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Moody
Friday, June 25th, 2004, 05:11 PM
1) The "SA Approach". Typical of Kühnen, he invents his own theorys and history and forms a new Ideology out of it. There never was a "SA-aproach" because at all times, the SA was subordinate of the Party and the Führer. He makes it sound like the SA was some sort of highschool of NS-Principles, which gave the entire Ideology its meaning and essence.

With all respect to Dr. Brandt, I have just looked at Ernst Rohm's essay called 'Die nationalsozialistische Revolution und die S.A.' (the N-S Revolution and the S.A.) of 1934.

Much of it is ironic in retrospect as he was to die not long after writing it; but the piece certainly gives the impression that from Rohm's perspective, the S.A. IS N-S!

But most interesting of all is his notion that the N-S Revolution should be a CONSTANT Revolution, which must not stop until the complete 'nationalsocialistication' of ALL Germans.

I will quote some extracts forthwith.

http://www.csdm.qc.ca/lpage/isi/colloque/Hitler/Images/ErnstRohm.jpg
Rohm

Moody
Friday, June 25th, 2004, 05:41 PM
Rohm begins by stating in general that;

"The German revolution [i.e., that of 1933] is not about a change of power in the usual sense, (it is) rather the breakthrough of a new world-view [neuen Weltanschauung]".
[Rohm, 'The N-S Revolution and the SA', 1934]

He then defines what it is NOT;

"The German folk unconditionally rejects the premises of democracy and of parliamentarianism, and affirms authoritarian leadership [autoritaren Fuhrertum]".
[ib., 1]

These are replaced by the "idealism" of "the soul" and "the blood".

And here is the crux as far as this thread is concerned;

"The SA is the combative bearer of the will and ideas of the German Revolution".
[ib.,2]

In all of Rohm's far-ranging discussion here, he never mentions the SS, and only relates the SA to the regular German army;

"The Reich army [Reichsheer] is the instrument for national defence from the out-side".
[ib.,4]

But the SA is such from the "INSIDE" [ib.,].

On this basis, Rohm says that "the SA represents the guarantor of peace in Central Europe".
[ib.,]

This in itself suggests an interesting 'what if?'

http://home.sandiego.edu/~nr1/images/ss62.jpg

Moody
Friday, June 25th, 2004, 06:48 PM
Rohm makes another remarkable assertion;

"It is amazing how mildly the N-S revolution in Germany has treated its enemies and haters".
[Rohm, ib.,4]

Rohm warms to his theme;

"Compared to the violent deeds and atrocities, compared to the sea of blood that other world-views have required in order to succeed, N-S has in the history of the revolutions of the world taken control of Germany with unprecedented greatness and discipline".
[ib.,]

Of course, this is due - Rohm would have us believe - to the SA, to the 'Brown-Shirts'.

Yet even here, Rohm peruses his idea of constant revolution;

"With an incomprehensible mildness, the new regime in Germany since the rise to power has not ruthlessly cleared out the bearers and lackeys of the old and still older system.
Yet today sit in official positions people who have not felt even a trace of the spirit of the N-S Revolution ...
Only with the utmost caution do they go to work in their effort to turn back the wheel of revolution".
[ib.,9]

Is there a hint here of a planned purge by the SA?

http://www.hitler.org/posters/sa.jpg

Moody
Friday, June 25th, 2004, 07:06 PM
Here Rohm makes some claims which, in retrospect, we can see may have worried others in the NSDAP not connected to the SA;

"The SA stands as an unshakable bulwark against reaction and materialism - for in it is embodied everything that constitutes the concept of the revolution".
[ib., 9]

Not only does the SA embody N-S, but the SA ['brown soldiers'] have the central task for the future of N-S, for they are to be the "teachers, educators, and examlpes" not only for "National Socialism", but for "German thought and life" itself!
[ib.,]

And this is the ultimatum;

"To form the German man into the 100% N-S in heart and in deed and thereby to enable him to be the living bearer of the genuine experienced and practical folk community - that is our final goal.
Such a development is not completed in one day, rather it requires years and decades of endless educational work on the folk and on each individual".
[ib.,]

Given this, we may re-open the debate on whether Adolf Hitler was right to eliminate the SA in favour of the Reich army, or whether he should have gone with the SA and knocked back the Reich army and then took Germany on its never-ending 'brown' revolution!
We could do that here or on a new thread in the future.

http://www.johnsonreferencebooks.com/catalogue/weapons/daggers/sa/21738_tn.jpg

The Dagda
Friday, June 25th, 2004, 07:12 PM
Very few people died during the NS revolution, thats because Adolf Hitler directed it. If it was left to Rohm and the Strasser brothers with their concept
of continual revolution, I think there would have been all out civil war in Germany. The German people at the time should have thanked Adolf Hitler for
ridding them of this renegade Rohm. His ideas live on in what is now called
National Anarchism.

Zyklop
Friday, June 25th, 2004, 07:38 PM
Although the SA-men felt let down and were upset about the situation in Germany after the NS-takeover, the final incidents wich led to the cleansing of SA leadership were staged by Himmler and Wagner who anonymously distributed handwritten notices among Munich SA men wich mentioned a coming coup. These notices were the justification for imprisonment of the SA leaders. While Röhm was executed for his aim of a SA-state, Himmler succeeded in building up a SS-state.

After all, Hitler needed the Reichswehr more than the SA and so his decision to disempower the latter was justified.

Moody
Friday, June 25th, 2004, 07:44 PM
What about this Rohmish idea of turning every German into a National Socialist?

A kind of 'denazification' in reverse.

Not done through extermination of non-N-S, but via a long-term education programme?

Who here would like to turn every member of their own nation [whatever it is] into a full-on 'white nationalist' (or whatever)?

Does the Rohmish programme have a far-sightedness here lacking in the more compromised alternatives?

Nordgau
Saturday, June 26th, 2004, 03:17 PM
What about this Rohmish idea of turning every German into a National Socialist?

That was after all also Hitler's idea, he spoke about it in the party rally of 1934: Hitler believed in the difference between the superficial "revolutionary" change of the outer conditions of power in a country, grasping absolute power, and the substancial "evolutionary" change: the mental transformation of the whole Volk into National-Socialists and the new shaping of society, which would take decades or even one or two generations.

Hitler said somewhere that, if a former liberal or Social Democrat says: "You will never have me", he says: "We won't have you, but we will have your children".
The same goes for the social-economic changes of society and the melting of the class society. Hitler simply knew that really substancial changes take here a longer time and must be done consequently, but carefully, and that one won't free the worker by wild raging around and destroying the whole society and economy.

Also a sort of dawn of a pseudo-conservative-revolutionary state through an alliance Schleicher-Strasser with integration of right-wing SPD would have resulted in a rather frozen society of a national-authoritarian system than dynamicizing it like Hitlerian National Socialism.

Hitlerism is truest and most consequent National Socialism. Hitler was in reality the greatest and most radical revolutionary, even if others may have showed on the surface more "revolutionary" impetus.

Nothing is won if one makes a vulgo-Marxist "revolution" à la South America where the former lower classes just demolish everything, shoot the former surpressors and then replace them as new surpressors. One can be more demanding for a Nordic-Occidental type of revolution in a modern society.

Moody
Sunday, June 27th, 2004, 01:06 PM
Wasn't the Rohmish conception more 'radical' in the usually accepted sense of the word 'radical'?

It is said that his desire for a "Second Revolution" was similar to the Maoist idea of "Continuous Revolution" - surely a more radical conception of politics [TOO radical for Hitlerians].

I notice a distinction in two contemporary works;
Rohm in the work I have already quoted from talks of the need to turn all Germans into N-S; whereas Hermann Goering, in his 'Germany Reborn' [also 1934], talks of the need to make all Germans into GERMANS.

In that subtle distinction we may see the difference.

Dr. Solar Wolff
Monday, June 28th, 2004, 07:03 AM
I didn't know Ernst Rohm could read let alone write. Let's face it, Germany wasn't big enough for both Hitler and Rohm. One had to go and after being, well shall we say, "exposed" on that island with the boys, Rohm's departure was all for the best.

Moody
Monday, June 28th, 2004, 03:57 PM
I didn't know Ernst Rohm could read let alone write. Let's face it, Germany wasn't big enough for both Hitler and Rohm. One had to go and after being, well shall we say, "exposed" on that island with the boys, Rohm's departure was all for the best.

But let's not forget that after the failed Putsch of 1923 Rohm went to Boliviar and stayed there for some years.

During Rohm's absence the SA became split with one anti-Hitler faction vying for power - this when Rohm was away!

Hitler recalled Rohm in 1930 [or was it 1931? - Dr. Brandt would know] to take over the SA again, in order to bring it under control.

Rohm did just that, but increased its number to some 4 million or so.
So the danger remained.

Did Hitler just use Rohm?

It seems really that Hilter had little choice but to eliminate Rohm and his clique - the SA was threatening a 'second revolution', after all.

The SS was far superior [new thread?: 'which do you prefer; the SA or the SS?']

Julius
Monday, June 28th, 2004, 11:35 PM
Fascism in all forms demands a never-ending revolution. It's what makes it dynamic and pragmatic. I believe that is what Rohm wrote about, but it's clear he wanted another revolution.

Looking at the NSDAP 25 point programme, no-one can deny that Hitler didn't full-fill some the most socialist promises. The question is, if he didn't have the opportunity, or if he simply used the points to attract supporters.

By the way, has anyone read "Werwolf! - The History of the National Socialist Guerilla Movement 1944-1946" by Perry Biddiscombe (University of Wales Press)? It is said that Goebbels had National-Socialism become more Rohmist/Strasserite again in the end.

Verslingen
Wednesday, August 18th, 2004, 11:42 PM
Hello all,
I really think the reich would have been more successful if Roehm would of been left alive. Himmler was an arrogant fool who thought like a loyal puppy then like a member of a fierce wolfpack.

V.

Prussian
Monday, November 22nd, 2004, 01:34 PM
http://forums.skadi.net/attachment.php?attachmentid=26729&stc=1






....a pamphlet expressing the Nature & tasks of the S.A.



HERE SPEAKS THE NEW GERMANY
Pamphlet #12
Victor Lutze



THE NATURE AND THE TASKS OF THE S.A.
Speech of the chief of staff to the diplomatic corps and the deputies of the foreign press on January 24, 1936

INTRODUCTORY PRINCIPLES:

Before touching the real subject matter, I must tell you first in order to clear up any uncertainty about my own position, that I never speak primarily as a member of the S.A. but as a national socialist, since the S.A. cannot be independent of the national socialist movement, but can only exist as a part of it.

In the framework of the party, the S.A. is its protective troop, its fighting shock troop, to which belong the most active members of the movement, politically speaking.

The tasks of the S.A. are those of the party and vice versa. They are therefore of an internally political nature.

In his sole function of political soldier of the Fuehrer, the S.A. man has paved the way for the new Germany. He has rid himself of all the political philosophy rubbish of the past and made himself the supporting pillar of the state.

THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE ORGANIZATION OF THE S.A.

If I am to give you a brief account of the organization and the tasks of the S.A. in national socialist Germany, I must give you a short retrospective view in order to explain to you the reason for the creation of the S.A. of the NSDAP by the Fuehrer, and its past, present, and future tasks.

When, in 11/1918, the German empire of Bismarck was destroyed and people, who saw in the German people mainly the suitable source of more or less personal profits, came to power, the German people were deprived of their best forces, since a great part of them had bled to death on the fronts of the world war, and the remainder was still in the trenches. The homeland a disastrous effect of the words of William

"I know no more parties, I know only Germans" -- was exposed altogether to the will of elements who, by means of clever conniving, had been able to stay away from the front lines, who were identified as "indispensable to the homeland", and who made huge profits during the war from the economic chaos of Germany. These conscious criminals against the people were then joined by those whose heads were filled with the ideas of Marx and Engel's, of international solidarity of classes and of liberalism, people of whom it can be admitted that they had an ounce of liberal feelings during the early days following the November revolutions, but who later also degenerated into political swindlers or had to resign.

The people of the front lines were at first disconcerted by the events in the homeland and then were powerless to remedy the situation when it was already too late to do so, when no unified will existed any longer, when no military leader recovered himself in order to quell the November revolutions. The military units were destroyed and dissolved and so, with the aid of the Treaty of Versailles, the greatest source of danger to the Weimar system was removed.

The very fact that the Treaty of Versailles was one of the main argumentative supports of the Weimar Republicans reveals some of the characteristics of those in power at that time. To sign a treaty which, if complied with, would have signified the very end of Germany's existence, only to insure themselves of their own position in power, is an act which could have been perpetrated only by degenerate Germans, some of whom have experienced a corresponding evaluation in foreign countries.

The chaos and wild confusion which then ensued, the rife corruption, the class struggle and the shady transactions of the spoils system I need not picture to you in detail. The period of the Weimar Republic is not a glorious page in the annals of German history. Internally, ruin always takes on proportions undreamed of, which, of course, is not likely to raise Germany's prestige abroad.

In those days, a man from the front lines made his appearance in German history: Adolf Hitler!

An unknown soldier became a political soldier!

You are familiar with the origin of the national socialist movement, when the Fuehrer, with only a few supporters, declared war on a tremendous turmoil of opinions and outlooks, on Marxism with all its shades, on liberalism, on political confessionalism and reaction. First sneered at and mocked, later hated and beaten down.

The propaganda measures taken by the new popular movement which naturally was opposed by the state, necessitated the creation of protective and propaganda troops. The order to this effect was given by the Fuehrer on 8/3/1941.

And so, in contrast with the military organizations rising everywhere at that time, the establishment of the S.A. created for the first time a type of soldier whose duties were of a purely world political philosophical nature; the political soldier!

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BEARERS OF IDEAS AND BEARERS OF ARMS.

And today too, after the attainment and the subsequent stabilization and coordination of the power of the state, the political soldiery of Germany continues to exist. For now as before we distinguish fundamentally between the soldier as the bearer of National Socialist ideology, the ideology of the German people, and the soldier as the bearer of arms of the nation. This difference becomes especially obvious by the fact that every German male adult who is physically and mentally qualified, is required by law to undergo military training. Thus, military service has its foundation in a compulsory state measure disregarding the German's psychological attitude towards it and various other factors while the political soldier voluntarily serves national socialist ideology.

On one side, therefore, we have compulsory service, while on the other voluntary service.

In judging these two types of soldiers, it is necessary that we keep in mind the fact that soldier like qualities have from the very early Germanic times been an outstanding characteristic of the German people. Here again I do not refer to the soldier as a military man, but as a fighter.

THE ARMED FORCES: a state necessity.

The soldier as a military man is more or less a public necessity, a statement which can be justified by the fact that those states with a favorable political and geographical location risk less the endangering of their existence by doing without the maintenance of strong armed forces than states located politically and geographically less favorably.

THE POLITICAL SOLDIER: a national necessity.

The soldier as a fighting man, however, represents a national necessity, as proven by the history of our people and as recognized by the Fuehrer in its full significance. That means for us: every man who belongs by blood to the great community of the German people is primarily a soldier, a fighter for his people! Out of him and his soldierly qualities the state constructs the soldier, the man who is put into the purely technical position of answering for the needs of his people with the weapon in his hands.

The most recent Prussian and German history offers enough examples to prove that armed might, simply of an internally political nature, i.e., as seen from the national viewpoint, is but a conditional stable factor.

I refer primarily to the Prussia of Frederick the Great and Bismarck's Empire of the Hohenzollerns. Both had undoubtedly become great and powerful by soldierly military strength. And that only because the leaders of these states were men who understood as an ideology the elementary military concepts of honesty, loyalty, willingness, readiness for action, the spirit of sacrifice and comradeship, and used them for a purpose which had the wholehearted support of the people. The moment, however, these figures had accomplished the fulfillment of their aims, or had disappeared from the political life of their people, a period of decay always set innaturally with a varying rate of speed. Their ideas were consciously or unconsciously destroyed.

That is the decisive factor; for these periods of ideological decay have always marked the beginning of the downfall of their national construction.

The same holds true for the year 1918, when the preponderant armed might was not on the side of those who had started or favored the revolution. The best comparison, however, can be made by taking as an example the national socialist revolution of 1933, which led to victory without the resort to arms.

MILITARY UNITS AND VETERANS' ASSOCIATIONS

A further example are the military units and veterans' associations. Although they had existed prior to 1918 as well as during the postwar period and in great numbers, and though they had practiced formal and technical military training to a much greater extent than the much smaller S.A., they were unable to prevent either the collapse of 118, or liquidate the Weimar Republic.

The military units and the veterans' associations in Germany proved particularly that the fostering and preservation of soldierly spirit is not everything.

These organizations suffered political shipwreck in spite of their good will, and provided us with further proof that soldierly spirit alone, without an ideological basis, is unable to carry out a political change.

I do not believe that a special reference to the guerilla units established after the war is necessary to prove once more the validity of this conception.

The best soldierly striving remain a technique without spirit if it lacks an ideological basis!

The political leaders of the German people cannot afford to disregard these historical facts. In them originates the national socialist conception.

The states of the past collapsed not essentially because of a lack in factors of political might, but because of a faulty ideological basis and its instrument.

An ideological instrument, which represents in the people the idea on which the state is formed, is in a positive disposition towards the state and on military foundation. They collapsed because they failed to understand that the primary factor was not the state and state
form -- whether a monarchy or republic, but the ideological fundamentals of this state.

The national and public necessity for the political soldier best demonstrated by the above examples.

NO RIVALRY BETWEEN THE BEARERS OF IDEAS AND BEARERS OF ARMS

But we also learn from them that no rivalry of any sort may exist between organizations of political soldiers and those of military soldiers. (In spite of the operation of a certain foreign press under such impossibilities!) The party and the armed forces are not the end, but the means to the end. Their field of operation may differ but their aim is the same: Germany!

The political soldier is judged and formed the same way as every other soldier: by the weapon which he bears.

His weapon is his ideology!

But ideologies do not commonly depend on bayonets and hand grenades, but on the spiritual strength and the unified political will which this spiritual strength determines!

This function, determining exclusively the character of the political soldier, excludes from the very first the evaluation of the S.A. as an armed and technical unit!

WHY TECHNICAL UNITS!

I could be asked: why then do such technical units of the S.A., such as the Cavalry, Navy, Engineer, and Signal units exist ? Yes, why the need of such strongly emphasized military drill at all?

Yes, why. This question is easily answered.

The technical units are definitely useful and essential, if they are to maintain and strengthen the internally political initiative of the S.A.

One cannot fail to acknowledge the practical value of the S.A. units, if one is aware of how valuable the presence and employment of such units is in cases of accidents due to natural and other causes.

Let me remind you here of the mishap at Reinsdorf, the railroad accident on Christmas Eve in Thuringia, and last of all, of the catastrophes caused by storms and floods in the Rhineland.

In all these cases, the S.A. was always the first to be on the spot, and to show its old spirit of giving active and effective aid.


And concerning the so-called drill, I hardly believe it is necessary to give further reasons for the necessity of a strict discipline and an excellent physical condition.

For a political instrument, which is at any time to be at the supreme commander's disposal, and to carry out on the other hand propaganda missions, must never be a loose, but a compact, military organization, and simply cannot do without the strictest discipline and excellent condition of each and every one of its members!

The revolution of 1933 in spite of all the damage that has been done to us -- would have never been so bloodless and outwardly harmless had it been carried on by undisciplined troops!

No, a revolutionary organization of volunteers, and not one of organized troops, is particularly in need of drill!

More so, when this organization is being formed at a time during which such conceptions as subordination, military bearing, etc., have the same effect as a red cloth, and it is necessary to make a selection of the best out of a mass of people. It is certainly unnecessary for me, ladies and gentlemen, to speak to you about the superiority a small but disciplined unit has over a huge but undisciplined one.

S.A.: Bearer of Military Will:

The S.A. takes it upon itself to be the bearer of the military will and military strength of the German people.

The emphasis on this quality may partly have misunderstanding abroad for foreign tongues are unable to express rightly the conception of "military will" or "military strength" and, lacking a suitable expression, translate it as "will to wage war" or "strength to wage war", while the real interpretation should be "the will to defend" or "strength to defend" because "self defense" is but a grammatical transformation of the word "defense."

In any case, the defender is the one who is being attacked!

And that is the reason why the imputation that our intentions are militaristically aggressive is sheer nonsense.

The political soldier represents the national living strength of the German people. This quality fulfills its purpose and meets its obligations. Living strength, however, is an ability and not an intention!

FAILURE OF CIVILIAN INSTITUTIONS IN GERMAN POLITICS.

I think I have sufficiently explained the essentials of the political soldier as embodied in the S.A. man. Perhaps it should be added that the necessity for the creation of a political type of soldier is justified by the historically verified failure of the majority of civilian institutions in German politics. A people which at its greatest and best, was and is always soldierly, cannot entrust its welfare to the leadership of men who lack any kind of soldiery whatsoever.

If the virtues of initiative, courage, and highest devotion are to be exploited within the framework of politics, and moreover are to be a basis for political action, then those men who are the administering agents of politics must themselves employ these virtues as a guiding example for their own activities. For, in the end it is the soldier who has to answer without compromise for the consequences, or better for the continuation of the state's policy by force.

And it is a fact that he has been deprived of the fruits of his labor always when the final decision was brought about by political weaklings, money mongering bankers and business men. More so, I maintain that: it has never been the soldier who has set the stage for a senseless application of force, but always those above mentioned types who lack all the qualities of soldiery. For the soldier is constantly aware of the fact that any agitation for the use of violence will consequently result in the risking of his life.

It is my opinion, therefore, that peace and warfare are equally probable conditions resulting from political activities considerably influenced by soldierly policies.

THE POLITICAL SOLDIER: A GERMAN DOMESTIC FIGURE:

From this angle I want to bring up the response, caused by the work of the S.A., in foreign countries, above all by the foreign press:

The national socialist political soldier is but a purely domestic figure in German affairs. No valid comparison can be drawn between him and any foreign association and organization which owe their form of existence just as inevitably to the National character of their respective people as the S.A.

At this point I should like to go on to say a little about the obligations of the S.A. starting from the acknowledged fact that it is not only important to have a people "armed to the teeth"; the equipment of the heart is what counts!

What good are cannons and machine guns, squadrons of aircraft and tanks, if the will to operate these weapons in case of an emergency is lacking?


That is why the S.A. man, the political soldier of the new Germany, sees in pacifism only an enemy. Life in itself signifies struggle, whether seen from an individual point of view or from one of a national community. Only that which is strong is able to survive, while that which is weak is ruined by its own lack of strength. That is the law of nature, which can be changed by neither human thinking nor knowledge.

Thus, pacifism, the absolute denial of struggle, of initiative, of heroic thinking, can only be the ideal of uprooted visionaries and weaklings. In Germany, political soldiery has done away with that negative form of ideology, and thus removed a cause for international conflict which sooner or later -- depending on the rights of the strong over the weak -- would have proved fatal to the German people. Further consideration of pacifist aims shows that it is of little consequence whether they are being nurtured in a state which technically possesses the arms of all times or in one which is in a state of complete demobilization as was the case with Germany barely three years ago.

For its primary effect is not a state of technical disarmament, but one of spiritual defenselessness and helplessness.

The political soldier of the new Germany will see to it that in case of attack, Germany will no longer stay behind us an easily contaminated body, but be the powerful backbone of the front, immune against all kinds of political plagues.

For, it is beyond doubt that, had Germany possessed a political soldiery during the prewar period, the outcome of the war would have been decided at the front and not in the homeland!

Let me only mention casually that the S.A. man himself, should the opportunity ever arise for him to perform his duty at the front lines with utmost devotion, will do so in accordance with his qualifications, selection, and upbringing.

THE RACIAL QUESTION:

The fact that pacifism and its tributary forces -- Marxism, liberalism, and political confessionalism -- ever has taken root in a people like the German, is due to reasons that go beyond the limits of a national problem: i.e. in the systematic depreciation and dissolution of the racial qualities of a community of people!

And if one takes the pain to inquire about the reason, to search for those holding an interest in the creation of such a condition, then the answer can be found: Jewry, which said by the mouth of Disraeli: "The racial question is the key to world history!"

The S.A. man has been branded so often by the foreign presses as the "bearer of a barbaric and uncivilized race struggle", that I consider it my duty to say especially to this audience a few words on this subject.

One must not judge our struggle for the racial purification of the German people in a false light:

Our chief concern is not combating other races but the preservation of our own!

This fact can best be demonstrated by our striving according to our powers to not only eliminate foreign blood from the body of our people, but also -- and here I point out the sterilization laws -- prevent degenerate and decadent people of our own race from propagating!

Our racial consciousness is the basis of our national consciousness, and is fundamentally in no way related to race hatred!


The awkward position into which Jewry -- by way of touching briefly this subject too -- has brought itself in Germany, the country of its adoption, is its own fault. The German has always been known for his hospitality, and there are few other countries in this world where the foreigner enjoys so much personal liberty and friendship. And only because of this have the countless crimes committed by the Jews against the German people remained unpunished for such a long period of time. Now that our patience has been exhausted beyond the point of endurance, we cannot very well be blamed for keeping away burdensome guests.

I need not tell you anything, gentlemen, about the value of news reports which can be read in certain foreign newspapers mostly under the headline "Persecutions of Jews by Bands of S.A. Men," as you yourselves, being leaders and members of the diplomatic representation of your respective countries and representatives of the foreign press in Germany have the opportunity to observe daily -- with your own eyes -- the national socialist movement and the German people.

I have just said: our racial consciousness has nothing to do with racial hatred.

A person who loves and respects his own people, also never denies recognition of the rights of people of different races.

THE FALSE PICTURE OF THE S.A.

And there is another point into which I must go: Contemporary world opinion of the S.A. is still being partly formulated along the lines of the former systematic press of the Weimar Republic. It pictures the S.A. man only in connection with barricades, slayings and rowdies. Yet, I can understand why such a picture could have been drawn, apart from the arbitrary touch given to it. I mentioned previously that the S.A. man marked the coming into existence of a new type of soldier, the political soldier. To that I should like to add here that this very novelty sufficed to arouse the opposition of public opinion. For it is a commonly accepted fact that the masses judge everything subjectively by the present state of things, and criticize all that is new and in the process of growing in a negative way.

And as to the emigrant press, the organs of those elements whose exile cannot be ascribed to any action on our part but who took refuge in other countries only through consciousness on their part of the guilty side of their sojourn in Germany, we can hardly expect the fantastic products of its astral body to receive any considerable amount of response.

I must further assert that it is true that we, S.A. men, had to resort to destroy with our fists the red terror in Germany, sanctioned by the State, and we are proud of it.

It is also an established fact that the S.A. has not reconquered the German road for the German people by means of philosophical considerations from the desk.

But never believe that the national socialist revolution would have been such a bloodless affair had the S.A. man been that sort of blood-thirsty terrorist as which he has been branded even after the coup d'etat.

And I ask: is it possible that a people, a nation, which brands others as terrorists, is completely free of all terrorism itself?

The best proof that the S.A. did not desire terror, but its removal, is the new Germany, which ardently favors peace at home as well as abroad!

Thirdly, therefore, it is essential to point out that the S.A. man has waged war against his own brothers with a natural unwillingness and that he has only remained so persistent and determined in this fight because he knew that in the end it was not enmity that compelled him to fight but the welfare of his own people.

The restoration of national peace is the result of his labor performed by dint of heavy sacrifices, and the preservation of this peace one of his future tasks!


And if the S.A.'s opponent on the streets and the intellectual controlling power behind him is known, then another fact is revealed which extends beyond the limits of German domestic problems.

We meant to fight not so much the politically indifferent bourgeoisie class but the great danger: COMMUNISM! And it is the meritorious accomplishment of the S.A. man to have removed this menace at the price of innumerable casualties.

GERMANY, HOWEVER, IS THE NUCLEUS OF EUROPE!

And only because Germany has become the impenetrable barrier against bolshevism has its penetration into Europe and perchance the entire world been brought to a halt.

That alone is an asset in our fight and victory to make up for thousands of shortcomings.

Today, Germany is immune against bolshevism, not only because we hold the power in the state, but mainly because the teachings of the Jew Karl Marx have been extricated from the heart and the mind of the German people by the dynamic strength of the Fuehrer's ideals.

Communism would have long ago been the cemetery of European nations and culture had not the S.A. in Germany struck it in the eye in time.

And that is why we S.A. men sometimes cannot understand the patronizing attitude of foreign countries towards bolshevism itself and its national constitution, although nothing would stop its world revolutionary aims. On the other side, however, there is no end to incitements and boycotting of national socialist Germany, which has but the one desire to live in peace with its neighbors and the rest of the world!

POLITICAL CONFESSIONALISM:

While in the last two decades in Soviet Russia one blood bath succeeded another, while more clergymen died on the scaffold than officiated in Germany during that time, while in the face of these occurrences all the world's public opinion kept quiet, the entire weight of world public opinion, authoritative or otherwise, is now aroused because of the condemnation of several clerical foreign exchange profiteers in Germany.

However, it did not affect the S.A. as much perhaps as was expected, to be designated as executioners and sacrilegious by this so dexterously constructed world opinion.

When I said in the beginning that the obligations of the S.A. are those of the party and vice versa, I could only mean, that the S.A. considers the party's program its own as well.

I tell you nothing new when I point to the clause which says: the party represents the standpoint of a positive christianity!

There must be no misinterpretation of these policies in the mind of the S.A., either in word or in deed!

The S.A. man is neither a religious founder nor reformer, and he does not feel himself as such. That is why the existence of any kind of religious disputes is unknown to him.

The S.A. man is the bearer and harbinger of a new German ideology, given to him by the Fuehrer, and to which he has pledged his body and soul!

The party is the state today. The S.A. man has paved the way for the state, and is therefore also responsible for it.

The period of the Weimar Republic and also the prewar and war years have sufficiently demonstrated the disastrous activities of political confessionalism. The liquidation of confessionalism in Germany has its reason in the unconcealed total claim of national socialist ideology to totalitarian powers.

The cooperation of the S.A. in this task as the Fuehrer wills it is only in accordance with their legitimization as the Storm Troopers [Sturmabteilung] of the movement!

S.A.: THE PLACE OF BIRTH OF THE GERMAN COMMUNITY OF PEOPLES.

We do not only oppose political confessionalism because it is necessarily contrary to the national socialist principle of the community of peoples.

A true community of peoples necessitates one ideology. A second must render this entity illusory.

The S.A., however, is the birthplace of the German community of people; and it stands to reason that it is vigilant over it.

The new German social order, which rests on the denial of the capitalistic system and on the recognition of an ideology of a people unified by the same blood, finds its most visible precipitate in the S.A.!

In contrast to Marxism, German socialism does know an aristocratic class system. The criticism that the entire Party is uniformed and therefore approaches communistic equalization by removing all social differences is only justified if seen in the light of ideologies which in Germany are already antiquated.

Aristocracy in the national socialist sense is independent of origin, name, property and occupation. Interpretation of these conceptions of difference as being aristocratic in nature results in the creation of a class system and consequently in class hatred and pride of place.

The S.A. man has set himself free from them! It is the right and desired thing that, by being uniformed, the party removes all external differences.

The aristocracy as such, however, comes into its own!

We do not ask: what are you? but how are you? not where do you come from? but what are your contributions to society? and accordingly, evaluate the individual.

That is the aristocracy of German socialism as exemplified by the S.A., for it is not a question of acquiring known facts and perhaps erecting a monument in literature for them. It is much more important to have the courage to put a fact to advantage, to put it into practice. Only thus can history be made!

By way of summary, I should like to emphasize once more:

NO DONATORS OF MONEY BUT THE WILL TO SACRIFICE!

The S.A. consists exclusively of voluntary and altruistic idealists who have to make materialistic and idealistic sacrifices now as before, of men who have never received high compensation and do not claim one. The S.A. has never had great industrialists and other financial supporters, as they were always so beautifully called, even though a portion of the estimated world opinion still cannot understand that there exist voluntary soldiers who have

I bought and still buy out of their own often scant means, their uniform and entire accouterment.

The S.A. man is an example of sacrifice and hardness against himself.

Only that is the reason why it has been possible for him over a period of 10 years to contend with all animosities, to go his way without swaying and weakening, at a time when everything was against him.

When the S.A. man decided to fight against everything first in 1921 and secondly in 1925, he was thought to be a megalomaniac and insane. And when the Fuehrer declared in those days that the flag [Sturmfahne] of the S.A. would one day be the flag of Germany, there were enough contemporaries who smiled compassionately.

And we have conquered! The flag [Sturmfahne] of the S.A. is today the flag of Germany! And the S.A. man himself is the never tiring defender of his ideology, one of the strongest pillars of the state.

He has always been the unselfishly sacrificing and devoted warrior, even in those days and weeks when irresponsible leaders were often misled. His motto is still: Be more than you appear to be! That is what counts!

Even if the S.A. was once, for a brief span of time, misled in a manner contrary to its character and aims, today it is as it once was: the compact, living guarantor, full of willpower and strength, for the un-impeachability of national socialist ideology in Germany, and invincible fortification against communism.

THE S.A.: THE BARRIER AGAINST ALL ENEMIES OF ITS IDEALS!

That was, is, and shall always be its obligation! We have erected a barrier anchored in faith, sacrifice and in readiness to defend national socialist ideals.

We shall extend and raise this barrier to protect Germany against all enemies of the state, and thus comply with our high obligations, not only towards Germany but for the benefit of the entire world, against all destructive, all domineering communism.

And if it has to be, we shall cover this barrier with our bodies and harden it to granite with our blood! For we know that on this barrier stands Germany's first S.A. man: our Fuehrer, Adolf Hitler!

Prussian
Monday, November 22nd, 2004, 01:42 PM
.....another pamphlet with relation to the S.A.



Writings of the Hochschule for Politics

Edited by Paul Meier-Beneckenstein
II The organizational structure of the Third Reich
Number 21


"The German laborer of brain and fist, who marches in the SA, has long ago grown out of the bourgeoise notion of duty behind which stands 'I must' and has grown into the sublime feeling of the soldierly conception of duty which culminates in the absolute voluntariness of 'I want to'.

We SA men want to live as men, to fight as men, and to die as men with the consciousness that we have done our utmost for and devoted our utmost to Fuehrer and Folk."
/s/ VICTOR LUTZE



CONTENTS

I. History of the SA. The Path of the Struggle-The SA in the Third Reich.

II. Organization. The Branches of the SA-The Operational Staff of the Supreme SA Headquarters-The Operational Main Office-The Main Office for Education-The Main Office for Health-The Main Office for Personal Affairs-The Main Administrative Offce-The Main Office for NS Tournaments-The Adjutant's Office of the Chief of Staff-The Special Units of the SA-Engineer and Signal SA-The Mounted SA-The Naval SA-The SA Sanitation Men-The "Feldherrnhalle" Regiment-The Reichfuehrer School.

III. PROSPECTUS. The Law of Willingness to Volunteer.

THE SA

History, Work, Aim, and Organization of the Storm Troops of the Fuehrer and the Supreme SA Headquarters.
Compiled on order of the Supreme SA Headquarters.
By SA-Sturmfuehrer
Dr. Ernst Bayer
1938
Junker and Luennhaupt Publishing House, Berlin



I. HISTORY OF THE SA

The Path of the Struggle

Germany experienced in the year 1918 a revolution whose spiritual bearers were people to whom morals, honor, and love of the Fatherland were unknown conceptions, who ridiculed soldierly virtues and fighting behavior and laughed at the performance of the German Army. Their example and their propaganda found followers because the man of that time had not learned to think clear politically, because he was tossed here and there between political, economic, and religious directions and interests, and because he did not have the power, to decide for himself, out of a deep anchorage and belief, in a great ideological idea, and to hold himself firm against a breakdown. That which the Reich of the Kaiser had failed to do, which was the internal shaping of the human being into a knowing and convinced fighter for the nation, avenged itself in 1918 bitterly.

At this time of the complete breakdown of Germany, the Fuehrer with his Idea began the march among the people. And beside and with him marched men, embodiment of soldierly spirit, who perceived their highest mission in life to be in service for a new greater Germany, ready to enter upon and to sacrifice everything for the victory of National Socialism. They are the first political soldiers of the Fuehrer, the original cell of the SA.

Are we able today to write a history of the SA? Scarcely, for this history is still too much the present and we stand too close yet to the experiences of a great period in order to be able to measure and evaluate correctly the immense performance of the fighting period and of the upheaval in its forcible measures.

Numbers are distinctive of the picture of history. And, indeed, if we would give an historical presentation of the fight and the performance of the SA, we must not only name the dates of great events, which are apparent to all the world, but also we must go out into everyday affairs and experience there the path, spirit, and struggle of the SA as an historical performance of the unfolding power of a nation. Dates and numbers, however, win meaning and become valuable only if they come alive as the expression of a great deed, of an offered sacrifice or of an historical performance for the nation. And the SA has produced innumerable of such dates and figures which distinguish the path of the SA as the sacrificial way of the best of a nation. Along this path stand the eternal monuments of over 400 blood witnesses of the Movement, who gave their lives for the resurrection of Germany.

The SA was not founded as one forms just any sort of club. It was born in midst of strife and received from the Fuehrer himself the name "Storm Troops" after that memorable hall battle in the Hofbrauhaus at Munich on the 4th of November 1921. Forty-six National Socialist regulars stood against a thousand Marxists on this memorable day. The Fuehrer had spoken to his men before the meeting: "Today for the first time you will have to preserve the faith of the Movement come what may. Not one of us leaves the hall unless they bear us out as dead men. He who cowardly yields, from him I will personally tear off his arm band and take away his badge. Think about the fact that attack at the slightest attempt to make an explosion is the best defense."

In a bitter struggle 46 German men, who were determined to carry through to the end even at the sacrifice of their lives, beat out of the hall and put to flight a thousand Marxists. It was a baptism of fire and a test of the willingness to bear a burden which this young shocktroop of the Movement had masterfully undergone and which secured for the Party peaceful meetings up to 9 November 1925, for no Marxist dared to raise his fist again in National Socialist meetings. Outside, however, on the streets the dissembling strife continued in strengthened extent.

Blood and sacrifice were the most faithful companions of the young SA on its hard path to power. The Storm Troops were and still are today the fist and propaganda arm of the Movement. The SA was not only messenger, but also pattern for the Idea, the spiritual and physical armament of the Party and the assembly basin for the fanatical fighters of the National Socialist ideology. So the SA became the school for practical National Socialism for all German men; it has so remained up to the present day and it will be so forever in the future.

It is one of the greatest historical services of the SA that at the time when the German People's Army had to undergo a dissolution, it held high those virtues which marked the German soldier: personal courage, idealism, willingness to sacrifice, consciousness of responsibility, power to decide, and leadership. Thus, the SA became among the people the messenger and bearer of German armed strength and German armed spirit.

The 4th of November 1921 was not only the birth hour of the SA by itself, but was the day from which the young fighting troop of the Movement took its stand at the focal point of political events. With the clear recognition that now the unity of a troop led to victory, the SA was systematically reorganized and so-called "Centuries" were established. The year 1922 saw the SA variously in action. On the 16th of August the first marching columns demonstrated along with patriotic associations against the protective law of the Republic. The Marxists appeared but the SA struck destructively and by fighting gained for itself the liberty and right of the streets. The flow into the SA grew so, that in September 1922 eight Hundertschaften could be raised in Munich. These quickly grew further. On the 23rd of November the 11th Hundertschaft was formed, which was composed almost exclusively of students. The present deputy of the Fuehrer, Rudolf Hess, took over the leadership of this Century.

"We have to teach the Marxists that the master of the streets in the future is National Socialism, exactly as it will once be the master of the State"; thus, Adolf Hitler sketched the outlines of the task of the SA. And sooner perhaps than one supposed, the opportunity came to let deeds speak. The march in Coburg on the 14th and 15th of October 1922 became a beacon of the Germany which was awakening. It was to be a "German Day" set up by the citizens and it became a breakthrough battle for National Socialism. It became the day of the SA on which 800 SA men under the leadership of Adolf Hitler and Naval Lieutenant retired, Klintzsch, broke completely the Red Terror.

This mighty success and its linking danger for the system of government led to a step by the Berlin government which was often repeated in the following years: prohibition of the NSDAP for Prussia and other states. The more lively the activity became in Bavaria. For the first time, on 28 January 1923, the Reich Party Day of the NSDAP was held in Munich, where the four standards designed by Adolf Hitler himself were handed over to the SA as campaign symbols. And here, too, the 11th Hundertschaft appeared for the first time in uniform: grey cap, windbreaker, swastika band, and knotted stick.

The Ruhr invasion by the French caused the conversion of the SA, which up to then had been only a political fighting troop, into an armed association for the purpose of employing these battle-tested men in a desired active resistance against foreign domination. All pressed for a decision. And in the matter the Storm Troops of the Fuehrer did not want to be inactive. They joined themselves with other fighting Bavarian bands and formed the "Labor group of patriotic fighting associations" under the leadership of retired First Lieutenant Kriebel. In March 1923 the last commandant of the Reichthofen Squadron, Hermann Goering, took command of the entire SA. Activity and readiness is the password. Out at Forstenrieder Park and on the Froettmaninger heath near Munich the Labor group held great exercises, at which on May 1st an armed parade of the whole Bavarian SA and other fighting associations ensues on the Oberwiesen field. This day was supposed to bring the final reckoning with the Marxists. Only the employment of the Reichswehr and police prevented this intention.

The decision is pressing; the collapse of the Ruhr resistance and its consequences threaten the unity of the Reich and seem to bring about chaos. The 8th of November comes around. That evening, full of hope and certainty of success; the betrayal of that night, base and unbelievable. No one believes yet that men in the fateful and difficult hour have betrayed the struggle for Germany. On the morning of November 9th, Adolf Hitler casts his young Movement, his faithful and upright fighters, onto the scales of decision; the march to the Hall of the Field Generals through jubilant Munich. Betrayal causes this March of Triumph to become a Death March for the best of the nation.

The Fuehrer is in custody. The Head of the Movement is missing in the most difficult hours after the miscarriage of the revolution. Everything appears beaten and lost. But one thing is not: that spirit of the Storm Troops which has fought for the new Reich and which has become, under the concept "Spirit of the SA", the pattern for voluntary and ceaseless preparedness for sacrifice and initiative for German men. And it was victorious over betrayal.

The faithful collaborators and comrades of the fuehrer rescue what is to be rescued. The Illegal SA continues and waits for the return of the Fuehrer from the prison in Landsberg. He returns in 1925, and the men of the Storm Troops, with the same spirit of readiness for sacrifice and use, come to him and are strongest support to him at the Party re-founding, which occurs on February 27, 1925. In his basic directions for there-establishment of the National Socialist German Labor Party, Adolf Hitler ordered the refounding of the SA as a pure Party organization for meeting hall protection and propaganda, without having the character of an armed association.

And now a fight for Germany began of such a sort as was never before fought. What are names, what are words or figures which are not indeed able to express the magnitude of belief and of idealism on one side and the magnitude of hate on the other side.

1925: The Party lives again, and its iron spearhead is the SA. With it the power and meaning of the National Socialist movement grows. Around the central events of the whole Movement, the Reich Party Days, dates, decisions, fights, and victory roll themselves into a long list of German men of undenying willingness to sacrifice.

One cannot count up all of this at one time. However, we wish to present the sense and meaning as we tell what the SA was: the political strong arm, the visible representation of the idealism and daily initiative of the Party. Generally, it stopped the breaches. As an example of a seemingly impossible deed, the 11th of February 1927 should be firmly preserved. It is the day on which the SA broke the Red Terror, with heavy sacrifice, in the hall battle at the Pharoah's Hall in Berlin, the stronghold of the Communists, and thereby established itself decisively in the capital city of the Reich. In considering the badly wounded SA men, Dr. Goebbels coined the phrase "Unknown SA man", who silently fights and bleeds, obeying only his duty.

Possession of the streets is the key to power in the state-for this reason the SA marched and fought. The public would have never received knowledge from the agitative speeches of the little Reichstag faction and its propaganda or from the desires and aims of the Party, if the martial tread and battle song of the SA companies had not beat the measure for the truth of a relentless criticism of the state of affairs in the governmental system. They wanted the young Movement to keep silent. Nothing was to be read in the press about the labor of the National Socialists, not to mention the basic aims of its platform. They simply did not want to awake any interest in it. However, the martial tread of SA took care that even the drowsiest citizens had to see at least the existence of a fighting troop.

The SA conquered for itself a place in public opinion and the leadership of the National Socialist Movement dictated to its opponents the law for quarrels. The SA was already a state within a state; a part of the future in a sad present.

In this period there was only one thing: discretionless use of the person and genuine spirit of offensive. This became more essential from year to year for sudden attacks on individual National Socialists and whole columns piled up in frightful quantity. The death roster of the Movement grew. However, the greater the losses became, the more tightly the SA men closed themselves into a sworn fighting partnership. Its exemplary employment did not remain without effect. The best from the ranks of the Reds came to the "Nazis", because they were convinced by their deeds. When at the very end of 1926 the volunteer-corps fighters of the various Rossbach groups joined themselves to the SA, the SA received not only strengthening alone through that but also strong buoyancy.

With the end of 1926 there begins a new phase of development in the history of the SA. The Storm Troops until now had stood in loose connection with the political organization. A Reich branch or central command office was not yet in existence. Both were created with the ensuing founding of the Supreme SA Leadership Headquarters, on November 1st, 1926. With that a central control originated to which the SA, as well as the SS and the HJ, were subordinate. Adolf Hitler appointed the Gau leader and SA Fuehrer of the Gau of the Ruhr, Franz von Pfeffer as the highest SA Leader. In the course of the years 1926 and 1927 the SA was uniformly reorganized and divided into divisions [Gruppen], Gau areas [Gaustuerme], brigades , regiments [Standarten], battalions [Sturme], and platoons [Trupps] and at the same time a sharp separation from the political organization was achieved. That which had been established in practice became now the clear internal orientation for the SA: the Storm Troop men should be educated into political soldiers, politically dependable, spiritually motivated, physically steeled, disciplined and devoted to the Fuehrer in unconditioned fidelity and obedience. Thus the SA became the mightiest instrument in the hands of the Fuehrer.

1927: The first huge demonstration in Nurnberg of National Socialism which can no longer be dead silent. 30,000 SA men march a bloc of will and strength. The System becomes nervous. Up to then the Executive has looked on inactively for the most part. From then on it directed all measures against National Socialism and allowed thereby more and more liberty to Communism and Marxism. The word "Forbidden" was all too well known to SA men. The Berlin SA, which had been forbidden with the Party in May 1927, coined the password: In spite of prohibition, not dead. And this slogan, to the discomfort of the System, became an all too living reality when it issued like hail prohibitions of all shades and shapes in the following years. One of the old veterans coined the phrase once: the history of the SA and of the NSDAP generally has been a single, almost uninterrupted succession of prohibitions. Something was always prohibited. There was never a period in which the SA was granted nearly the same liberty in all Germany as was granted to the Reichbanner or certain patriotic associations.

Brown trousers and boots in themselves were dangerous for the State. The white shirt had to substitute for the brown shirt for a long time. Often the SA men came to meeting and parades with naked upper parts of the body and with bare feet, and many in their underwear, because along the way the pieces of clothes which were dangerous to the State were taken off of them. Chicanery after Chicanery. but all of this had to be borne. However, murder and terror governed this year of the strife. And always it was National Socialists who were stamped as the attackers.

Emergency orders and measures for the protection of the Republic aided the waves of prohibition. They promised themselves results from this because they believed they dealt with factionists and did not recognize that these National Socialists were bearers and heralds of an ideology. They themselves were conscious that they were the last levy of the German Folk. Thus the SA grew to be the troop which fought most strongly against the decaying Republic. It was spared no sacrifice but also no prohibition, no trickery, and no item could stem its march.

Almost 300 dead comrades marched with the ranks of the SA, foremost among them the songster of the Movement, Horst Wessel. His sacrificial death became a new beacon of the struggle for Germany. The labor and the struggle of the SA was not in vain. They stood at the foremost front of election fights. Adolf Hitler himself on the 2nd of September 1930 took over the leadership of the SA as the Supreme SA Fuehrer. He himself guided his SA in the fateful election fight of the year 1930. On the evening of the 14th of September the first battle was won. 107 representatives of the NSDAP took their seats in the German Reichstag. A huge victory was earned through the fight, but, the System took no reckoning of it.

1931: It was to be the year of decision. The Movement grew steadily; everywhere the election results were great. The burden which tested the SA was enormous, and only an iron discipline and internal union helped it to bear all the difficulties.

SA, SS and HJ were newly articulated. On April the 1st the National Socialist Automobile Corps as an auxiliary organization of the SA, which performed valuable service at election time, was founded. The 17th and 18th of October brought the SA meeting in Brunswick at which 104,000 SA and SS men passed in review before Adolf HItler. Here before these faithful fighters the Fuehrer raised before all the world claim to the total state leadership by National Socialism. The men returned to every day affairs with enormous enthusiasm and new courage which could not be dampened by the announcement on December 8 prohibiting the uniform in all regions of the Reich.

The fateful year 1932 brings a heavy blow to the Movement. On April 13 the SA and SS are prohibited within the entire regions of the Reich, even after the vote of unprecedented activity in the second election for Reich president on April 10, 1932, had been 13,400,000 for the National Socialists. They wanted to beat an organization by the most brutal means. The wearers of the brown shirt were treated like criminals. Everything attainable was confiscated. SA homes and SA kitchens which gave protection and meals to needy and jobless SA men were pitilessly closed. Nevertheless, with exemplary discipline the SA and SS carries on and does not allow themselves to be enticed into rashness. As simple party partners the SA men fulfill their duty now. Finally on June 14th the uniform and demonstration prohibition is raised. Communism and Marxism raise themselves and want to stop the victory parade with bloody force. Not less than 32 National Socialists among whom were SA and SS men and Hitler Youths, fall as sacrifices to the Red Terror in a short six weeks. The Bloody Sunday of Altona was a terrible indictment against the governmental system. Eighteen Folk comrades are killed and 50 badly hurt. Nevertheless, the SA remains disciplined and unshaken. It is not the least of its meritorius services that the Reichstag election of 31 July 1932 brings the NSDAP a huge victory and makes the Movement the strongest Party in the Reichstag. And in spite of all, the SA men are still unprotected game, having nothing for their protection but their own strength and the fidelity of their comrades. It is difficult to clothe in words what lies and slanders were poured out over the SA during this period; it is also difficult to tell with what incomparable discipline and devotion these men have fought. "Bullies and beaters" they were called by the satiated citizenry, and yet it was they who protected the security of the citizenry from Bolshevism. "There can be no thanks for anyone when considering this greatest success of our Movement, but there is only the duty of all of us to take up and continue the fight again with renewed and increased strength"-thus Adolf Hitler recalled to mind on the night of the victory of his Movement, and that was a command for the SA.

The time of the most difficult trials arrives. The SA knows it is for the ultimate. Victory, already within grasp, must be finally gained by fighting. Comrades fall but unswervingly the columns march. The Fuehrer told them: "Victory belongs to him who in this fight brings the last levy and the last battalion onto the battlefield." And the SA was prepared to enter its last battalion.

On the 22nd of January 1933 the decision, morally, comes. At the Bulowplatz before the Karl-Leibknecht House in Berlin, the Moscow Center in Germany, the Berlin SA parades. Before this collected strength of the Party the hirelings of Moscow crept cowardly into their lurking holes. Hour after hour the SA men passed in review before the bulwark of Communism and none of the Moscow disciples dared to raise a fist. It was a victory for the SA, the significance of which could only be measured later.

Then the day dawns which meant victory and fulfillment of the struggle of the SA: the 30th of January 1933. No command was given on this day, and yet ten thousands of SA men and National Socialists stood ready in the evening, in their old tattered brown shirts in which they had marched through murder and terror, to greet the Fuehrer, their Highest SA-Fuehrer, as Chancellor of the German Reich. In these SA men the young Germany marched through the Brandenburg Gate into a Reich which they had fought for at the foremost front and which to form and to carry today is the highest commandment of their lives.

[b]THE SA IN THE THIRD REICH

Just as there was no celebration of victory by Adolf Hitler and his fighting comrades after the seizure of power, so was there no moment of rest for the SA men. What was worth cleaning up, was cleaned up. Whether as auxiliary police or with special orders, whether as a propagandist or as helper, the SA man in general was there and labored silently as the shining example of the Idea in the structure of the new State. Even after victory the SA had heavy losses to lament. It was generally employed where elements of the government foreign to the people had not yet understood the signs of the time or where Communism and elements hostile to the State still insolently dared to rebel. and not the last the fight against disguised opponents was a difficult labor of the SA. But it is proud, then and now, to be the tool for strengthening the structure of the new State and of the Community of Folk.

For the first time, on April 8, 1933, the entire SA in the regions of the Reich and of Austria, stands drawn up at the same hour to avow their immutable fidelity and willingness to follow to the Fuehrer, who addressed his men over the radio from the Berlin Sports Palace. The young Steel Helmets and the Steel helmets during the year 1933 placed themselves under the SA and became members of it. The SA during the year experiences several changes which finally result in the present form of the organization as will be described in the following chapter.

With the consolidation of inner political perceptions within Germany the type of strife of the SA changed. Just as the SA man during the fighting period was not a companion along the way to great decisions, but was the one who prepared the way, so the SA retained in the Third Reich its original task, namely: to be the Shock Troops for Ideology and as the practical school of National Socialism. The SA trained no specialists in any form for its area of labor was among the entire German Folk. To carry to the Folk, through things previously experienced and by acts, the revolutionary spirit of the fighting period, the initiative and willingness to sacrifice and to keep awake among them those virtues which are the fundamentals for the preparedness of National Socialists, is one of the huge tasks of the SA. "All that you are, you are through me; and all that I am, I am through you alone". These words of the Fuehrer, spoken to his SA on the 30th of January 1936, are a recognition as well as an obligation. It is a short formula of the platform of the SA: Germany.

The deeds and achievements of the SA are not carried upon huge rosters but are every day undertakings which will continue to live in the hearts of the people. And that is more valuable than the written word.

Several things out of the manifold labor sphere of the SA should be named in collective concepts: use at times of catastrophe, prevention of damage, thanksgiving of the Nation, cultural work, colonization, educational encampments, officer training schools, scholarships and many more. Over all of this is the eternal charge: shaping of human beings. The guiding motif of this labor to educate the German people in this powerful entity: strong soul, sound spirit, steel-like body.

National Socialism has never demanded a new state form but has always demanded the reformation of the individual German into a fighter who has intelligence, who has conviction, who is politically dependable, who is spiritually motivated, and physically hardened. Thus it was only the consistent continuation of a labor already begun to win the individual German when the Fuehrer handed over to the SA the execution of protective and aggressive training and education of the individual German. SA sports and SA sports badges, the latter established by the Fuehrer himself on the 15th of February, 1933, "in order to lend a conscious expression in all sections of the German people to the cultivation of a warlike spirit", are essentially the new shape of the physical and spiritual training of the individual German within the meaning of the National Socialist Ideology. Therewith, the SA was commissioned to obtain an increase of and preservation of a warlike power and a warlike spirit as the expression of an aggressive attitude. The creation of the NS Contest Games on November 27, 1936, as a yearly spectacle of accomplishments of physical prowess and of a warlike spirit, and the order of March 18, 1937, that possession of the SA sports badge is made dependent upon yearly repetitive performance of the tests in order to maintain the warlike fitness of its bearers up to old age, are milestones along the way to attainment of the great goal of the SA.

The SA is aware of the magnitude of its task. But it is able to master the tasks given by the Fuehrer only because it emanates from the Folk and is a part of the Folk.

II. ORGANIZATION

The Branches of the SA

The Fuehrer himself has designated the SA as the guarantor of the National Socialist Movement and the National Socialist Revolution. The SA is the political soldiery. In this concept "political soldiery", which was coined and found its animated shape during the fighting period, are contained all these tasks of the SA whose affairs represent still today the educational work of the Storm Troops. Tasks of this proportion are only completed by voluntary performance of service; however, they require, too, an organization which branches out widely and yet guarantees as much as possible, by a concentration of individual supervisory offices and their work sphere, a central, clear and united management.

The Supreme SA Fuehrer is Adolf Hitler, who gives his oldest fighting formation its tasks, determines its direction of work, and commands its uses. By order of the Fuehrer the Chief of Staff represents the SA in its totality. A high measure of recognition and trust of the Fuehrer lies in this charge, for to the Chief of Staff of the SA is entrusted, for ideological and physical education and for further development, the best and most valuable young strength of the German people.

The Supreme SA Headquarters in Munich and the Office of the Adjutant in Berlin are both bureaus of the Chief of Staff; the SA Fuehrers who head these are directly responsible to the Chief of Staff for their work.

The Supreme SA Headquarters is subdivided into the operational staff, main offices, offices, and divisions. The Stabsfuehrer of the Supreme SA headquarters determines its employment as representative of the Chief of Staff.

The Storm Troops of the Fuehrer himself, which exist in all the regions of the Reich and in the free city of Danzig, are divided according to political and territorial considerations.

The entire SA is composed of 24 groups which are subordinate to the Chief of Staff. These are: SA Group Alpenland, Bavarian Eastern March, Berlin-Brandenburg, Danube, Franken, Hanseatic, Hessian, Hochland, Kurpfalz, Middle, Lower Rhine, Lower Saxony, North March, North Sea, Eastland, Eastern March, Pomerania, Saxony, Silesia, Southern March, Southwest, Thuringia, Westfalia, and Western March.

The next subordinate branch is the SA Brigade, which is composed of several regiments. A regiment consists of three to five battalions, which is formed from three to five companies. The SA Company is organized generally into three platoons, each of which is further subdivided into three squads.

The multilateral demands which are made of the SA formations require, above all, in the use of the SA for preparations, parades, catastrophes, accidents and all other acts of assistance, the incorporation of special or technical units. Therefore, the following special branches were established: signal, engineer, mounted, naval, bicycle, and sanitary units. Local considerations and geographical situations determine their incorporation into companies and battalions and govern the consideration of subordinate positions.

THE OPERATIONAL STAFF OF THE SUPREME SA HEADQUARTERS

The Stabsfuehrer is the permanent deputy of the Chief of Staff. As such he is the highest authority for the collective main offices of the Supreme SA Headquarters and of the SA groups. All decisions of a basic nature for the SA, as long as they are not reserved for the Chief of Staff himself, are made by the Stabsfuehrer. Immediately subordinate to him are the liaison office of the Supreme SA Headquarters, the central division, the staff for military affairs, the press and propaganda division, the legal division, and the architectural division. The liaison office keeps in continuous touch with all important bureaus of the Party and State in order to handle all the questions which are of importance to the SA.

The treatment of occurrences of a fundamental sort, which require rapid settlement and touch on the spheres of the various main offices so that the closest cooperation with these main offices becomes a matter of course, is the function of the central division with its two main departments. The Staff commandant's office bears the responsibility for the total, internal operational service of the Supreme SA Headquarters.

The entire press and propaganda preparations or exploitations of all important events within the SA emanate from the press and propaganda division to which is also joined publication of the fighting sheet of the Supreme SA headquarters, the SA-Man. Following the directions given by this division, the group press departments, whose function is the trusteeship of the local press, work through the individual SA groups. The activity is above all of an informative nature; for the SA lays no value on the quantitative nature of the things written about it, but is only concerned with the fact that the German editor may be trusted with the character and task of the SA.

The legal division is still in process of being formed. On the other hand the architectural division, which likewise was newly formed, is working on plans and projects for new building designs in which the creative genius of the SA will be expressed.

THE OPERATIONAL MAIN OFFICE

The chief of the operational main office is responsible for the entire organization and branches of the SA, for the education and suitable equipment of units, and, not last, for the employment of the SA.

The operational main office is subdivided into the office for organization and employment and the office for physical fitness. The latter, on the basis of the SA sports badges must prepare the fighting training of the bodies of all Germans capable of bearing arms and as preparation therefor must organize the execution of corporal exercises (basic physical training) and sports performances, so that the widest stratum of the population is laid hold upon and will be kept in condition to bear arms, both physically and spiritual, as well as ideologically in character up to the greatest old age.

The tasks of the organization and employment office are given in its title. Besides this it is entrusted with the special units of the SA: signal, engineer, naval, and mounted units; it treats with the air and gas protection of the SA; it carries on the education of the SA in the sphere of catastrophe protection and prevention of damage; and as well as keeping liaison with all Party and public offices which come into consideration for these questions.

In addition there arises the treatment of details of clothing and equipping the SA and the regulations for office plans for SA offices as well as the perfection of suggestions for investing certain SA units with standards and names of heroic champions of the Movement.

THE MAIN OFFICE FOR EDUCATION

The office of education is responsible for the entire education and orientation of the SA Officers' Corps. Upon this office devolves one of the tasks of greatest significance for the people, the Reichsfuehrer School, which consists of the Reichsfuehrer School in Munich and the Officers' School of the Supreme SA Headquarters in Dresden. The curricula and community of work at these officers' schools, as well as at the 21 group schools and special schools, serves the purpose of creating an SA officers' corps which bears the highest responsibility and great capability.

The comparatively young officers' school of the Supreme SA headquarters in Dresden, above all, serves for the education of the intermediate SA officers' corps which has earned its qualification to attend at one of the group schools. In this school the training for those who want to try out for the SA sports badge stands in the foreground. The spiritual and physical training on the fundamentals of the National Socialist's ideology pursues the purpose of making the SA Fuehrer into a real educator of his troop. The threefold harmony: Soul, Spirit, and Body, which sets in unison for the common group capability, knowledge, and accomplishment, is an essential prerequisite here. Military sport, as an SA expression of sports activity, is just as much a means to accomplish our purpose as is instruction about the history of the Party and the Folk, about racial teaching, or training as speakers. The directions for this training hold good for the group schools, too, which are subordinate to the same office. The work is performed in close understanding with the leader of the group in whose territory the school lies, because he himself possesses the best possibility of choosing his future officers. This division, which is immediately subordinate to the main office, maintains liaison with the offices of Party and State, for which the experience won in the educational labor of the SA are significant. Thereby it is achieved that the educational labor of the SA stands in full and complete unison with the labor of the Party and all its branches.

The third office, ideology and culture, counts as its assigned sphere cultural forms of service, the cultivation of SA and Folk songs, and music. Directly and strictly avoided is publication of any sort of service plan for festive formations, for form is not the deciding factor, but the spirit with which that form is accomplished.

The division for scientific exploitation, finally, contains a voluminous library. It has the task of giving to every SA Fuehrer who desires to train himself further, information about the most important literature at hand on the subject.

THE MAIN OFFICE FOR HEALTH

The main health office is responsible for all questions of health and sanitary service of the SA. Since health forms the basis and prerequisite for physical fitness, the main health office inserts itself quite particularly into this branch of the SA service. Not only care of and looking after the sick and injured belong to the accomplishments of health service but, above all, preventive health care.

In the fighting period only the sanitation service existed. It is being organized and changed in some particulars at present. Ten thousand sanitation officers are trained and perfected in the best manner to be able to perform first aid at any time. The Reich Sanitation School of the SA in Tuebingen represents the ground floor for entire training activity in the essentials of sanitation. In all regiments in the whole Reich there are sanitation units ready for immediate employment in catastrophe and great accidents. The sanitation man accompanies his comrades everywhere in the SA service, whether it be employment in preparations, construction of barriers, parades, marches with full pack, or in the fields of sports contest.

Training, equipment, and organization of the sanitation service are gathered together in one office, the main office for health. Next to it is a second office with the task of health operations and fostering of race. The men of the SA have recognized the value of the health of a Folk, and bear the conviction that only a sound Folk can be an eternal Folk. With this conviction they fight for accomplishment of the directions and orders which emanate from the main office for Folk health and from the Reich Surgeon. In the foremost Place are the sanitation men of the SA who use themselves for that great goal: Purity of blood and Purity of Race.

THE MAIN OFFICE FOR PERSONAL AFFAIRS

The trusteeship of the SA Officers' corps, just as the care for future SA officers, is a problem not only for the members themselves but, far and above, is also of the greatest significance for the Party and for the entire Nation.

The personal affairs main office, which is divided into three offices: personnel, social welfare courts and justice office, works in permanent, animated touch with the SA front, where the capabilities and suitabilities of the SA officers show themselves in daily employment. A continuous exchange between this front of staff work and application to educational spheres marks the future path of the SA officers. His evaluation results from consideration of the suitability of the character of his ability and knowledge, and, above all, of his service to the Movement. The oldest veterans and champions of the SA also receive leading positions within the branches in so far as they prove their capability to do the job.

If there exists in one way a reward for the old tested fighters in the assignment to fulfill a great obligation and a more responsible mission, then the office for social welfare takes care that those SA comrades who were wounded in the fight for the new Germany or who find themselves in need, are looked out for. If it was imperative in the first years after the seizure of power to provide a job generally for these men, then, the problem of retraining stepped into the foreground. In the camps of Lockstedt and Falkenstein the SA gives unskilled manpower the possibility of earning, in about 40 weeks, the journeyman's certificate, and, thereby, the prerequisites for an appointment as a skilled laborer in industry, or, in fact, in any of those places which suffer because of lack of such laborers. In addition to that men are retrained for mercantile professions and for work in administrative offices.

The same is true for the choice of settlers for those home sites which arise everywhere in the Reich by way of thanks offerings. Also here are old veterans who find a new home in the thanks-offering settlements alongside of the war victims.

To this office come officially the personal welfare matters of the men and their families. Comrades who have suffered injury at sports or in the service receive a cure or recuperation stay in the SA homes at Wyk in foehr, Hohenlychen, or Trillup bie Hamburg. The needy are permitted support, and, in fact, in an understanding with the Reich treasurer, the means of the Adolf Hitler Thanks and the Adolf Hitler Foundation are placed at this office's disposal. Above all, however, this office interests itself in those who were injured in the fighting period by political adversaries, so that a permanent personal touch gives to these men the certainty that one will never forget their sacrifice.

As Third within the main personal affairs office the courts and justice office is mentioned. One task of this office lies in the fostering of honor and of clean behavior of the SA and the SA officer's Corps. For the clean behavior of the leadership two chambers of discipline serve. The personal rights of SA men are taken care of in a particular division.

Incumbent upon the justice division, composed of professional lawyers, is legal counsel to the main offices of the Supreme SA Headquarters and groups, cooperation with the remaining justice offices of the Movement, and, thirdly, official traffic with the Chancellory of the Fuehrer and treatment of pardon petitions of criminally convicted SA men as well as former SA members. This proceeds from the viewpoint that the SA man, it is true, on the one side has an enhanced duty to the Community of the Folk; on the other side, however, there comes into discussion manifold economics and mental after-effects of the period of the wrestling for power in the case of old tested veterans of the SA in which their significance can be fully adjudicated only by the SA.

THE MAIN ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE

The administration of the SA, in its present standard organization and proper economic operations, represents the tool which the Chief of Staff uses for the solution of great tasks given to him by the Fuehrer. Clarity is the distinguishing feature of SA administration in all its many spheres.

The matters pertaining to the property right of the NSDAP and, therefore, of concern to the SA, are placed under the Reich treasurer as Plenipotentiary of the Fuehrer. The deputy of the Reich treasurer for the entire SA administration is the Reich cashier administrator of the SA, who, without prejudice to his responsibility to the Reich treasurer, is at the same time in his quality as Chief of the main administrative office, the specialist of the Chief of Staff for all matters which touch upon the administration of the entire SA.

The large sphere of the tasks of the main administrative office is divided into three offices: a. money economy, budget bookkeeping, control of finances, and economics; b. things of value, procurement, insurance and contracts; c. construction and settlement office.

The salary of SA officers and men who are on the staffs which are essential to the main offices is regulated uniformly on the basis of an office plan. It is composed of base pay, quarters allowance, and increase for marriage and children. Considering it from the political standpoint of population, the increase for children in this ideal echelon of society was settled upon.

Great frugality which is pointed to particularly at every opportunity, is understood as a matter of course in the SA. A splendidly working accounting and control system makes possible an exact review of the economic operation of all units and makes easier the immediate remedy of a shortage of any kind. The examination reports, which are requested by the Deputy of the Reich treasurer of the units are treated and made use of in one special division of the Main Administrative Office.

The great property values of the SA, which is a consistent part of the total fortune of the NSDAP, is laid hold upon according to number and value and carefully administered. Many millions flow into economy through the settlement work called into being by the Supreme SA Headquarters with the aid of the thanks-offering of the Nation. The settlement work should offer to many thousands of needy people and to families, sound in heredity and rich in children, their own homes. Aside from settlements on the edge of town the construction and settlement office in the neighborhood of Aurich erected farm settlements with 60 to 80 acres of land, which, above all, are managed by former farm laborers. Here, too, they put cattle and even crops at their disposal gratuitously.

The many sided tasks of SA Administration are united closely with those of the headquarters. Parades and other arrangements, training, equipping, procurement, etc., cannot be accomplished without standard cooperation of the administration.

THE MAIN OFFICE FOR NS-TOURNAMENTS

On the 27th of November 1936 the Fuehrer decreed the following order: In pursuance of my proclamation at the Reich Party Day of Honor I hereby create for future Reich Party Days the NS-Tournament. The SA is charged with the preparation and execution of this tournament. I decree that the determinations necessary for execution be left up to the suggestions of the Chief of Staff of the SA. The Reich Sports Fuehrer is directed to cooperate with the sports department of the Supreme SA Headquarters. The Chief of Staff will keep me continually informed about the measures planned.

In order to solve organizationally the tasks sketched in this order of the Fuehrer, the main tournament office was created in February 1937. As the chief of this main tournament office, the Chief of Staff appointed the Reich Sports fuehrer von Tschammer und Osten. By this appointment the guarantee is given that, in comradely cooperation with the Reichsbund for physical training, the tasks set by the Fuehrer in respect to the military fitness of the entire nation and the formation of a Folk will be solved by physical training.

Therewith, SA Obergruppenfuehrer von Tschammer und Osten holds in his hand responsibility for the organization and accomplishment of the NS Tournaments, which are to be held each year in Nurnberg during the Reich Party Day as an exhibition of the achievement of the whole German people.

Incumbent upon the office simultaneously is direction of the NS Winter Tournaments and Reich Contests of the SA which also experience continuous enlargement.

The main office for the NS Tournaments is divided into three offices: organization, military sports, and sports which from their titles alone indicate the limits of their spheres of work.

THE ADJUTANT'S OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF

In the Adjutant's Office of the Chief of Staff are treated all questions which are proposed directly to the Chief of Staff by the offices of the Party and of the State, as well as by others. Next to the very voluminous labor of dealing with those questions and lectures of the Chief of Staff on important matters, the Adjutant's Office, as the personal office of the Chief of Staff, has to take care of the preparation for and smooth execution of travel of the Chief of Staff. Continuously the Chief of Staff visits the individual Groups, using in the first place airplane, then rail transportation and automobile. All of the troublesome details, which these official trips demand, require thorough discharge so that appointments shall be kept and the entire program developed as foreseen. As a matter of course many SA Fuehrers, spending a while in the Reich Capital, come in person to the Adjutant's Office whose task it is to do their duties in the personal service of the Chief of Staff endeavor, in order to facilitate for him his difficult and responsible task, take care of at least the pressing questions or help their fellows with professional advice. Next to that this office has value in that it fixes appointments for various official conferences of the Chief of Staff with leading men of the Party and State and in that it divides up the daily program according to current demands, so that all work can be executed smoothly. It is not easy work which the men in the Adjutant's Office have to perform; only the consciousness of helping their fellows in the broad Front everywhere in the Reich and of supporting their fight gives to their work a valuable substance.

SPECIAL UNITS OF THE SA

Engineers and Signal SA

In the same measure that the little Shocktroop of the National Socialist Idea grew up into an organization in whose hands the Fuehrer has laid the whole physical and ideological education of our people, so in the same measure the sphere of the tasks of the brown Army of Adolf Hitler grew and received a multiformity which made necessary the special training of units which were capable of continuous employment and highest performance within their special areas.

First it was engineer companies, then further, it was signal companies. Since the time they were established, both units, when put to the test have proved that the men with "Pi" and "Na" on the lapels of their service uniform are found where German humanity needs their help. If storms whip the waves of the seas, and masses of water threaten the coasts of the Reich; if downpours and melting snows swell the mountain streams so that fields, plains, and farms are in danger; if fire is on the point of destroying the property of German people; or if anywhere a natural catastrophe happens, one finds, in all the Gaus of the Reich and at all times, the engineers and signal men among the first helpers who strike with cheer and with readiness to sacrifice. Very few have a suspicion of what takes place in the hour of bitterest wrestle with the might of Nature, but they scarcely think about the fact that these very same men, who perhaps gave their utmost during the entire night, are a few hours later going about their callings; and only the least number have a clear understanding of what basic and careful training and what untiring practice was necessary in order to achieve a complete success in time of serious accident. And in these practices we see how a bridge is made at the turn of a hand, how blasting is executed, and can alongside the performances of the engineers, who work hand in hand with the signal units, see with amazement how the latter lay their field cables, set up their telephones, let the blinker apparatus speak, and relay reports by bicycle riders, messenger dogs or carrier pigeons, in short, how they establish connection between the front and the staffs and thereby secure smooth co-operation. The status of training of the men of the signal units is kept under constant control by the signal certificate. This certificate is proof for its holder that his status of training is complete and excellent. It must be won by examinations for three consecutive years before it is finally the possession of the signal man.

Thus there originates in these technical units of the SA a trained crew whose capabilities and knowledge are not the last things of extraordinary value in the service for defense of the country. On one side the young SA man, who enters the Army from his branch, comes prepared with a multitude of prerequisites which facilitate and speed up his training in technical respects; while on the other side those very soldiers, having served, who return out of the Army into the SA, keep themselves, by constant practice, in a trained condition physically and spiritually and impart their knowledge to their fellows.

Thus they contribute a considerable portion to the enhancement of military strength and military spirit of the German people. As everywhere, the soldier of the Army finds here, too, his closest confederates in political soldiers.

The Mounted SA

If today in Germany the sport of riding is not as it was in past decades, the prerogative and affair of a propertied class, but a thing for all of those who from enthusiasm and love of horses profess to ride, then it is just something else for which to thank the SA which has interested itself in the sport of riding as a means of fitting the people physically. The Fuehrer himself by his order about the establishment of the NS cavalry Corps on March 17, 1936, created the basis upon which first the SA Cavalry itself and then the German youth and above all the compulsory military duty classes could be led to the sport of riding. This order soon created the necessary organizational prerequisites, so that at present the SA each year is able to furnish many thousands of young trained cavalrymen to our Wehrmacht. All those who are 18 to 20 years of age must join the NSKK and even those in younger and older year groups, may join it, who come up for cavalry and motor training and want to earn a cavalry certificate before their period of service in order to be able to serve with a mounted or motorized troop.

The organization of the NSKK has its apex in the Reich Inspectorate for mounted and mobile units who is directly subordinate to the Chief of Staff and who at the same time presides over the recently created main office for mounted and mobile training within the Supreme SA headquarters. In this way a conceivably close liaison has been established between both organizations, and in it at the same time lies the foundation for fruitful exchange between the SA cavalry and the NSKK. In each S.A. group was created the office of Group Cavalry Fuehrer, who is responsible to the Reich Inspectorate as his deputy for training and organization. At present the S.A. cavalry has at its disposition 101 cavalry regiments in whose schools, year in and year out, young Germans who are obligated for service receive the training which fits them for entrance into a section of troops which is of their own choosing.

The NSKK has discovered, by creation of the cavalry certificate, a means of fostering and requiring cavalry fitness. The cavalry certificate is granted only after careful testing and fulfilling essential conditions successfully; it requires an all-embracing quantity of riding ability. Thus the cavalry certificate is a way to select and require real talent. The NSKK is still young, but two years of serious labor have already proven the correctness of its objective.

The Naval SA

The men of the Water's edge, the navigators and fishermen, for the most part do their duty in the naval SA, since they are concerned in their daily professions with all sorts of things having to do with navigation and water. Nevertheless, there are not only naval S.A. regiments along the ocean but also in the interior. If there is no big shop at their disposal for training, a ship built on land often suffices for the accomplishment of the careful training of the men about masts, shrouds, and deck structure. The service of the naval S.A. operates as preparation and development for the Navy. Semaphore, radio, Morse Code, and flags as signal service, navigation, cutter operation, astronomy, professional use of sailing craft, rescue service-to mention only a few spheres of its tasks-complete its curriculum.

For the seafaring S.A. men however, who pass the greater portion of their lives on the seas of the world, there is, in the first place, ideological use as a border troop who make their appearance in foreign countries at celebrations, parades, and similar events. The naval S.A. furnishes yearly to the German merchant marine and navy splendidly prepared material and is, therefore, practically and theoretically, a valuable support of German seafaring and German navigating.

The SA Sanitation Men

The "Sani" men, the sanitation men of the S.A., were already at hand in the fighting period if it was necessary to bring help to injured comrades. Endless numbers thanked the S.A. for these S.A. sanitation men of the fighting period. And from these simple men came physicians for body and soul, who continuously struck the correct note and whom one knew could be depended upon in every situation of life. If security and peace rule internally at present, the S.A. sanitation men have not indeed become superfluous. The Service in the S.A. which is continually prepared for use, brings with it physical danger, and many injuries can be avoided or lessened by speedy aid. Be it hot weather or frost, mischance or sudden sickness, the "Sani-men" are at their post. Highest demands, however, are placed on them if, at time of catastrophe medical assistance is not sufficient and the life of many depends upon the success of appropriate initial treatment. Then the S.A. sanitation men fall to the task and give their utmost. Unnamed and unknown they do their duty in the spirit and tradition demanded by the organization to which they belong.

The "Feldherrnhalle" Regiment

Under the symbol, which for us National Socialists is the embodiment of supreme preparedness to sacrifice, the sacrificial runic symbol, the S.A. has created a troop which is set up to symbolize the political soldiery of our time: The Feldherrnhalle Regiment. The fact that the Supreme S.A. Fuehrer, Adolf Hitler, has appointed his tested comrade, S.A. Obergruppenfuehrer Hermann Goering, as its chief, proves the high calling which falls to the lot of this regiment today and tomorrow. As the elite troop of the S.A. it seeks to be the shining example in service and in obedience.

The measures are very strict which have been laid upon this young body of men who have assigned their lives to this regiment. Yearly young men from all callings and skills of the people thrust themselves into this original body. Differences of heredity or property are unknown. Here it is only the man, his performance and his obligation to obey as an ever ready S.A. man the commands of his leader, which has worth.

Every possibility stands open to him who proves himself true in this regiment. He who has performed his year of service may decide to remain or return to his calling. Likewise it is possible to work his way up into the main offices of the S.A. headquarters or to enter the administrative service; the decisive factors for that, frankly, are the capabilities of the candidate and the possibilities for their use in the political life of the people.

In Six great camps, which lie scattered in the whole Reich, a valuable work of education is consummated for many hundreds of apt persons. The political value of this work cannot be grasped by bare numbers and dry statistics. These are not decisive factors; it seems to us to be much more essential and for the justification of this information of political soldiery, that out of the training of the Feldherrnhalle Regiment, National Socialists go forth who shall do their part to assure the continuation of that work begun by Adolf Hitler. For this reason there belongs in the Feldherrnhalle regiment the concepts of discipline, voluntary subordination, and leading a soldierly life as first prerequisites and basic conditions for the acceptance of future members.

Out of the apparent forms of political life developed by the present emulating in their behavior the proven example of the old S.A., the Feldlherrnhalle regiment professes itself to the concept of a soldierly life. It unites in its ranks young, consciously political individuals who voluntarily wish to live their lives in hardiness and soldierly strictness.

The Reichsfuehrer School

Selection of officers and planned education of officers was the innovation drawn into the circle of political work of the Party after the seizure of power. An effective instrument for such officer training is the Reichsfuehrer School in Munich created in 1931 by the Fuehrer. Many thousands of S.A. officers are oriented here in accordance with the perceptions of the fighting period in their new form and have been trained and then, supplied with knowledge and ideological learning, have gone out into their units where they impart to those whom they have to lead, the Front of the political struggle of the present and their experiences and recently gained insights.

The work of the Reichsfuehrer School today is set aside to bring the synthesis of body and mind very near to the ideal form. All technical means are employed to do that. In a nine months course of study the future S.A. officers are introduced into all spheres of political life. The Reichsfuehrer School desires to stimulate self-created labor, to teach meditation, and to shape the young S.A. officer into a consciously strong charactered, political personality. Body, mind, soul-one cannot be thought of without the other. A hardy physical training, strict measures about health and racial values and continued supervision of the life being led are valuable, but are also indispensable expedients for strict and serious work.

A second task has been given to the Reichsfuehrer School with the comprehensive two weeks labor conference which takes place yearly in the time after the Reich Party Day, and is for the older unit officers from regimental commanders up to, and including, staff divisions. At these labor conferences the political balance sheet of the year is reckoned. Consequently, the Reichsfuehrer School has an outstanding part in the political training work of the Party. The success of the education of future officers will perhaps become apparent only in later decades, but even today the goal stands out in a clearly recognizable fashion: the individual German trained in National Socialism, hardened in mind and strength, and firm in character.

The Reichsfuehrer School of the S.A. in Dresden is guided according to similar directions. For special training of particular units there is at the disposal of the S.A. the Reich Sanitation School in Tuebingen and the Reich Cavalry School in Zehlendorf.

III. PROSPECTUS

The Law of Willingness to Volunteer.

In the beginning of the fight there was the Party and the S.A. The goal, tasks and changing requirements of the fight have led to the establishment of the branches of the Party out of the great collecting basin of the S.A. The strong impulses which emanated from the S.A. have been carried over into the labor of all branches of the Party. All branches fulfill their work at present according to their own laws and responsibilities. Most of their officers, however, and many of the men have marched in the ranks of the Storm Troops, and, thus at present there lives and works in these branches the further quality which we call the S.A. spirit.

"The fight continues" -that was from the start the password of the S.A. and will continue to be for all time. Never has the S.A. man fought just to be fighting, and never to be destructive, but he has fought only to be constructive. And only for that reason can the Fuehrer extend tasks to the S.A. in the new State, which have a decisive significance.

Our comrades in the past years in Austria have demonstrated with what spirit the S.A. is blessed. They were unshaken in avowal to the Fuehrer, in belief in the strength of blood, and in fidelity to their native place. They have fixed for themselves a monument to the S.A. spirit which will always renew itself. Their sacrifice was a cornerstone of liberty. They were proud to be permitted to suffer for Germany. Fate has let these men and their families go along a path whose milestones were need, hate, suffering, terror, and pursuit. Many have sacrificed their lives, and for many, who sat behind dungeon and prison walls, the hope of liberty had sunk away to nothing, and, yet not one word of bitterness came past their lips. He who fought thus is worthy of being called a German and an S.A. man.

A few months ago the S.A. men of Austria still stood in the midst of bloody fighting, and yet now they work in peaceful construction. Thus the S.A. in German Austria became the peace army of the people in the National Socialist State. The S.A. was only able to master this task because the goal always remained the same and they marched along all paths which the Fuehrer commanded, and because the voluntary will to serve is the supreme law of National Socialism.

Today the S.A. stands before the great task of being guardian and fashioner of the armed desire and armed strength of the German people. Its devotion, its preparedness to sacrifice, its belief in the idea, and its soldierly, combatant attitude will create and preserve in the German people that physical fitness and armed preparedness which the Fuehrer and the Reich need and without which a people cannot live.

Great achievements are only produced with unheard of personal application based upon voluntary will. And this law of voluntary service is the key to preparedness and successful labor of the S.A. Not spectator, but active participant is the password of the S.A. in all things it takes hold of.

The Storm Troops have made their way through most difficult trials. They have withstood them because this nucleus troop bears in it unshakeably the spirit of unconditional fidelity and unconditional obedience to the Fuehrer. The S.A. Exists today stronger and firmer now and forever. It knows that the Fuehrer will also assign to it in the future new work spheres. The Storm Troops are ready to fulfill the commands of the Fuehrer and his charges with complete application because they desire in all things to be nothing other than the bearers of the Idea, the strong arm of the Movement, the secure support of the people and the German people's infantry, prepared to sacrifice and happy to attack.

ogenoct
Thursday, June 30th, 2005, 10:44 AM
IN MEMORIAM ERNST ROEHM

by Constantin von Hoffmeister


RIP June 30, 1934

rune guild SA

birds fly
lions roar
flags flutter
high
the might of no capitulation
tradition toils
therapeutic terror
true drums tone down
a reflection of wide eyes
then the sea of arms
goes up repeating chants
married in the factory
grease the soil
steel no leaves
men on boys
the games wet grab all
but disciplined mornings shine
dry
dry
st. bartholomew's night was dry
ernst with his aryan skull
later shattered
whilst before battled
being driven
---
the pack
left the fields
left the house
artists after the war
before the war
second revolution
cut into positions of the people
stormtroopers' book
SA songs
threw out
profiteers beaten
and chairs follow out
an iconic figure
the culture of the cult
brown uprising
the brown surge
the brown wave
disarming the grey and on
weapons to tools
tools to weapons
faith?
faith went under
that night shot
last words heil hitler

Konstas
Thursday, June 30th, 2005, 11:53 AM
Nice poem!:thumbup
For a great hero!:) :thumbup
No one makes bigger struggle than him and Hitler, the first years of NSDAP, until the time that they became goverment, but some coward "men", started to fool him about his... virility and the same time, their courage was the courage of a young girl.....
And they started to speak public about him only after his death...
In this era of globalism and american imperialism he is a brilliant pattern of virtue for us.
His memorial is immortal!!!

Berserkin_Dwarf
Thursday, July 21st, 2005, 04:20 AM
I will problaby meet with a lot of oppostion with this statment but I truly believe that the reich would have been more successful had the Great Ernst Roehm not been killed. Too long has the effeminate image of homosexuality overshadowed a bond between soldiers. Spartans, the most fierce of ancient Warriors share their beds with their comrades and their wives. I am not gay and a staunch catholic but a soldier should not be judged by who he loves but his deeds in his duty.


:gsoldier

Japetos
Friday, July 22nd, 2005, 09:58 AM
The homosexual relations is for solidarity among the soldiers.But,there is a difference.This kind of homosexuality ( butch homosexuals ) usually turn against the fem gay image of the System.
I don't think that Roehm would be for a ridiculous gay parade,if he was alive today.

Drake
Friday, July 22nd, 2005, 12:36 PM
Roehm's saber scar was tough, but he was a homo. Are those two facts (we can consider the normative statement positive) irreconcilable? In my opinion, yes. The Spartan instance was an anomaly, as Sparta was in general. Homosexuality, whether it is biological or not, is a defect. It precludes the continuation of the species, i.e. it could not be considered a "strong," "healthy," "virile" trait but a degenerative and disease-like trait, such as Alzheimer's or alcoholism, all three of which (including homosexuality) ultimately result in death (or symbolic death, as in the species).


I don't understand what the purpose is of trying to infuse a homosexual character into the Third Reich, as is attempted in "The Pink Swastika." They're saying that the persecution of homosexuals is wrong and that gays shouldn't be discriminated against. Then they go to extreme and absurd lengths to try to prove that people are gay. Does this seem a bit contradictory to anyone? No sane person has even the slightest doubt that Hitler was heterosexual. There is no evidence that high-ranking members of the SA were threatening to divulge the "secret of Hitler's homosexuality." The fact is they were bolshevists. Both Hitler's heterosexuality and the fact that the purge wasn't carried out because of SA members' homosexuality is evidenced in Geobbels' diary entry:

With an SS escort detachment the Führer drove to Bad Wiessee and knocked softly on Röhm's door: “Message from Munich,” he said with disguised voice. “Well come in,” Röhm called to the supposed messenger, “the door is open.” Hitler tore open the door, fell on Röhm as he lay in bed, seized him by the throat and screamed, “You are under arrest, you swine.” Then he turned the traitor over to the SS. At first Röhm refused to get dressed. The SS then threw his clothes in the Chief of Staff's face until he bestirred himself to put them on. In the room next door, they found young men engaged in homosexual activity. “And these are the kind who want to be leaders in Germany,” the Führer said trembling.

Hitler points out that they were gays as a side note and at the same time with disgust.

Berserkin_Dwarf
Saturday, July 23rd, 2005, 06:08 PM
I am not trying to "infuse" as you say the Homosexual character into the THird Reich. It is not about what happens in the bedroom that is important, but how Hitler spoke of Honour and Loyalty amoungst Germans when he, for reason of more accessabilty in his raise to power, betrayed the man who was his comrade and strongest supporter? Roehm's Brownshirts got Hitler to where he was and this was a slap in the face to a hero and dedicated Nat'l Socialist. I respect your feelings on this matter drake, I just think that losing Roehm was a huge mistake.


:gsoldier

Drake
Monday, July 25th, 2005, 05:40 AM
I am not trying to "infuse" as you say the Homosexual character into the THird Reich.I was actually referring to the authors of "The Pink Swastika" and others who claim that Hitler was gay.

It is not about what happens in the bedroom that is important, but how Hitler spoke of Honour and Loyalty amoungst Germans when he, for reason of more accessabilty in his raise to power, betrayed the man who was his comrade and strongest supporter?I agree that it wasn't about Roehm's or Hitler's sexual orientation. It was about Roehm's betrayal of Hitler in his planning to attempt a coup d'etat. The homosexual issue has been introduced into the story of the purge by people who wish solely to discredit Hitler and National Socialism. If Roehm didn't actually intend to attempt a coup d'etat, his sexuality and true political convictions would remain personal matters but would contradict his supposed identity as a National Socialist. Yeah, he sacrificed for the movement, and we can applaud him for that, and I didn't mean to rain on anyone's parade.

Berserkin_Dwarf
Tuesday, July 26th, 2005, 01:08 AM
Has there been any evidence of Merit that truly incriminates roehm?


off topic....
I was watching a history channel show on the ss and I was surprised how desparate they got towards the end. Any comments?

KRohm
Thursday, April 20th, 2006, 03:56 AM
I think executing Roehm was a mistake as well; of all the early NS fighters, he was among the most able and qualified. His sexuality may not be what some of us would like it to have been, but that issue has certianly been blown far out of proportion to it's importance. Remember, you can't judge someone by today's standards.

On the other hand, when looked at objectively, from Hitler's viewpoint Roehm HAD to go in order to pacify the Army and gain their (albeit begrudging) support in his bid for power. Roehm was on theverge of convincing Hitler to abolish the standing Army and replace it with the politicized SA as the national armed force- of course the Generals weren't going to sit and let that happen unopposed.

Roehm was a true fighter, a revolutionary- but, to quote a movie..."Who needs revolutionaries when the revolution has been achieved?" Once Hitler was assured his place in government, Roehm was a political liability despite his worth and dedication to the Party.

And no, I'm no relation of his that I am aware of!

Karl Rohm


I am not trying to "infuse" as you say the Homosexual character into the THird Reich. It is not about what happens in the bedroom that is important, but how Hitler spoke of Honour and Loyalty amoungst Germans when he, for reason of more accessabilty in his raise to power, betrayed the man who was his comrade and strongest supporter? Roehm's Brownshirts got Hitler to where he was and this was a slap in the face to a hero and dedicated Nat'l Socialist. I respect your feelings on this matter drake, I just think that losing Roehm was a huge mistake.


:gsoldier

Prince Eugen
Thursday, April 20th, 2006, 07:08 PM
About Rohm's homosexuality i never believe the story!A story created by the right wings of NSDAP like Herman Goering!
The Night of the long knives was one of the greatest mistakes of A.H. The ''aristocrats'' of the Army who were favoured by NSDAP these time allways plotting against Hitler.
Dr Goebbels after the 20th of July 1944 said ''If in the place of 100 SA officials executed 100 Army officials maybe the things would be better''!
Even i'm AH admirer ,AH of Mythos i mean,men like Captain Ernst Rohm or like Gregor Strasser have a place to my personal NS Pantheon!