAAACcM/HVkOLdPm94g/s1600/admixture-global.jpg

Jews form three major clusters: one between West Asia and Europe (Ashkenazim and Sephardim); one right in the middle of West Asia (Caucasus Jews and Iranian Jews), and one in the middle of Arabs (Yemenite Jews).

The authors write:
This study further uncovers genetic structure that partitions most Jewish samples into Ashkenazi–north African– Sephardi, Caucasus–Middle Eastern, and Yemenite subclusters (Fig. 2). There are several mutually compatible explanations for the observed pattern: a splintering of Jewish populations in the early Diaspora period, an underappreciated level of contact between members of each of these subclusters, and low levels of admixture with Diaspora host populations.

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_Ish7688voT0/TBDgV2r3hxI/AAAAAAAACck/sYi1shNB8bc/s1600/westeurasianpca.jpg

It would be tempting to see an Arab-Persian distinction in the neat arraying of West Asian populations in the PCA figure of the previous update with Bedouins and Persian-Caucasian populations occupying the different ends of the spectrum. However, that would be erroneous, I think, as it omits the crucial parameter of Sub-Saharan admixture.

Here is a magnification of the West Eurasian portion of the global PCA (Figure 1 from the paper):

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Ish7688voT0/TBDp0Qi88iI/AAAAAAAACc0/_WLpsi3NeKI/s1600/magnification.jpg

"South" is towards Sub-Saharans and "East" is towards East Asians. Just as the ADMIXTURE analysis suggests, Arabs deviate towards the Sub-Saharan direction. Thus, Persian-Arab distinctions are not necessarily an indication only of differences between these two groups, but also of the presence of variable Sub-Saharan admixture in Arabs.

The global ADMIXTURE indicates why this is the case: Iranians have very little "Semitic" pink and no visible Sub-Saharan admixture, while Arabs have a little Sub-Saharan admixture, which, because of the great genetic distance between Sub-Saharan Africans and West Eurasians, pulls them apart substantially from the Caucasoid cluster.

Indeed, Arabians are intermediate between Caucasoids and East Africans, while the latter are intermediate between Arabians and Sub-Saharan Africans.

http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2010/06/genome-wide-structure-of-jews-behar-et.html

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7303/abs/nature09103.html#supplementary-information

TechFin
Tuesday, December 14th, 2010, 01:25 PM
All my life, I've never really known what Jews are. I don't know if they are a genetic race, or a religion, or both.

To me, Jerry Seinfeld, Kramer, David Draiman from Disturbed, and countless others who are said to be Jews, are white to me. They look Caucasian.

If Jews are not White, European or Caucasian... why aren't they, and how do people figure they are not White, if they look white? Is it their geographic location?

I'm really curious... school definitely never told me. So... what exactly are Jews... why should they be considered non white?

Bittereinder
Tuesday, December 14th, 2010, 02:09 PM
Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct communities within the world's ethnically Jewish population. Although considered one single self-identifying ethnicity, there are distinct ethnic divisions among Jews, most of which are primarily the result of geographic branching from an originating Israelite population, and subsequent independent evolutions.[1]

As long ago as Biblical times, cultural and linguistic differences between Jewish communities, even within the area of Ancient Israel and Judea, are observed both within the Bible itself as well as from archeological remains. In more recent human history, an array of Jewish communities were established by Jewish settlers in various places around the Old World, often at great distances from one another resulting in effective and often long-term isolation from each other. During the millennia of the Jewish diaspora the communities would develop under the influence of their local environments; political, cultural, natural and populational. Today, manifestation of these differences among the Jews can be observed in Jewish cultural expressions of each community, including Jewish linguistic diversity, culinary preferences, liturgical practices, religious interpretations, as well as degrees and sources of genetic admixture.



Historically, Jews have been identified into two major groups: the Ashkenazim, or "Germanics" ("Ashkenaz" meaning "Germany" in Medieval Hebrew, denoting their Central European base), and the Sephardim, or "Hispanics" ("Sefarad" meaning "Hispania" or "Iberia" in Hebrew, denoting their Spanish and Portuguese base). The far more recent term Mizrahim, or "Easterners" ("Mizrach" being "East" in Hebrew) to include Middle Eastern and North African Jews, constitutes a third major group to some, following the partition of Palestine, their often-forced migration, and the re-establishment of their communities in Israel.[citation needed]

Smaller Jewish groups include the Georgian Jews and Mountain Jews from the Caucasus; Indian Jews including the Bene Israel, Bnei Menashe, Cochin Jews and Bene Ephraim; the Romaniotes of Greece; the ancient Italian Jewish community; the Teimanim from the Yemen and Oman; various African Jews, including most numerously the Beta Israel of Ethiopia; the Bukharan Jews of Central Asia; and Chinese Jews, most notably the Kaifeng Jews, as well as various other distinct but now extinct communities.

The divisions between all these groups are rough and their boundaries aren't solid. The Mizrahim for example, are a heterogeneous collection of North African and Middle Eastern Jewish communities which are often as unrelated to each other as they are to any of the earlier mentioned Jewish groups. In modern usage, however, the Mizrahim are also termed Sephardi due to similar styles of liturgy, despite independent evolutions from Sephardim proper. Thus, among Mizrahim there are Iraqi Jews, Egyptian Jews, Tunisian Jews, Algerian Jews, Moroccan Jews, Lebanese Jews, Kurdish Jews, Libyan Jews, Syrian Jews, and various others. The Yemenite Jews ("Teimanim") from Yemen and Oman are sometimes included, although their style of liturgy is unique and they differ in respect to the admixture found among them to that found in Mizrahim. Additionally, there is a difference between the pre-existing Middle Eastern and North African Jewish communities as distinct from the descendants of those Sephardi migrants who established themselves in the Middle East and North Africa after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain by the Catholic Monarchs in 1492, and a few years later from the expulsion decreed in Portugal.

Despite this diversity, Ashkenazi Jews represent the bulk of modern Jewry, estimated at between 70% and 80% of all Jews worldwide;[6][7] prior to World War II and the Holocaust however, it was 90% [6]. While Ashkenazim developed in Europe, their massive emigration from Europe for better opportunities, and during periods of civil strife and warfare, they also became the overwhelming majority of Jews in the New World continents and countries, which previously were without native European or Jewish populations. These include the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Argentina, Australia, Brazil and South Africa, but with Venezuela and Panama being exceptions since Sefaradim still compose the majority of the Jewish communities in these two countries. In France, more recent Sephardi Jewish immigrants from North Africa and their descendants now outnumber the pre-existing Ashkenazim. Only in Israel is the Jewish population representative of all groups, a melting pot independent of each group's proportion within the overall world Jewish population.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_ethnic_divisions


In an ethnic sense, an Ashkenazi Jew is one whose ancestry can be traced to the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe. For roughly a thousand years, the Ashkenazim were a reproductively isolated population in Europe, despite living in many countries, with little inflow or outflow from migration, conversion, or intermarriage with other groups, including other Jews. Human geneticists have identified genetic variations that have high frequencies among Ashkenazi Jews, but not in the general European population. This is true for patrilineal markers (Y-chromosome haplotypes) as well as for matrilineal markers (mitochondrial haplotypes).[11]

Since the middle of the 20th century, many Ashkenazi Jews have intermarried, both with members of other Jewish communities and with people of other nations and faiths, while some Jews have also adopted children from other ethnic groups or parts of the world and raised them as Jews. Conversion to Judaism, rare for nearly 2,000 years, has become more common. Jewish women and families who choose artificial insemination often choose a biological father who is not Jewish, to avoid common autosomal recessive genetic diseases.

A study by Michael Seldin, a geneticist at the University of California Davis School of Medicine, found Ashkenazi Jews to be a clear, relatively homogenous genetic subgroup. Strikingly, regardless of the place of origin, Ashkenazi Jews can be grouped in the same genetic cohort — that is, regardless of whether an Ashkenazi Jew's ancestors came from Poland, Russia, Hungary, Lithuania, or any other place with a historical Jewish population, they belong to the same ethnic group. The research demonstrates the endogamy of the Jewish population in Europe and lends further credence to the idea of Ashkenazi Jews as an ethnic group. Moreover, though intermarriage among Jews of Ashkenazi descent has become increasingly more common, many Ultra-Orthodox Jews, particularly members Hasidic or Hareidi sects, continue to marry exclusively fellow Ashkenazi Jews. This trend keeps Ashkenazi genes prevalent and also helps researchers further study the genes of Ashkenazi Jews with relative ease. It is noteworthy that these Ultra-Orthodox Jews often have extremely large families.

...

Historical records show evidence of Jewish communities north of the Alps and Pyrenees as early as the 8th and 9th century. By the end of the first millenum, Jewish populations were well-established in Western Europe, later followed the Norman Conquest into England in 1066, and settled in many cities of the Rhine area by the end of the 11th century. With the onset of the Crusades, and the expulsions from England (1290), France (1394), and parts of Germany (15th century), Jewish migration pushed eastward into Poland, Lithuania, and Russia. Over this period of several hundred years, some have suggested, Jewish economic activity was focused on trade, business management, and financial services, due to several presumed factors: Christian European prohibitions restricting certain activities by Jews, preventing certain financial activities (such as "usurious" loans)[25] between Christians, high rates of literacy, near universal male education, and ability of merchants to rely upon and trust family members living in different regions and countries.
By the 15th century, the Ashkenazi Jewish communities in Poland were the largest Jewish communities of the Diaspora.[26] This area, which eventually fell under the domination of Russia, Austria, and Prussia (Germany), would remain the main center of Ashkenazi Jewry until the Holocaust.
The answer to why there was so little assimilation of Jews in Eastern Europe for so long would seem to lie in part in the probability that the alien surroundings in Eastern Europe were not conducive, though contempt did not prevent some assimilation. Furthermore, Jews lived almost exclusively in shtetls, maintained a strong system of education for males, heeded rabbinic leadership, and scorned the life-style of their neighbors; and all of these tendencies increased with every outbreak of antisemitism

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashkenazi

Wychaert
Tuesday, December 14th, 2010, 02:09 PM
All my life, I've never really known what Jews are. I don't know if they are a genetic race, or a religion, or both.

To me, Jerry Seinfeld, Kramer, David Draiman from Disturbed, and countless others who are said to be Jews, are white to me. They look Caucasian.

If Jews are not White, European or Caucasian... why aren't they, and how do people figure they are not White, if they look white? Is it their geographic location?

I'm really curious... school definitely never told me. So... what exactly are Jews... why should they be considered non white?

I'm personaly not consider a Jew white, some of them have white apearances.
That is in my opinion be cause their ancestors living and mixing in Europe and America for a long time.

(ps) can anybody explain the word caucasian? I never understood that.

Wulfram
Tuesday, December 14th, 2010, 02:36 PM
Most jews are reluctant to explain what they are. The more extreme of them will boastfully claim that they are a race unlike all others, even to the point of being a separate species!
Since most jews of today are actually descendants of people who converted to judaism centuries ago then I would say that they are indeed "White", and not jews by blood. But many people consider Armenians to be White as well. This is why it so so important for our people to identify themselves as "Germanics/Celts" in order that we not be confused with the rabble who identify as being "White" also.

Here is an article I posted earlier that sheds a bit of light on modern jews:


WHO ARE THE MODERN JEWS?
By Scott Stinson

In this age of brain-dead media programmed zombies, would it still be possible for the facts to speak? If so, there is something worth saying about the modern "Jewish" race, not written by anti-semites, but by Jews themselves—and where else but in The Jewish Encyclopedia! Please excuse me for being so abrupt, but I had to get your attention. You see, this article is worth reading because it has some facts that you need to know about the authenticity of today's Jewish race. The question that must be asked as well as answered is simple: Are the modern Jews really the descendants of the ancient people of Israel? The source of our information is also quite simple: The Jewish Encyclopedia. Hopefully we will not find any anti-Semitism in the writings of these Jewish scholars. However, the reader should be forewarned. Their articles were written long before the age of mass-media social engineering and do not contain any of the familiar buzz-words common to today's new views. In other words, brace yourself for a factual scientific analysis of the racial origins of the modern Jews. Oh, and should you decide to verify any of these facts, you will find them in your local library in the 1901-1905 edition of The Jewish Encyclopedia. So, please, do read on.

At the turn of the last century there was great interest stirring in the science of anthropology. In the wake of this, Jewish scholarship turned its watchful eye upon itself and began to examine the racial claims that modern Jews make to the ancestral heritage of ancient Israel. The results were startling. The religious community found itself completely alienated by its scientific counterpart. The scientific method was coming face to face with religious traditions and there was a great unsettling in the land. The facts were telling a different story than what had been heard for centuries in the local synagogue. In his article on Purity of Race, Joseph Jacobs relates something of the dilemma that was gripping the Jewish community at this time. He writes: "The question whether the Jews of today are in the main descended from the Jews of Bible times, and from them alone, is still undecided" (Jew. Enc. X (1905), 283). What a startling statement to come from a Jewish scholar and to be printed in The Jewish Encyclopedia! However, scholarship must have its reasons. Let us look further to see what the scientific community had discovered that would warrant such a radical and perplexing statement.

In his article on Purity of Race, Jacobs gives several important facts that were forcing anthropologists of his day to reconsider the modern Jew's racial claims to be Biblical Israel. In the study of craniometry which involves the measurements of the skull, the evidence was clearly mounting against the modern Jews. After extensive samples were taken from a broad spectrum of Jewish groups world-wide. The conclusion was evident. Jacobs writes; "They are predominantly brachycephalic, or broad-headed, while the Semites of Arabic origin are invariably dolichocephalic, or long-headed" (Jew. Enc. X (1905), 284). Simply put, all known Semites have historically been long-headed, but the modern Jews were predominantly round-headed! While Jacobs avoids drawing any personal conclusions, he relates a prevailing view of his time: "Some anthropologist are inclined to associate the racial origins of the Jews, not with the Semites, whose language they adopted, but with the Armenians and Hittites of Mesopotamia, whose broad skulls and curved noses they appear to have inherited" (Jew. Enc. X (1905), 284). The findings of some anthropologist were leading them to conclude that the modern Jews were not in fact Semites at all. but rather descendants of the ancient Hittites. Jacobs however was personally hesitant to confess that the Jews were not the Jews, simply because of the profound implications it imposed. He also wrote the article on Anthropology and there declared: "Much turns upon the preliminary question whether contemporary Jews are of the same race as those mentioned in the Bible" (Jew. Enc. I (1901), 619). Jacobs obviously realized the implications of the data he was receiving. It suggested the revolutionary idea that the Jews were not in fact the Jews. He again presented the anthropological evidence the cranial measurements of the modern Jews, stating: "Their skulls are mainly brachycephalic; that is, the breadth is generally over 80 per cent of the length. This has been used as an argument against the purity of race, as most Semites—like the Arabs and Syrians—are dolichocephalic, or long-headed" (Jew, Enc. I (1901), 619). Jacobs avoids any personal conclusions. He was the former president of The Jewish Historical Society of England and obviously could not bring himself to break with the great strength of the "Jewish" tradition.

But Jacobs was not the only Jewish scholar of his day that was attempting to come to terms with the startling discoveries of his time. After all, it was the talk of the Jewish community. The haunting question persisted, Were the Jews really the Jews? In his article on Craniometry, Jewish scholar Maurice Fishberg provides a more comprehensive treatment of the "Jewish" cranial findings that were turning the Jewish world upside down. Moreover, Fishberg was a licensed medical Doctor and a medical examiner in New York City. He was clearly an expert in his field and eminently qualified to comment on the data at hand. Unlike Jacobs who was tied to the Jewish historical society, Fishberg presents the facts much more objectively. Forthwith, he declares: "As is at present accepted by nearly all anthropologists, the shape of the head is the most stable characteristic of a given race" (Jew. Enc. IV (1902), 335). The article by Fishberg is thoroughly educational as well as informative. His scientific frame of reference is immediately evident. He includes numerous charts and statistics, a complete inventory of all the cranial data collected on the Jews to date. Fishberg also gives an understanding of some of the basic concepts and terminology. He writes: "The cephalic index is expressed by multiplying the width of the head by 100 and dividing the product by the length ...The broader or rounder the head is, the higher its cephalic index, and vice versa. When the cephalic index is above 80 anthropologist term it 'brachycephalic'; between 75 and 80, 'mesocephalic'; and less than 75, 'dolichocephalic"' (Jew. Enc. IV (1902), 333). Dr. Fishberg then proceeds to present all the Jewish cranial findings in classical scientific form. He writes: "Appended is a table of nearly 3,000 Jewish heads, from various countries, measured during the last twenty years" (Jew. Enc. IV (1902), 333). In the table that follows, there is not one Jewish head that has a cephalic index below 80, and they are taken from a wide variety of countries spread throughout Europe, Russia, and Asia Minor. Fishberg comments on the data: "On an examination of the figures in this table a remarkable uniformity of the cephalic index of the modern Jews will be noticed....nearly 90 per cent are between 81.5 and 83 ...Another remarkable fact is the striking absence of the dolichocephalic type, which is characteristic of all the other modern Semitic races" (Jew. Enc. IV (1902), 334). Dr. Fishberg also presents a large graphic chart which shows the cephalic indexes of the Jews by percentage. This chart peaks upward at the cephalic index measurement of 82, indicating the average Jewish mean. Fishberg comments on the overall percentage factor: "What is worthy of notice is the small percentage of dolichocephaly—only 1.58 percent—and the large preponderance of brachycephaly, 76.48 per cent" (Jew. Enc. IV (1902), 334). The Jewish medical examiner also confirms the representative nature of his findings. He states: "The cephalic indexes from which this curve was obtained were those of Jews in various parts of the world" (Jew. Enc. IV (1902L 331). Fishberg then provides a table of cephalic indexes by gender which shows little significant difference. He writes: "There appears no perceptible difference between the cephalic index of Jews and that of Jewesses" (Jew. Enc. IV (1902), 335). Finally, Fishberg addresses the most obvious and confronting problem with his findings, specifically how they relate to the racial claims of the modern Jews. He writes: "The most important problem suggested by a study of craniometrical results concerning Jews is the relation of the type head of the modern Jews to that of the ancient Hebrews and to the modern Semitic skulls. The pure Semitic skull is dolichocephalic, as may be seen from a study of the heads of modern Arabs, Abyssinians, Syrians . . . . The only way the type of the head may change is by intermixture with other races. If the ancient Hebrews were of the same stock as the modern non-Jewish Semites, and if the modern Jews are their descendants, then a pure dolichocephalic type of head would be expected among the Jews. As has been seen, all results of craniometry prove that the Jews are brachycephalic, and that the dolichocephalic form is only found among them in less than two percent of the cases" (Jew. Enc. IV (1902), 335). Fishberg presents an excellent summary of the problem. If the modern Jews are descendants of the ancient Hebrews and are supposed to be Semites, then dolichocephalic skulls would be expected. However, the exact opposite is true. The Jews are predominantly round-headed. Fishberg provides some other cranial data, but draws no further conclusions. The factual data he presents, however, is some of the most incriminating evidence to have ever been collected against the racial claims of the modern Jews.

Like the shape of the skull, the shape and configuration of the nose is another important racial index that was recognized by anthropologist at the turn of the century. It is also another clear sign against the modern Jew's racial claims to be Biblical Israel. It turns out that the so called "Jewish nose" is not Jewish at all, but rather comes from the ancient Hittites, as do also their round skulls. Dr. Fishberg is also the author of the article on the Nose. On the importance of this area as a racial index, the Jewish medical examiner writes: "The relation of the breadth of the nose to its length, known as the `nasal index,' has been considered one of the best means of distinguishing the various races of mankind" (Jew. Enc. IX (1905), 339). Fishberg proceeds to present a table of the nasal indexes of the modern Jews. Their marked similarity to one another and peculiarity to others again predominates in this table. Joseph Jacobs, in his article on Anthropology, also mentioned the peculiarity of the Jewish nose, stating: "The nose is generally the characteristic feature of the Jews, who have, on the average, the longest (77 ram) and narrowest (34 mm)" (Jew. Enc. I (1901), 619). In attempting to address this peculiarity, Fishberg presents some of the current thinking circulating among the anthropologist of his day. He writes: "Some authors show that this form of nose is not characteristically Semitic, because the modern non-Jewish Semites, particularly such as are supposed to have maintained themselves in a pure state, as the bedouin Arabs, do not possess this characteristic nose at all Their noses are as a rule short, straight, and often 'snub' or concave. Luschan holds that the hook-nose is by no means characteristic of the Semites, and contends that the number of arched noses that are found among the Jews is due to ancient intermixture with the Hittites in Asia Minor. He shows that other races also, as the Armenian, for instance, who have a good portion of Hittite blood in their veins, have hook-noses" (Jew. Enc. IX (1905), 338). Thus, the notorious "Jewish" hook-nose is another clear sign to the true racial origins of the modern Jews.

According to all the racial indicators recognized by leading anthropologist at the turn of the century, the modern Jews have more in common with the ancient Hittites, than with the ancient Israelites. In another early publication written about the same time, this statement is found in the article on the Hittites: "The human type is always brachycephalic [round-headed], with brow receding sharply and long nose making almost one line with the sloping forehead. In the sculptures of the Commagene and the Tyana districts, the nose has a long curving tip, of very Jewish appearance" (Enc. Brit. XIII (1910), 537). It should be evidently now that the round-headed hook-nosed Jews of today have a definite racial connection with the ancient Hittites, remembering or course what Joseph Jacobs wrote: "Some anthropologists are inclined to associate the racial origins of the Jews, not with the Semites, whose language they adopted, but with the Armenians and Hittites of Mesopotamia, whose broad skulls and cuffed noses they appear to have inherited" (Jew. Enc. X (1903), 264). Moreover, a portrait of one of these Hittites taken from a sculptural relief found on the tomb of an Egyptian Pharaoh clearly reveals what looks like a typical modern Jew (Jew. Enc. VI (1904), 427). The resemblance is so startling it is uncanny! In light of this, and all the other scientific evidence, confirmed and verified, it should be enough to convince any rational person that the modern Jews are standing on very shaky ground in their racial claims to be descendants of Biblical Israel. If you don't believe me just read The Jewish Encyclopedia, remembering of course that there is nothing anti- Semitic about it. After all, the Hittites were not Semites at all.

velvet
Tuesday, December 14th, 2010, 02:36 PM
Dont know how one can come to consider this Caucasian :shrug

http://www.hollywoodgrind.com/images/2008/8/jerry-seinfeld-for-microsoft.jpg

Anyway, Ashkenazi Jews do have European admixture, though they still have an identifiable genetics that proves their Jewishness (was that from you Grimner, or was that Roderic who posted that bit?, however, somewhere in the Anthropology section should be a thread about that).

The Sephardic Jews are very obviously non-white, but they are quite rare in Europe or America compared to the Ashkenazi anyway.

Today Jews try to claim their Judaism to be merely a religion and not a race, but this really is new and part of the campaign to remove all racial consciousness. Best is not to listen to any of their BS, because it's a lie.

It is also quite new that Jews accept convertants to Judaism, until very recently this was quite a rare exception when that happened, as Judaism is only for Jews.

But what people really must understand is that Judaism, like Islam, is way more than just a religion. It is a political warfare strategy, a complete world view including commandments for regulating social structures and so on, and that also has a religious component. But the belonging to the Judaic tribe does not rely on the religious component, many Jews claim to be atheists, yet they remain members of Israel. Which actually is proof enough that this is mainly a racial defintion and not so much of what they believe or not.

MCP3
Tuesday, December 14th, 2010, 02:42 PM
The best resource on the Jewish Question on the Internet is still:
http://www.davidduke.com/

As well as his 2 books "Jewish Supremacism" and "My Awakening", both available on the site as well as on Amazon.



If Jews are not White, European or Caucasian... why aren't they, and how do people figure they are not White, if they look white? Is it their geographic location?


In the US the term "Whites" has been exchanged for "Caucasian" in the 1960s. The term Caucasian was created to integrate European Whites ("Aryan") and Asiatic Whites (Turkmen peoples, Khazaks, Turks, Jews etc).

Note that if you refer to yourself in Europe, and especially in Eastern European, as "Caucasian" (from the Caucasus) you might as well refer to yourself as a "little criminal". Caucasians (people from the Caucasus) have the reputation of being street-criminals in Moscow or Kiev.

In Europe you are either European (Aryan) or Asiatic White (Caucasian).

So most of the jews may be Caucasian but they are NOT Aryan.

Wychaert
Tuesday, December 14th, 2010, 04:08 PM
The best resource on the Jewish Question on the Internet is still:
http://www.davidduke.com/

As well as his 2 books "Jewish Supremacism" and "My Awakening", both available on the site as well as on Amazon.


In the US the term "Whites" has been exchanged for "Caucasian" in the 1960s. The term Caucasian was created to integrate European Whites ("Aryan") and Asiatic Whites (Turkmen peoples, Khazaks, Turks, Jews etc).

Note that if you refer to yourself in Europe, and especially in Eastern European, as "Caucasian" (from the Caucasus) you might as well refer to yourself as a "little criminal". Caucasians (people from the Caucasus) have the reputation of being street-criminals in Moscow or Kiev.

In Europe you are either European (Aryan) or Asiatic White (Caucasian).

So most of the jews may be Caucasian but they are NOT Aryan.

Thats what I ment.
My ex girlfriend came from America and she lived in California. she called our race ''caucasion''.
I told her that will never be a caucasian! I'm germanic, call it aryan if you like. I dont live even near that vile place!!!
And then we are in a fight again....:thumbup

Fyrgenholt
Tuesday, December 14th, 2010, 04:36 PM
Jews are white in that they have white skin. They are not European proper, however, although some are more so than others due to mixture with the indigenous population of their host nations.

They are both a religion and an ethnicity (harbouring the generally accepted requirements for this - language, culture, common descent etc), however a Jewish person may renounce their faith or be born in to a secular or converted Jewish family - in this instance, their Jewishness becoms the product of their ancestral ties and/or cultural perculiarities - had I been born in Hong Kong, I would still be English due to my being brought up by English parents in a foreign land, for a relatively comparable example.

Some people hate them, some people don't care for them at all, others like them (although the latter isn't likely in preservationalist circles!).

genius
Tuesday, December 14th, 2010, 05:19 PM
This comes from a confusion of the term "race".

Race once meant "a people" or in other words "a folk". A people are a distinct population, with their own customs, appearance, culture, and a shared collective destiny and will.

Today race generally means "ancestry".

There is no Aryan folk today. For a folk to exist there needs to be:

one blood, one culture, one community. And to some degree perhaps even one leader or one direction,

ein folk, ein fuhrer, ein reich

Reich in this context can be taken as a unified culture. Folk means one community of people. That means you must live in Germany to be German so to speak. If you grew up in Africa and went to school with Africans and so forth you are in their community, thus not German. So a wigger with all black or wigger friends, neighbors etc. again has lost his race.

So people today are not Aryans or Germans. Why? Because their culture and community is not German. Modern Germany is a multicultural nation, a Zionist culture and so forth. They just have ancestry.

Most racists don't even understand that. That's why we have silly questions like "I found out my great great grandfather was a Jew does this still make me Aryan"

In reality you can't be half Irish and half Italian. You are born into one community- one race. You can be an Irish person with half Italian ancestry- or in other words an imperfect example of the Irish, but still Irish. So long as the folk community exepts you that is 100% what you are. Though generally the people are classified into 3 groups: *defective- *average- *ideal/perfect

Anyway getting back to Jews. Jews are a tribe of people. Jews are not Aryan because they reject being Aryan. They accept themselves as Jews and live in a distinct global community with its own culture and so forth. Even if their genetics are pure they are members of a different tribe.

But beyond that there are some unique genetics floating around in their genes pool though also some of them are genetically about indistinguishable from a European.

This is why some Nazis were Jewish and half Jewish and the quote was "I decide who is a German!" the folk decide who the folk are! Either you are somebody that a person wants to be a part of his family or not. This is usually measured by how well you conform to the *ideal* of the folk. That is you look and act in a way that conforms to being Jewish, German or whatever.

Ancestry is so ridiculous because genetics change with each generation. Pure ancestry means almost nothing. A person can have genius ancestors and be mentally retarded for instance.

So really the Jews have gotten race right whereas most WNs struggle to understand the concept. A race is a tribe of people so to speak.

I guess some Jews if they look and act enough white and were to turn their back on being Jewish could perhaps be absorbed into an Aryan community. But you can't be both. Can't be Jewish and German for example. It is two different cultures, two different folk.

But again here most people are trying to "racially classify" people who live in the United States and Europe. All people who don't choose to seperate into a folk are really part of the mainstream international cocktail race.

flâneur
Tuesday, December 14th, 2010, 05:30 PM
All my life, I've never really known what Jews are. I don't know if they are a genetic race, or a religion, or both.


Imagine a dog....a healthy dog.

Then imagine the dog has fleas and a few ticks.

OK,the dog is the human race and the fleas and ticks that suck the blood and live on the back of the dog are jews.

Use that as a rule of thumb and you wont go wrong in life....:thumbup

Bedford Brown
Thursday, December 16th, 2010, 04:08 AM
I have my way of doing it and I stick to it. I am not White. White means light color. I explain to people that ask me that question...I am Deutsche, not white, but explain we mostly use German here.
I will not change my Nationality for this white thing. Its very simple:
If you are Irish, then say Irish; If you are norweigen, then say so; If you are Deutsche/German and live in the United States, then say German/American.

RoyBatty
Sunday, December 19th, 2010, 02:14 PM
All my life, I've never really known what Jews are. I don't know if they are a genetic race, or a religion, or both.


There's no single right or wrong answer but to give you an idea of what it is:

- it is a group identity
- it can refer to a race but since there has been a lot of racemixing it doesn't exclusively refer to only a pure examples of that race.
- it can refer to a religion but being religious or observant isn't an absolute requirement to be a Jew

Imo the most relevant qualification to be a Jew is to identify one's self as being Jewish. There are of course also examples of Jews who prefer to hide or obscure their identities for social, business and political reasons. Some well-known crypto-Jews (meaning secret adherers to Judaism) from the world of politics are Sen John Kerry (pretend "Irish"), Madeleine Albright and Joschka Fischer.




To me, Jerry Seinfeld, Kramer, David Draiman from Disturbed, and countless others who are said to be Jews, are white to me. They look Caucasian.


Caucasian is an American (US) term which describes pretty much anybody from North Africa to Central Asia. It is utterly meaningless and an unfortunate example of the implementation of obscure language to confuse the user.




If Jews are not White, European or Caucasian... why aren't they, and how do people figure they are not White, if they look white? Is it their geographic location?


Ethiopian Jews are obviously not "white". They're still Jews.

Sephardic Jews have their origin in the Middle East, they are sometimes referred to as the Biblical Jews or Jews from Biblical times. They also look Middle Eastern, in other words, their appearance is very similar to that of other Semitic peoples of the region including Arabs.

Ashkenazi Jews are thought to be of Turkish, perhaps also Caucasus origin. They are not thought to originate from the Middle East but converted to Judaism. Some of these Jews look have similar features to those of typical Europeans. Race-mixing would have blurred the genetic landscape even further.

There are a number of regions in the Middle East and Central Asia where local (non-Jewish) populations are also very European looking. Parts of Western Iran for example.




I'm really curious... school definitely never told me. So... what exactly are Jews... why should they be considered non white?

Yes, school obviously won't teach any of this because those who control the school system, control the textbooks and control the media are.... guess who.... Jews or pander to Jews.

To answer the question as to what = "white" or "non-white" one needs to define what those terms mean and refer to.

Usually "white" is used to define somebody of European origin. Europe's borders end roughly in the Western parts of Russia, at the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

In other words North Africa, Turkey, the Middle East and the Caucasus are imo NOT EUROPEAN.