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Pallantides
Monday, January 4th, 2010, 10:17 AM
Anthropological Portraits of the Sámi People by Roland Bonaparte

In 1884 Roland Bonaparte led an ethnographic expedition to Sápmi, were he and his team set out to photograph and anotomically measure the Sámi inhabitants, Bonaparte's work was grounded in the anthropology of his time wich focused on the documentation of physical characteristics and the shape and dimensions of the skull as a means of establishing relations between the human races, the scientific conclusion was that the 'Lapps' were "brachycephalic,"( a large and short broad head) and that their cranial shape was of a 'mongoloid' type, they were also described as having a short stature and having inflatile facial features with sparse or little facial hair, the expedition produced 100 anthropological portraits and the collection was finished and exhibited in 1886 .

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Roland_Bonaparte.jpg
Prince Roland Bonaparte

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Bonaparte and his team measuring the 'Laplanders'

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Sigurd
Monday, January 4th, 2010, 10:58 AM
At the end of the day, most still give off the impression of an over-borealised East-Baltid. Undoubtedly mostly of the Lappid type (but with some who tend towards East-Baltid), whilst I believe this phenotype to have migrated from the Urals, I hold the possibility of a Mongoloid-derived racial genesis very unlikely.

It would include mass migration through such a "friendly" climate as that of the Gobi Desert and Siberia, which I would consider a far-fetched conclusion. The fact that the East-Baltid type is accepted to be a borealised/infantilised version of the Baltid type, which is understood as a European Cro-Magnid type, but tends towards the direction of the Lappid could help here.

As such I consider the Baltid/East-Baltid/Lappid spectrum to stand in a similar relation as the Dalofaelid/Borreby/Alpinid spectrum, which is more bound to represent a process rather than a distinct racial group with its own distinct type.

One other thing which speaks against Mongoloid background certainly is the displayed relative frequency of curly and wavy hair, something which we find commonly in European Cro-Magnids and their borealised/alpinised derivation, but not commonly at all with Mongoloids of any description. Beard growth and hair structure are also more coarse and dense in some examples than should be expected of full-fledged Mongoloids.

As such, Lappids could IMO be termed as a largely unharmonious over-borealisation of Baltids, something which appears to be strongly supported morphpologically by approximately half of the specimens in Bonaparte's plates. (1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 13 and potentially 9 - all seen when counting from the top - to varying degrees) Some also have a distinctively "Baltid nose".

The epicanthus in Lapps need not be through intermixture, either. We know the existence of what Agrippa described as [I]Schlupflider in some archaic Cro-Magnids, as such the epicanthus in Lappids could well be a "fake" epicanthus in that it is a further development beyond the Schlupflider norm closer to an actual epicanthus.

The placement within the wider Europoid spectrum should thus be considered as correct, with the Mongoloid ethnogenesis of Lapps to be highly disputed and likely motivated by the more extreme examples.

Jäger
Monday, January 4th, 2010, 11:24 AM
It would include mass migration through such a "friendly" climate as that of the Gobi Desert and Siberia, which I would consider a far-fetched conclusion.
You do know that climate is not static, and that, e.g. the Sahara has been more of a Savanna just as recent as 6000 years ago?!


The fact that the East-Baltid type is accepted to be a borealised/infantilised version of the Baltid type, which is understood as a European Cro-Magnid type, but tends towards the direction of the Lappid could help here.
Accepted by whom? E.g. Günther didn't think so. If you have anthropologists of a more recent breed, name them.
As I understand it, there is still dispute.


As such I consider the Baltid/East-Baltid/Lappid spectrum to stand in a similar relation as the Dalofaelid/Borreby/Alpinid spectrum, which is more bound to represent a process rather than a distinct racial group with its own distinct type.
The Lappid type tends towards Mongoloid forms in general, and still, we wouldn't necessarily conclude that the Mongoloid types are a borealised version of Lappids, similar traits can develop independently.


One other thing which speaks against Mongoloid background certainly is the displayed relative frequency of curly and wavy hair, something which we find commonly in European Cro-Magnids and their borealised/alpinised derivation, but not commonly at all with Mongoloids of any description. Beard growth and hair structure are also more coarse and dense in some examples than should be expected of full-fledged Mongoloids.
This doesn't speak against Mongoloid background, because it can be due to mixture with non-mongoloid types.


As such, Lappids could IMO be termed as a largely unharmonious over-borealisation of Baltids, something which appears to be strongly supported morphpologically by approximately half of the specimens in Bonaparte's plates.
Morphology is not conclusive, whether this morphology resulted from exogenous (mixing) or from a endogenous alteration process can't be told, at this is exactly why there has been much of a dispute, and supporters of either these theories had to seek out for more evidence.

Agrippa
Monday, January 4th, 2010, 03:46 PM
Looking at this portraits its absolutely clear to me, that we dont deal with one racial form if looking at the Sami population.

Some of them look very Europid, actually have an Atlanto-Nordid influenced facial morphology, while others approach Cromagnoid and Osteuropid facial features and the third element being essentially Mongoloid.

Most are of course in between these three elements and I would like to know, how much those different craniofacial forms also differed in their body proportions, or whether they were more homogenous, most likely due to selection, in the body traits and height.

This is the most extremely form of Mongoliform traits one could TRY to explain by convergent evolution of an archaic-primitive Europid form as some sort of adaptation to the cold in a Mongoliform direction:
http://img228.imageshack.us/img228/3403/fd0835.jpg

If looking at the traits in detail however and if considering the variants we find prehistorically, it seems to be direct Mongoloid admixture at work.

Now if looking at this individual:
http://img213.imageshack.us/img213/4349/fd0848.jpg
he doesnt fit into anything for Northern Europe, its primarily the hair though which makes him very exotic looking, but hair shape can mutate and being variable individually even without admixture, yet he's a tough example.

This woman however makes a clear case:
http://img411.imageshack.us/img411/2905/fd0839.jpg

Definitely Tungo-Sibirid influences, a direct survivor and example for the element which entered North Eastern Europe and influenced the Lappid and Eastbaltid variants to this day, just in a more pure form.

The similarities to Alpinoids, which many saw, even the great v. Eickstedt, come mostly from the Cromagnoid base of the Lappid and Sami people, yet the extremely infantilised Mongoliform variants and real cases of Mongoloid admixture make them outsiders by racial type in Europe, but if looking at this sample, not all of them, just some, though we can assume genetically they all have that influence.

If looking at their haplotypes, its obvious they are predominantely Europid derived, yet examples like that of the woman and the young male are a clear case.

Pallantides
Wednesday, January 6th, 2010, 02:50 AM
I will try to post all the portraits if I got the time.
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Agrippa
Wednesday, January 6th, 2010, 03:21 AM
http://img710.imageshack.us/img710/7615/fd0855.jpg

This Sami woman could pass as a fully Europid and quite harmonious Alpinid women from anywhere in Western or Central Europe.

This one the other hand has again a typically Lappid-Mongoliform appearance only very infantilised and rare examples of Alpinids show here and there, with Mongoloid admixture in them being open to debate:
http://img231.imageshack.us/img231/7408/fd0817.jpg

Strong Mongoloid influence:
http://img148.imageshack.us/img148/5210/mikel.jpg

Male on the right has Tungo-Sibirid influence like the woman in my older post:
http://img205.imageshack.us/img205/9681/lapplandersbonaparte.jpg

Mongoloid/Mongoliform frontal cheekbones in a male:
http://img263.imageshack.us/img263/6759/fd0873.jpg

Clearly Europid "backward-close-fitting" cheekbones in a male for comparison:
http://img99.imageshack.us/img99/6318/fd0889.jpg

Even though the face of this individual was broad and the cheekbones as or even more robust, so this has to been seen independently and being no old Cromagnoid trait, because the latter has Cromagnoid proportions in an even more classic form.