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Frans_Jozef
Monday, May 10th, 2004, 09:54 PM
Sarmatian-Magyar connection and the Holy Grail

http://argo.acronet.net/~magyar/english/1997-3/GRAIL.htm

In our 1966 Journals of Hungarian Studies we studied the Sarmatian presence in England and their influence upon the arts, fashion, mythology of the Islands along with the establishment of horse breeding and cavalry. Concerning their language we also made mention of a Sarmatian grave-good excavated in Hungary that bore a Hungarian runic text. This latter is one evidence that the Sarmatians were a branch of the Hungarian speaking peoples of the time.

In the January and February 1997 edition of the Archeological Journal Scott C. Littleton who is professor of anthropology at Occidental College in Los Angeles has written an article entitled Were Sarmatians the source of Arthurian legend? He also makes mention that in 175 AD Marcus Aurelius dispatched 5,500 Iazygs from the Danube region. There is also evidence of Sarmatians in the region. In Professor Littleton’s opinion it is from their culture that the Arthur legend originated along with the legend of the Holy Grail.

The writer of the article mentions that the first commander of the Sarmatians was Lucius Artorius Castus. According to the inscription on a stelae he led his troops to Gaul in 184 to quench a rebellion. Like the legendary King Arthur, he too led a cavalry into the European arena. “The first Sarmatian leader of the Ribchester contingent probably took on the title artorius, borrowing his commander’s name. A subsequent leader may have been King Arthur, the “Artorius, dux bellorum (war leader)...” writes professor Littleton. King Arthur saved Britain by defeating the Saxons at Badon hill in 510 AD. We did discuss the further implications of this title in our previous Journal. We also discussed the Sarmatian Yazyg affiliations at the same time.

Professor Littleton discusses a relationship between the Sarmatians, Scythians and the Alans. The entire legend of King Arthur and his court, the Round Table, the Holy Grail may all have had Sarmatian origins. He identifies Sir Lancelot with a leading personality of the Alans. The legends of the Holy Grail later became embellished with Christian myths that never really found favor in the eyes of the Church. The first written document of the Round Table came from the works of Wace of Jersey entitled Roman de Brut, dated 1155 AD (3, Vol.10:208).

The Sarmatian-Magyar linguistic and geographical links are supported by Herodotos: ”As we cross the Tanais we are not on Skythan soil anymore. In the first district live the Sauromati who reside from the upper corner of the Meotis for a fifteen days long journey toward the North. Their land is bare where no tree grows, no fruit trees or trees grown in the wild. (Herodotos History, 2.vol. Every Man’s Library 405, 406, London 1949)

The first syllable of the Sauromati is equivalent with the Hungarian word sár which means the yellow shine of the gold, or szár that means bald. Both of these words are an archaic form but still used in poetic or historical texts. One Hungarian historical figure’s name was László Szár, which means: László the Bald. The second syllable of Sauromata is related to the Magyar word megye, which is still in use in the name of Kecskemét, a Hungarian city. The word mata is also related to the Magyar word mező, meaning grassland, which fully describes the land of the Sauromatians. In summary, the Sauromata, Sarmata words mean a shiny (sár) or a barren (szár) land. Considering that Herodotos emphasized that the land of these people was void of all trees, the latter may be more appropriate. The two concepts intertwine: where there are no trees, no shade, the landscape is sunnier, brighter. The English meadow belongs into the same wordgroup.

The mata word is connected to the Magyar méz (honey) and méh (bee) words. Considering that Greek historians described the Scythians as living on milk and honey it is evident, that these words belong into the same culture. Greek historians also mention that it is impossible to cross the Carpathian mountains because of the many “bees” (méh). Thus one realizes that this wordgroup and culture originated from the Carpathian valley. This “milk and honey” culture also has some affinities with the culture of the Medes and Mesopotamia. The Welsh place-name Mesgarmon, which means the meadow of Mes is identical with the Magyar mező.

In the 2. issue of 1996 of the Journal for Hungarian Studies we made mention of a Sarmatian dish as part of the grave goods of a Sarmatian nobleman. The inscription of this dish is written with the Siculo-Magyar runic script called rovás; the text is written in the Magyar language. Considering this text and the Magyar meaning of Sarmatian names we have to count these peoples among the Magyar nations. The cultural and linguistic data of the Magyar early history shed extended light not only to the mythological elements of Western Europe, but also to the ancient and early history of the West. This study will briefly mention the Magyar relationships of the Arthur legends:

1. The legends concerned with Arthur

2. Legends concerning Arthur’s sword. These were written down the first time by Thomas Malory in the 15th century. (3, Vol.4:626) According to professor Littleton these legends are of Sarmatian origin.

3. Legends of the Round Table. The first mention of these is in Wace Jersey’s Roman de Brut, from 1155 AD. (3,Vol.10:208).

4. Legends of the Holy Grail. Its first mention is in Robert de Boron’s work from the year 1200 AD.

According to the Encyclopćdia Britannica, the Holy Grail is a round, wide vessel. The etymology of the word is not known but it is assumed that it goes back to Celtic origin, since there is a long tradition of magic cauldrons, horns of plenty, vessels that give new life and so on. The Grail’s first written record dates to 1200 AD to Robert de Boron’s work on this subject. This word is sometimes connected with the Old French word graal, which means a large, deep serving vessel.

Its Magyar etymology through the “K-R” wordgroup and its affiliations gives added explanations not only to this name but the names of places, historical and mythical figures of the British Islands that were touched by the Grail’s presence. In our further discussions we will follow the data of Geoffrey Ashe’s cited work

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History as told by Diodorus Siculus



Diodoros Siculus talks about the descendants of Skythes, who were Palos and Napus. He also mentions that their descendants carried their father’s name as the name of their people also. They occupied vast lands from the Tanais (Don) to Thracia and expanded their rule to Egypt and the Nile subduing antiquity’s many famous nations. Finally their rule extended to the Caspian Sea and the Eastern ocean also. Since these people were numerous, they had renown kings, from whom the Saka, the Massagetae, the Arimasp received their names. Again some others who came from Media settled near the Tanais, who were called Sauromatae. (Diodoros II.45)

“This narrative uses similar method of originating words concerning the names of Palos and Napus, similar to that of Herodotos in the case of Scythes; according to Siculus the Palos and Napus people got their names, which sound very familiar to the Magyar ears, from their two kings. It is easy to recognize in the first one the Palóc nation’s name, in Napus we recognize our word for Sun (Nap). This name is also preserved in the ancient name of Kolozsvár that was Napóca in Erdély (Transylvania). The Saka, Sekel, Sicul or Székely nation belonged to the ancient Scythians. According to Diodoros we also have to place the Massagetae, the Arimasp and the Sarmatians to the Scythian people” says Endre K. Grandpierre, dedicated researcher of Hungarian antiquities.

Diodorus Siculus also talks about the huge territories which the Scythians occupied and this will be important in relationship with the origin saga of the Scottish people. The name of Media is also related to the Magyar mező, méz, and méh (meadow, honey and bee) words. The concept of a land “flowing with milk and honey” as the epitome of plenty must have originated in the lands of the milk drinking Skythans. Studying the history of the British Isles the Magyar historical and geographical names are frequent obvious.

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The Regős



Rheged kingdom was the protector of national poetry. The four great poets of the British isles are connected with Rheged. The Rheged name may be connected with the Magyar regős, who were the poets, sages, historians, preservers of ancient religion through music and song. They had lands allotted to them which not even in King István’s time when persecutions of “pagan” memories already began at the hand of the priests of the new religion. The Hungarian town of Regőc preserves their memory. Regőc is located in the ancient district of Sátorhegy where prince Ferenc Rákóczi spent his childhood with his mother Ilona Zrinyi. Both are the personifications of love of the country.

Taliesin was among the four great poets of Rheged. His name is translated as “Radiant Brow." He preserved the memory of an ancient home among the summer stars. The first syllable of his name (Tal) is connected with the Magyar words for shine (dél, deli), song (dal) and our Táltos priestly class, who taught people through song. Arthur’s name belongs into the same wordgroup (T-R, T-L). The second syllable of his name (sin) is identical with the Magyar word szem, szen meaning eye. The Magyar meaning of this name is The Shiny Eye. Taliesin’s home among the morning stars may also be connected with Arctoúros and the rotation of the sky. As a matter of fact the Shiny Eye may carry the star meaning too. A Magyar tale talks about the Star Eyed shephard.

The ancient memories were preserved by the poets of Rheged on the British Isles and the regős in Hungary. Their voices were drowned in blood. The great Hungarian poet, János Arany’s poem, the Bards of Wales mourned both.

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Arthur

Geoffrey Ashe mentions that the Celts have no mythology in which a god by the name of Arthur can be found.

In Magyar traditions the name Artur leads us to our Őstörök nation, the Etruscans, and the prehistory of the Turanian peoples. The second syllable of this name “tur” means bull and a maleness. This word describes our beautiful Sun’s daily journey and return just as much it describes the circling flight of the falcon, which the Török group called Turul-bird. In this context Arthur’s name means Bull Man, Sun man, whose role is linked inseparably with his return.

Britain’s ancient history begins, as does the Magyar with Fairy traditions which are also an inseparable part of the Arthurian legends. It is interesting to note, that the Mythology of the British Isles preserved a memory, according to which these fairies spoke in the language of the Troyans. As Arthur’s name is connected with the Magyar túr, so is the name of Troy. As long as the name of Arthur cannot be tied to any of the Celtic god names, there is ample proof that this name was part once of Magyar Mythology, celebrated today in a festival of the so called „Turka-járás”, a part of the Winter Solstice celebration. Arthur, or better Artur was once the personification of the Son just as much as was the Magyar Miklós Toldi. In later Germanic mythologies we find Tor, William Tell with the same role and names. The feminine of this word is “tér," which means a well defined, material space, and also a closed circle as does the related English word: turn. The Etruscan goddess Turan was personification of the round Earth and their country; the later Latin word terra was derived from here.

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Bors, knight of the Round Table



The Arthurian legends preserved the memory of Bors as a cousin of Lancelot. This latter is believed to be of Alanic origins and this relationship points of Magyar-Alan relationships also. Dr. Tibor Baráth studied the culture and history of the Alans and I refer the reader to his works. The Bors family’s presence in the Carpathian basin predates the arrival of the Árpáds by far. According to Arthurian legends Bors once traveled to an unknown place called Sarras across the sea. Later he continued his search for the Holy Grail, which showed up in Europe for a while, then disappeared again, to its ancient home in Asia, or to heaven according to diverse traditions. Bors and Lancelot settled finally at Glastonbury to establish a religious community, which dissolved after the death of Lancelot.

The name of Sarras is again connected with the Magyar word for shine (sár), the Sáros form means “shiny." Near the Bors family’s pre-Árpád ancestral home in Borsod is the town of Sárospatak; Bors may have traveled to one of the towns in Hungary named Sáros. The history of Borsod leads into great antiquity. Beginning with the Bükk culture its cultural layers lead in an unbroken line to our days. At Zöldhalompuszta the grave of a Skythan prince was excavated, and among the many splendid artifacts there was the most sacred symbol of the Magyar peoples: the golden Stag. During the great migrations Germanic people, Kvads and Sarmatians lived also in this region, and after the VI-IX century AD the Avars settled these lands. The early presence of the Sarmatians may place the Arthurian legends to an even earlier date. At the same time this makes Bors’s Sarras a part of this region at Sáros even more plausible. The Bors-Miskóc family had holdings in Borsod up to 1312 AD. Near Miskolc lies Diósgyőr where an ancient, ring shaped castle (Geuru, Győr) stood and the region was inhabited up to the 17th century AD. (10) This castle may also be connected with the Bors family. The official Hungarian historians of today do not accept the idea of a pre-Árpád Magyar presence in Hungary. Considering the ancient round castle of Borsod, the probable historical time of the Arthurian legend of the 5th century AD the presence of the Bors family in Europe including Borsod county cannot be dismissed and the present notions of Hungarian presence in the Carpathians have to be reevaluated. The Bors family name is frequent even today in Hungary.

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Arthur’s sword



One Arthurian legend holds that his sword was embedded in a huge stone and only a very deserving person, destined to be king can extract it. This legend was preserved by Sir Thomas Malory in the 15th century AD. (3:Vol.4:626) The ancient Magyar method of changing iron into steel was the following: the swords were stuck blade up into a mound exposing them to lightning. When lightning hit these swords their molecular structure changed and made their material far better than it was before. They were also touched by God in the most literal sense since the Magyar expression for lightning is “The arrow of God” (Isten nyila). The sword in the stone may also be connected with the knowledge of extracting iron from ore, in which the sword was embedded and has to be extracted, in a very literal sense. The well known story of Atilla’s sword, which became called God’s Sword (Isten kardja) originated in such a method of sword craftsmanship. According to this story a shepherd boy found a piece of iron sticking out of the meadow. He tried to lift it out, but the sword started to flame and jumped out of the earth. As it cooled down the boy took the sword to Atilla realizing that this is fit for a king only. The episode of the flaming sword brings the lightning stricken swords to mind. The first iron foundries of Europe were in Hámor, Bors county of Hungary. At the much later time of Árpád in the ninth century iron was also extracted from the iron ore found free in the meadows and each center of the seven dukes had such foundries.****

According to the second version Arthur’s sword was made by fairies and an arm emerging from the waters handed it to him; the sword’s return at the end of Arthur’s life followed the same pattern. This sword was called Excalibur. British scholarship originates this word from the Latin chalybs, meaning steel. This etymology is believed to be uncertain, which shows that the origin of the story, the names have not originated within the English culture sphere, even though it is very much a part of the thought process of the English people. Irish tradition calls the sword Caladbold, and this is the older version of the sword legend.

The Magyar kar, kard words are related to the cal syllable, but it is also related to the word hal which means to sink and to die. An arm lifts the sword out of the water and this arm sinks into the waters with the sword is expressed the following way in the Magyar language: “Kar emeli ki a kardot a vízből, s a kar a karddal a vízbe hal.” If we take the Magyar translation of Excalibur and equate the syllable cal with sinking, the bur syllable with castle we get the meaning of “from the sunken castle”. This translation becomes even more plausible when we take into consideration that the Magyar name of the Holy Grail’s original owner is Halász Király (Fisher King) who lived in a perpetual state of near-death (halál). The linguistic connection of this legend is easily understood based on the Magyar language.

In Denmark a great many swords were found buried into a watery grave. According to Magyar symbology the sword and its cover was a symbol of life as the water was too. A great word cluster relates to this idea.

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The Holy Grail

Geoffrey Ashe, the dedicated researcher of the Arthurian legends believes that the Holy Grail is a summation of the male-female principle and symbols. At the base of Magyar consciousness is the knowledge of the interchangeability of energy and matter. This knowledge was built into their language and is also part of their symbology. The pure gold sun-cap of the ancient Magyar kings, as a cap when worn round side up on one’s head was considered a male symbol, which united heaven and earth into a creating unit. According to Magyar legends only a man, who was chosen by the Holy crown can become king. The last such king was Hollós Mátyás, Mathias Corvinus. Tradition holds that the Holy Crown just appeared on his head and in this way did it become apparent who should be King. Both the Hollós and the Corvinus cognomens and the Magyar names of the raven (holló) holding a ring (gyűrű) which appear on their family crest belong into the large K-R wordgroup as does the word grail. Matthias Corvinus Rex’s famous library and his Corvinae may have held great amounts of European early history. Pitifully they have become scattered by foreign invaders. The presence of ravens is greatly connected with the Arthurian legends and a still nurtured, living tradition in England.

When the cap is used as a cup, a vessel, hollow side up it becomes a symbol of femininity, which is able to contain, to enfold. Yet the cap and the cup are both essentially the same. The Magyar language expresses this concept of interchangeability of energy, which is considered the male principle of creation and matter, which is the female principle through the reciprocity of words. The Magyar bak (buck) is a male, its reciprocal form kupa (cup) is a female symbol along with the word kap (to receive). One also must note that the Magyar and English words are identical both in meaning and form. There are several hundred words identical between the Magyar and English language, which is the subject of a separate study. I will touch only upon the few words closely related to this present article.

The memory of the gold Magyar Sun-crown was handed down from ancient traditions. The object and its symbology originated in a time when only Magyars (the original meaning of this word is “human”) lived on this earth in a happy Golden Age. Later historical epochs handed down this symbol to many generations where these still live in their souls, language and traditions. When overpopulation of the Carpathian basin spilled over to the neighboring lands and new successive societies were formed this symbol still remained important in the mythology of Magyar peoples. Let us take a look what the Greek authors wrote.

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The first saga of Herodotos





The “feathers," pihe in the Magyar language denotes both down and snowflakes. The informant of Herodotos must have spoken Magyar according to this remark. If there would be no further proof even this one word could serve as important testimony of the common language and origins of the Magyars-Skythans and Huns. According to Herodotos at the time of these princes a golden plow, and yoke fell from the sky, symbols of a settled, agricultural life which originated at the time of Fairies’ Golden Age. According to Magyar legends God thought our ancestors this peaceful mode of living. The word ****bárd**** I am translating as “fokos," the double ax of the Siculs and which is also a symbol of life. The cup, as we have already seen symbolizes the Sky and Earth, energy and matter, in summary: it is the symbol of Life.

Later on we will see that the Holy Grail is also a life- and sustenance-giving properties much like the magic table of the Magyars. But it is only in the Magyar language where life and sustenance can be expressed with the same word: élet.

The second legend of Herodotos





The royal princes wear a cup here too as sign of their ancestry. It is an important circumstance that Skythes won the cup, from whom the Huns and Székelys (Siculi) descend and among whom the Székely holy, sacramental vessel (székely áldozópohár) still upholds this heritage. It is also important to note that beginning with Skythes all Skythans wear this holy cup on their belts, which is an important symbol of the equality of all Székelys to this day. The ideal of equality emerges again in the legends of King Arthur and which ideal is part of a Sarmatian and Skythian heritage. Arnold Ipolyi held the traditions of the Székely holy vessel very important and he followed the fate of the hereditary priestly order of the Rabonbáns up to our days. (9:II. Vol. 296) He also makes mention of other libation vessels: “...at sacrificial ceremonies the cauldrons could not be missed and so certain holy vessels were used at the libation ceremonies. Anonym (one of the first codex writers during the reign of the Árpáds) mentions them in conjunction with blood ceremonies: ’Fusis sanguinibus in unum vas.’ The Székely Holy Cup is mentioned in this context which may be a surviving part of an ancient tradition inherited from the Scythian antiquity as part of a tradition as the Székely Chronicle’s historical segment tells us (9:II, 276-8), as if this cup would have belonged to the well known Skythan Anacharsis; how holy this vessel was to them it is shown by the fact that this cup was used in ceremonies performed by the Rabonbáns.” Beautiful examples of such cauldrons were excavated in the Hungary proper and its surrounding areas. Ipolyi also mentions the horns that served as libation vessels, musical instrument and weapon of defense at the same time. The horn of plenty’s additional meaning of light and plenty is discussed in detail by Adorján Magyar.

A holy vessel of the Székelys is called the Ukkon cup is a wide, flat vessel with a rounded bottom used at ceremonies sealing an agreement. This vessel cannot be put down due to this construction until it has not been fully emptied. Ipolyi brings this word in relation with the Magyar words ük (ancestor) and ég (sky). A similar vessel is among the ancient artifacts of the Békásmegyer Hungary. An Akkadian vessel dating to 2.050 BC is also of similar shape.

He also mentions the “zádok” trees which were considered in ancient pagan times a holy tree, God’s tree; in later Christian times they were grown near the churches; out of the wood of these trees were the ancient holy vessels or cups made.” (9:I,330)

Dr. Tibor Baráth brings a cup pertaining to the Nagyszentmiklós treasure in Hungary, which is a low, wide mouthed vessel studded with precious stones. Its shape and decoration are the equivalent of the Holy Grail’s appearance as tradition describes it. (7:I,4). Dr. Baráth believes that it was this cup used to poison Atilla. Imre Oláh researcher of runic writings translated the runic script as a blood holding vessel. The different translations necessitate further studies. Considering that today’s historians connect the Grail legend also with the arrival of the Alans in the West, these two synchronicities cannot be accidental.

The Sumerians speaking an agglutinative, non Indo-European European language lived in a matriarchal society. Their holy vessel in the Dumuzi legend held milk. When this cup was broken by the evil spirited Gallas, his life came to an end too.

Archaic Magyar prayers also preserved the memory of an ancient holy vessel. In its Christianized form “three drops of blood of our Lord Christ and three crops of milk of the Virgin Mary were collected in this vessel” (8:247). Researchers of Hungarian history point out that the content of these holy vessels is a mirror of the society which holds them in reverence. The cup’s content in a matriarchal society is the milk of a Goddess. In patriarchal societies where life has to be protected through the shedding of blood, especially at times of war — as we have seen in case of the Árpáds’ covenant — the sense of unity is expressed through blood. The cups of the ancient Magyar prayers contain both: milk and blood. I consider this an eloquent sign of their society based upon the equality of the sexes; the crown witness of the existence of this society is the Magyar word for wife, which is “feleség” meaning “my half." When faced with the overwhelming force of an enemy the Magyar women fought next to the men like the famous women of Eger fought against the onslaught of the Turks even in the 16th century AD. Women also kept their maiden names next to their wedded names, like Ilona Zrinyi, Zsuzsanna Lórántffy, mentioning only the two best known historical figures.

The previously mentioned golden Sun-cap, which originated in the fairy times of the Golden Age and made out of the gold of the Csallóköz was the original, ancient Magyar Holy Crown. At the time of the last coronation it disappeared and a gold fabric has been put in the cup’s place. Was this “disappearance” an act of malicious robbery, or is the saga of the Holy Grail thus continuing?

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Society

The cult of the “Stone of Destiny” goes back to Pictish origins. Their coronations used to take place in Scone, near Perth. The person to be crowned was seated on this stone. As the Scythian descendants, the Scoots occupied more and more lands. Finally Kenneth MacAlpine claiming Pictish ancestry had himself crowned King of the Picts and Scots. According to Scotish legends a princess Tea brought this stone to Ireland where she married Tamair. Tara’s landscape is adorned with round, flat topped mounds clearly discernible even today. Since the arrival of this stone all kings were crowned there. Prince Fergus, founder of Dalriada brought the stone first to the Island of Iona from Ireland, later the above mentioned Kenneth brought it to Scone. Edward I. brought it to Westminster, when Queen Elizabeth the II. with a magnanimous gesture returned this stone to Scotland. Linguistic connections of the above are as follows: Considering the round, flat topped mounds of Tara it is reasonable to connect this legend, its people to the Magyar tár-tér (return, space), Tera, Turan mother goddesses. These names are also connected with Arthur’s name and legends.

The taking of an oath is part of the Magyar coronation ceremony. The word oath is eskű in Magyar which contains the word kő, kű, meaning stone. According to Adorján Magyar some Magyar nations used to take an oath touching a holy stone, usually a meteor-stone, which was considered pure, uncontaminated, coming from above. Such a stone is the Muslim’s famous black stone, called Kaba, or Csaba. (According to Christianized legends the Stone of Destiny was used by Abraham as a pillow.)

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Places of worship



In Ireland near Killarney a mother goddess by the name of Anu or Annan was worshipped. Anu’s name is identical to the Magyar anyu, anya and anyag words (mother and matter). It is worthy to note that here this name has been applied properly to express motherhood. In Mesopotamia, further away from the Carpathian valley Anu’s name underwent a radical transition due to misunderstanding of a mythology and became a male deity. The road leading to this misunderstanding is easy to follow and to explain but would take us far from the goal of the present study. Annwfn’s name seems to bear connections with the Magyar an, anna, anya, anyag (mother, matter, land) and the fény (shine) words. These give a meaning “the land of shine” to the composite.

Britain’s most important place of worship was at the monument we call Stonehenge today, a round structure of huge stones. According to native legend the giants who built it came from Africa. It was believed that these stones have healing properties. Its old name was simply Chorea Gigantum, the round dance of the giants, or just simply: the circle. The blue stones of Stonegenhge came from the vicinity of Carmarthen’s Prescelly mountains. Geoffrey Ashe brings these structures into connection with the round temples of Hecataeus of Abdera which graces the lands of the Hyperboreans. He places the lands of the Hyperboreans onto an island above Gaul. According to legends the stones of this temple cannot be counted. Adorján Magyar’s work deals with Sanudo’s map of early Europe where the island of Csallóköz, the mythical home of the fairies and the Magyars is drawn as a huge island, covering almost half of Europe (5:230). He explains this vast overstatement of size with the great importance of the European origin myths which it symbolized. Stonehenge II and III was built between 2.500 and 2.000 BC. The later priests of this holy place, the Druids were also Hyperboreans according to Greek legends. They also state that Apollo visits this land every 19 years. The fact is that the Druids created a 19 year calendar to reconcile the solar and lunar calendars and this fact seems to connect them with the Hyperborean legends.

The ancient round temples of the Magyars are well known. The latest such excavation was at Sárospatak Hungary. The church of Őskű belongs also into this line. Őskű’s name means: ancient stone; the English word for church carries the same meaning. The Druids of Stonehenge were not only priests but constituted a priestly cast akin to the Magyar Magi and Táltos. The name of the Druids cannot be explained with Indo-European etymology. A famous priest among them was called Mog Ruith, who, according to legend was dressed in a suit of bull skin, over which he placed a bird costume and he was able to fly. Because of this legend historians attempt to link them with the Siberian or Asiatic shamans with little enthusiasm. Ariesteaus places Hyperborea “the land behind Boreas” into the Altai mountains. Abaris is also said to have come from Hyperborea. Later Greek historians *** give him a Skythian origin. They also call the upper portion of the Danube Hyperborea. (1:129), the ancestral home of the Magyars. The name of Mog-Ruith is in connection with Magor the Magyar Sungod, the “Ruith” part is connected with the T-R wordgroup represented in the Arthur legend.

The Druids worshipped a God by the name of Esus or Jesu and for this reason they welcomed the first Christian priests. The names of Esus or Jesu are of “pagan” origin and are identical of the Jász-Magyar peoples’ Jós, Jász, Jizzu names, who was their god of shine, light, represented by the Sun. Only much later legends connect this land with Joseph of Arimathea who was supposedly accompanied on one of his trade journeys by Jesus. Claudia and Linus mentioned in Paul’s letters in 63 AD may have originally come from this land.

Geoffrey Ashe originates all great religions from the Hyperboreans in the following order:



Hyperboreans

1. the Greek cult of Apollo, out of which arose

2. the Pythagorean school

3. the Druids

4. the wisdom literature of the Vedas

5. . Sumerian wisdom literature

6. Wisdom literature of the lama monasteries of the Altai



The only sub-branch of the Pythagorean school outside Greece was in Carthage, which land and people were very much connected with the settling of the British Isles.

Another common tradition of these places are the labyrinths, the meaning of which still eludes us. The recurring septenary maze in Rockey Valley near Tintagel is remarkable for its cross design intertwined with the seven lines of the maze. The cross in Magyar symbology is the symbol of light, the number seven was the holy number of infinity, eternity according to Ipolyi. Its Magyar reading is „Keresztúr”, which is a frequent placename in Hungary. The name translates into „Round castle of the cross.” There is surviving memory that the Druids were able to see the mountains of the moon, which presupposes that they had some sort of telescope.

In spiritual matters they busied themselves to bring back the wisdom of the ancient. One of their holy ceremonies were connected with the oak tree and mistletoe. Their priests stood in the fork of the oak tree akin to the ancient Magyar táltos ceremonies. They believed in immortality. According to Clement Pythagoras learned from them. But Stonehenge was the product of a pre-Druidic culture. The Druids maintained their organization which has two branches today. The Albion lodge initiated Winston Churchill in 1908.

Manopus is the name of an Irish divinity who is represented with a harp in his hand. His representation is similar to that of Apollo but he was not considered a solar deity. This name is related to the Magyar divinity Mén.

Avebury and Silbury is older than Stonehenge according to modern research. Avebury’s name consists of the following Magyar syllables: év (circle) and vár (bury) giving it a meaning of “round castle”. According to legend Silbury is the resting place of a king named Sil who was buried with golden armor. This names has a close affinity with the following Magyar words: Szil (pronounce Sil) is a place name in Hungary, a tree called szil-fa which played part in the ancient religion, Szél-úrfi (young master Wind) who was the symbol of energy and for his pollinating powers of fecundity also. The constellations of Sellő (mermaid) and Tündérfő (the head of the Fairies) belong into this category also. It is interesting that from these latter two places the fairies arrive always treesome as Sun, Moon and Star mothers according to Ipolyi’s research. These three mothers may be in the background of the Celtic triune female figures. The watery surrounding of Silbury can easily be connected with the sellő (mermaid) and hableány (girl of the waters) concepts. The legend of the Lady in the Lake may point to such ancient affiliations.

The legend of the stone circle at Cornwall calls it “Merry Maidens”, and its stones can be counted only by women. These too come to life to dance in a circle like Stonehenge’s stones.

Ancient tradition remembers a time when the ancestors were able to fly.

Hengist was the lord of Kent and his name is explained as “horse”. Both, the name of the person and the place is in connection with the Hun nation name and the word kanca (mare). The horse is important in the symbology of the British isles. Most of these horses are white, like the Uffington horse, and there was one horse at Tysoe which was red. King Alfred is also connected with the legends of the white horse; the king’s name is explained as “Elf-rede” which points to the ancient times of the Fairies. He was brave, his laws stopped the bloodshed so popular in those days. In Magyar legends the white horse was part of the lunar, the red horse with the solar symbology. One of the last legends of the white horse are connected with Atilla. Mythology of the British isles honored a horse goddess by the name of Epona and her cult was also adopted by the Romans, who honored her as Regina. Epona’s name seems to echo the name of the sun and light (nap and fény) of the Pannons, an aboriginal culture of Pannonia on the western bank of the Danube.

Alfred’s son Athelstan lived in Northumbria and ruled Britain between 925-940 AD. A great many stories are attached to his figure. One of these stories makes mention that he accidentally burned the cakes of a poor man in the fire. This reminds me to the ever-present “cakes baked in ashes” which are integral part of Magyar stories. Athelstan’s name is related to the Etel, Atil names.

Cerne is the place of worship of a divinity named Helith, Helis or Heil. The Giant of Cerne holds a huge club in his right hand and his phallic importance is obvious in this handiwork of ancient artists. The name of the place, the name of the divinity, the club he is holding are connected with the Magyar kör (circle) and kel (arise, i.e. the rising sun), kalló (club) one of the names of the Sungod, Kallós, whose name was preserved in the names of Kolozsvár, Kolozs, city and place names in Erdély. Both the name and the representation is identical with Hercules of classical mythology, where the linguistic connection between Hercules and his club does not exist, but which is strong in both the Magyar and the British mythology.

The most authentic of the Lays, lines of sanctuaries is the one connected with Saint Michael. In another paper I discussed the connections of the “pagan” St. Michael, who was called Mikelu, Makal and similar names and Magor, Makar sungod names of the Magyars. The idea of the lays seems similar also to the Inka line of sanctuaries laid out in a sun-ray pattern with a center at Cuzko which shows the antiquity and universality of this thought.

The Temple of the Stars are ancient roads around Somerset’s Glastonbury which form the twelve figures of the zodiac. Its discoverer Katharine Maltwood believes them to e the work of Sumerians but because of their huge size and great antiquity her theory is questioned. Never having been in this region I am quietly proposing the consideration of the following. These lines may represent frequently traveled roads. In ancient times nighttime wanderers followed a “map of the sky”: they knew exactly which star points them into the right direction to reach from A to B. Each locale in Hungary had a representative star. Above Hollókő, the home of King Matthias Corvinus there are two stars visible: King Matthias and his beloved changed after their death into these stars.

Celtic tradition holds that the name of Brennius who was the lord of the northern part of the Isle came from a god called Bran. This name means raven, and in fact according to the Magyar law of reciprocity of words which is also present in the English language the two are but one another’s reciprocal form. The Magyar word for crow, rook (varjú) belongs into the same wordgroup. Bran was the lord of the druidic Beltain, their spring festival. A divinity called Belinus or Belenos was known in Northern Italy and Southern Gaul, and both of these are identical with the sungod Bál, Béla of the Palóc people.

Welsh legends know of a Beli-Mawr (Beli the Great), or Beli, the son of Manogan in whom they honor the ancestor of their people. The many geographical names containing the “-billing” affix are connected with the name of Belinus on the British Islands. The Welsh name, their progenitor’s name Beli, the North Italian Belinos or Belenos deities all lead to Bál, Béla Sungod of the Palóc nation. This name is also in direct relationship with the name of Palos Scythian prince mentioned by Diodorus Siculus. This name has no known etymology in the Germanic languages.

There is a belief in the mythology of the British Isles according to which male children are able to change to a stag, boar or wolf according to their will then turn back again into human form. This belief system is in connection with the Magyar Miracle Stag (Csodaszarvas) concept and the mythology of the boys who turned into a deer. I will return later to this legend when discussing the name of Oisin, later. A variation of this belief system is still celebrated among some of the American Indians as a testament of mankind’s once unified belief system and culture.

Llyr’s son Manawydan, or Lir’s son Mannan is the name of an Irish Sea-god. In Magyar the lé, lőre (liquid, turbulent liquid) is connected with god Lir. Mannan reiterates the name of Mén (stallion) who frequently represented the Moon. To link the name of the Moon and the waters is scientifically correct, since the moon exerts a lot of influence upon the waters, especially the sea.

The Welsh name for the island of Man is Manaw, the Irish name is Mana, Manu, which also are connected with the Magyar Mén. This frequently mentioned Mén deity name has an enormous linguistic base in the Magyar language. Its comprehensive discussion is again beyond the scope of this paper.

Arthur’s Queen Guinevere appears in three figures occasionally and for this reason she is believed to be the Triune female goddess of the Welsh mythology. Earlier we brought the Magyar parallel for this phenomena as she may represent the Sun, Moon and Star-mothers of this mythology. She may also represent the three phases of moon according to the contents of the legend.

*



Historical and geographic names

Albactanus, king of Scotland was killed in a battle with the Huns 25 years after the arrival of the Trojans to the British Isles around 1070 B.C. (1:78, 18:157) Later they were expelled from the southern part of the isle by Locrinus, and their leader by the name of Humber drowned in a river during the battle. This river is called Humber ever since. Ashe tentatively assigns British etymology to this name translating it as “good river”. Humber’s name seems to be affiliated with the Hun. In the patriarchal society of the Huns the river was always a symbol of masculinity and procreation: the Magyar words for to pour and semen (ont, ondó) are closely related thus preserving this concept up to this day. To give the Hun hero Humber’s name to the river seems logical. Ashe believes that the mention of the Huns at this age is incorrect and the result of a later historian’s error since Atilla’s Huns arrived centuries later in the European arena. The Huns were present as part of the Magyar nations since times immemorial in the Carpathian valley and have left many traces all over Western Europe from the earliest times on. The word home (hon), homo are a part of the Hun vocabulary. The full exploration of this line belongs to the future.

Another story tells us about Locrinus’ love for the German girl Estrildis. She was his lover for seven years and bore him a little girl named Habren. Once in Locrinus’ absence his wife had both mother and child killed by throwing them into a river. As an afterthought the called the river after the little girl Habren. This name became in the Latin language territory Sabrina, in the British Severn. The etymology of either name is unknown and cannot be explained based on Indogermanic etymology. The love affair which lasted seven years takes us back into the ancient times when legends were born. Geoffrey Ashe states the same and that according to ancient legends we are faced here with the guardian spirits of the waters. The Magyar word hab (water) and hableány (lit.: water-maidens) are part of the language and mythology. The later names of Sabrina and Severn are based on the Magyar word water (víz) and to seep away (visz). Considering that the water names of the British Isles are pre-British and many of them are identical with the pre-Árpád water names of Hungary we have to recognize the presence of the ancient Magyar peoples in both places. The western European link of the Magyar culture has been totally neglected by the foreign dominated historians who still try to maintain the Asian origins of the Hungarians. This act prevented the Western European nations to know their own history fully.

Molmutin’s son Belinus was the ruling king, his brother Brennius ruled over the Northern lands. Belinus’ name is identical with the name of the Palóc sungod Béla, which is still a frequent name in Hungary. Originally it meant “white light”. Caswallan, the son of Beli was able to become invisible with the help of his cloak which, when he was wearing it showed only his sword. This legend originated in the ancient times of the fairies. Brennius’ name belongs to the B-R wordgroup and is related to the Baranya and Baratya the Earth mother and Sun of the Avars. Baranya’s name is preserved in the name of one of the counties of Hungary.

Tascianus ruled the two last decades BC. On his coins we find his name as Tas which was the name of these seven dukes. His other name was Tenuantius, the father of Cunobelinus who was also called Cymbeline. He was raised in Caesar’s court. The meaning of his name is explained as “The dog of Belinus”, or “The faithful follower of God”. On his coins he is portrayed a round headed, mustached gentleman with large, open eyes so often seen in Scythian representations. The Bel name in the transliteration of his name has been taken as “God”. The first syllable “cuno” is in connection with the Magyar kún, kan (cuneus, male principle) and would translate into “The Son of Bel”, or “The Son of the Sun”. The Magyar komondor (a large, white guard dog) belongs into the same wordgroup.

Arviragus was defeated by the Romans at Hampton. He married the daughter of Claudius and later he established Glouchester. His name brings us closer to the cultic vocabulary of the Avars (virág = flower, ar = a male), who were the horticulturists of their time.

Athelney is the name of the wetlands around Somerset’s Glastonbury. Athel following the analogy of Etel, Itil river and water names means water, but it is also connected with Atilla’s Magyar name, which is Etele. It is also interesting to note the “atheling” title of the British nobility. The Old and Middle English variation of this title is the masculine ćtheling and the feminine ćthelu. Considering the fact that legends of the British Isles talk about Huns way before the arrival of Atilla these names and titles take us back to ancient times also thus preserving an ancient Hun title. Atilla’s Etele name probably meant a royal prince originally, which was the expected title of the son of Bendeguz. In Anonymus Gesta Hungarorum he is mentioned as Athile (Anon. 1 and 5). The later doubling of the letter “t” in Atilla’s name rendering it Attila conformed to the accent of the German historians and writers. His name may also have meant that he descended from the line of the Royal Scythians. At the time of Álmos Emese’s dream is connected with the Atil-Etil-Itil related legends. She dreamt that from her womb a huge river ensued which engulfed the land and out of this a mighty nation will be born. Ipolyi sums up the traditions connected with the Etele name as follows: “...the Atel, Etel name is identical with with the name of the river Etel in Etelköz which flowed in that Magyar territory. This can be also observed in the case of another ancient progenitor’s name which was Tana and the river Don, or Tanais is identical with his. This also reminds us of the legendary descendancy of heroes from deities on an elemental level which we also find in the later saga of the hero Álmos, and also in the Scythian legends which talk about Targitaus, the ancestor of the Skythans as a descendant of Zeus and the nymph of the river Borysthenes (Herodot 4,5).” Returning to Tana’s name “...Tana, the ancient father of our (i.e. Magyar) chronicles may well be the first Skythan ruler with the same Tana name... In our language tanya means a settled mode of living, a permanent base, and as we have seen it may mean a “seat”, settlement meaning the ’descensus’ of the earlier generation.” (9: vol.I:203)

Iona was the name of an island which was the holy land and burial ground of the Pikts, Scots and the inhabitants of Northumbria. Later it became the northern center of Christianity. Iona is another name of our Jász people. This name is also connected with mourning (gyász).

*



The early presence of Magyar dialects.



Avalon is a Paradisical fairy land. Her inhabitants are girls, their fairy queen is Morgan the daughter of Ygerna and Morgause. She is possibly the same person as the Welsh Modron who is believed to be the goddess of waters. The Ygerna name is related to the Magyar Ég (sky) and the Yggdrasil tree which reaches the sky of the Scandinavian myth. Avalon’s name reminds us of the Palóc Mother Earth Vilona. Her symbol was the forked trunk of a tree. Béla Sungod arose in this frame symbolizing the unity of energy and matter, which is Life itself. The Magyar villő (light) and villám (lightning) belong to the words of the same mythology.The English words valley, well belong into the same cultic vocabulary, meaning a hole a depression, a fork; the words life, love are also a part of the Palóc culture.

Belinus’ name is identical to the Palóc Béla Sungod-name. The name Béla is also a frequently used name in Hungary. Its original meaning was „white light.” His son Caswallan owned the cloak of invisibility, which places him and his father into mythological times. His brother Brennius’ name brings to mind Baratya (Sun, lit. father of energy), Baranya (mother Earth, lit. the material part of energy).

Morgan’s other home at Ile de Sein brings into focus the aforementioned connection with the Magyar Mother of Life Ilona; the Sein part of the name is identical with the Magyar word sajó (flowing). This word in fact has become the name of several rivers in Europe, beginning with Hungary. This word also denotes shine, where the English and Magyar words are identical. In summary the name of Avalon can be connected with the concept of a place of shine, as the Magyar home of Ilona, the island in the Csallóköz means the same.

Ogygia, the land of “short nights” beyond the ocean means the abode of the Sun, the sky (Ég); the “ia” ending is the abbreviation of jó, jav and survived to denote a place of belonging. Óg in Magyar also means an opening at the highest point of a dome, such as the highest point of the sky, through which light can come.

The Irish mythology calls Avalon Tir-na-nOg meaning the land of the young. Another name is Mag-Mon with unexplained etymology. This latter reminds us of the names of Magor and Mén God names. Mona is the name of Anglesey, an island country of northwest Wales carries Mén’s name as does the name of the Island of Man.

The early mythology of the British Isles remind us of Elysium of the Greeks, which is Kronus’ abode that was believed to be beyond the western seas. Linguistically Kronos’ name belongs to the K-R wordgroup connected with a circle, return and eternity. Earlier we have pointed out the similarities of the Kronos and Arthur legends. In Greek word “makar” means happiness and Magor, Makar God of the Magyar mythology is our proverb’s happy god who helps the plans of the poor. Considering that the island’s name is Mag-Mon we are faced again with ancient Magyar mythology.

The Cornish descent from the giant Gogmagog (sic!) and the princess Albina’s union with demons and consequently giving birth to giants is also part of the Scythian-Magyar origin stories. Ipolyi believes the origin legend of Góg and Magóg (9:I:203-204) is an authentic pre-Christian Magyar tradition. He refers to Anonymus who talks about an ancient tradition which has become somewhat clouded in the course of centuries. This legend preserved a knowledge Skythans and the surrounding peoples along with this mythology.

Tristan and Isolda’s stories originated in the Pictish legend of Drust. Isolda’s name was Essylt, Iseult, Isolt Yseut according to tradition. There is mention of a Tristan stone in Cornwall near Castle Dore. A Latin inscription states the following: “Drustanus lies here the son of Cunomorus.” The latter name is spelled Kynovawr. The “cuno” syllable brings the Hun, Kun group to mind, the vawr syllable means a round castle in Magyar.

Land’s End is the name of a territory near the ocean and beyond it lies the sunken Lyonesse. Land’s End is frequently mentioned in our legend. The ancient stories clearly indicate a knowledge of the roundness of the Earth, but later stories may be connected with this region. There is knowledge of the fact that Magyars did come to the Irish sulfur caves and their surrounding religious communities seeking spiritual enlightenment during the days of early monasticism which quite possibly began in the ancient pagan days. The earliest written record of such visits dates to the 14th century; these documents were deposited in the court library of Austria and in Melk. (17:146) Magyar connection with the British isles continued through the centuries. It is by no accident that the birth of the Magna Carta and the Magyar Golden bull was written within a few years. Oxford’s first student was a Magyar. According to the records here his name was Nicola de Hungaria. His education was provided for between 1193-96 by Richard the Lionhearted who was the brother in law of Hungary’s queen Margaret. (V.16:18)

The Scots, who originated themselves from the Scythians call their kingdom in Argyll Dalriada. Prince Árgyélus’ memory has been preserved in early and later literature alike and his figure takes us back to the time of the Fairies. Dalriada’s famous hero Colum was famous not only his literacy but his mighty voice which carried for miles. With this voice he could call people to battle easily. Considering that his life centered around the church of St. Finnian and the Finnian name carries pagan memories, Colum’s role must have been connected with ancient memories and may even have been the name giver of Dalriada which has a Magyar meaning of “battlesong”.



*

This present paper is not even the beginning fraction of the linguistic and cultural analogies between the people of the British Isles and the Magyar peoples. Due to the very conscious neglect and tactics of concealment of the Hungarian Academy of Science the world is fully unaware of the language, mythology of the Magyar nation. The cultural “black hole” thus created a confusion of history which even the most dedicated historians cannot overcome. It is for this reason that they are forced to look to the East, or Far East for cultural analogies. A good example is the case of druidic research. Even though the Magyar culture and language of the Carpathian basin could have provided them with a lot fuller understanding, historians were forced to look toward the “shamans” of the East. István Bóna referred to the impossible situation by which the Scythian artifacts and material of excavations have never been evaluated thus creating the outlines of a true and comprehensive picture of that culture. The history of the Scythians is still written by their ancient enemies. The same holds true a hundredfold in case of the history of the Magyars, whose history leads us to the dawn of history in the Carpathian basin. Excavations were mostly restricted to the pampering of Roman ruins. The scant archaeological materials not ruined on purpose or by neglect (and sometimes these are the same) yield a new knowledge of the early history of Europe. We also are forced to realize that the many different names, like the Huns, Alans, Sarmatians, Jazigs, Pannons, Ionians are but different dialects of the same Magyar tongue as are today’s Jász, Palóc and Székely (Sicul) people.

*





Reference

1. Geoffrey Ashe, Mythology of the British Isles, Trafalgar Square Publishing, North Pomfret, Vermont

2. Grandpierre, K. Endre Aranykincsek Hulltak a Hargitára, (Gold treasures fell upon the Hargita) Népszava Publ. Budapest, 1990

3. Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol. 4, 5, 10

4. Herodotos History, 2 vol. Every Man’s Library 405, 406 London, 1949

5. Magyar, Adorján Az Ősműveltség, Budapest, 1955

6. C. Scott Littleton Were the Sarmatians the source of Arthurian legend? Archaeology, January/February 1997

7. Dr. Baráth, Tibor A Magyar Népek Őstörténete (The History of the Magyar Peoples) Publ. Zoltán Somogyi 1968

8. Erdélyi, Zsuzsanna Hegyet hágék, lőtőt lépék, (A collcetion of archaic Magyar prayers) Magvető Könyvkiadó Budapest 1976

9. Ipolyi, Arnold Magyar Mythologia, (Magyar Mythology) Ferenc Zajti publ. Third edition, Budapest, 1929

10. Papp, Antal Utikönyvek. Magyarország, (Hungarian Travel books) Seventh edition. Panoráma Publ. Budapest.

11. Archćologiai Értesítő, 1966. I. szám, 93. kötet, Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest

12. Tomory, Zsuzsa Magyar English Word Origins,Manuscript, 1995

13. Tomory, Zsuzsa Kezdeteink, (Our Beginnings), Manuscript 1995

14. Mészáros, Gyula A Regölyi Korai Népvándorláskori Fejedelmi Sír, (Translation of the title: Regöly, the royal grave of the early great migrations.) Archćologiai Értesítő, 1970. 1. szám, Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest

15. Bóna, István A hunok és nagykirályaik, (Translation of the title: The Huns and their great kings) Corvina Budapest, 1993

16. The Hungarian Genius, First edition in Budapest 1944, second edition by Turán Printing in Garfield N.J.

17. Fehér M., Jenő Középkori magyar inkvizició. (Translation of the title: The inquisition of Hungary in the Middle Ages.) Editorial Transsylvania, 1956

18. L.A. Waddell The Phoenician Origin of Britons, Scots and Anglo-Saxons, The Christian Book Club of America, Hawthorne, CA.90250





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Szerk.



The Holy Grail and the Hungarian Holy Crown



According to the Encyclopćdia Britannica, the Holy Grail is a round, wide vessel. The etymology of the word is not known but it is assumed that it goes back to Celtic origin, since there is a long tradition of magic cauldrons, horns of plenty, vessels that give new life and so on. The Grail’s first written record dates to 1200 AD to Robert de Boron’s work on this subject. This word is sometimes connected with the Old French word graal, which means a large, deep serving vessel. Its Magyar etymology through the “K-R” wordgroup and its affiliations gives added explanations not only to this name but the names of places, historical and mythical figures of the British Islands that were touched by the Grail’s presence. In our further discussions we will follow the data of Geoffrey Ashe’s cited work. Within the limited scope of this paper we will mention only the some of the Grail related materials.

Ashe mentions among the custodians of the Holy Grail the Fisher King, whose land and he himself are dying, bleeding of several wounds. There is mention of an invisible and very holy father. Young attendants carry the Holy Grail and a bleeding lance. The Grail is described here as a splendid vessel studded with jewels; it can provide new life, food and religious ecstasy. Ashe believes it to be a holy object of the old pagan cultures as these qualities all appear in the pre Christian legends of the Iles. The quest for the Holy Grail is similar to the old Irish imramas. These journeys lead the seekers even King Arthur later on to Annwfn, which is neither heaven nor hell, but a parallel universe of the Celtic people. One of the heroes of the Grail, Perleslaus embarks on such a journey, across the waters. Magyar heroes looking for the water of life go beyond the “Óperenciás” Ocean, which name denotes not only the oceans embracing the dry lands, but our atmosphere too, which revolves with our Earth. It is this ocean through which the heroes travel on magic, talking-flying horses (Táltosparipa) until they reach Ilona’s fairy castle, where they had to slay a seven headed dragon in order to accomplish their task. Ilona is the Magyar’s mother Earth and her name translates into “Mother of Life.” Her abode was an Island in heavens (ég) Milky Way, and she had an Island home in the Carpathian basin also. Her name later became synonymous with “island” in many western European languages, such as the English island, the old English iland or igland and the French l’il.

Avalon, Glastonbury and Corbenic are prominent places connected with the Arthurian and Grail legends. Considering that these legends are connected with peoples of Scythian origin, like the Picts, the Welsh, the Irish and Scots it is no wonder the some traditions hold that the Holy Grail finally returned to Asia its original homeland, or it went up to Heaven. Since the Grail origins are now connected with Sarmatian origins, its Magyar affiliations will give further important data.

Ashe, the dedicated researcher of the Arthurian legends believes that the Holy Grail is a summation of the male-female principle and symbols. At the base of Magyar consciousness is the knowledge of the interchangeability of energy and matter. This knowledge was built into their language and is part of their symbology also. The pure gold sun-cap of the ancient Magyar kings, as a cap when worn round side up on one’s head was considered a male symbol, which united heaven and earth into a creating unit. According to Magyar legends only a man, who was chosen by the Holy crown can become king. The last such king was Hollós Mátyás, Mathias Corvinus. Tradition holds that the Holy Crown just appeared on his head and in this way did it become apparent who should be King. Both the Hollós and the Corvinus cognomens and the Magyar names of the raven (holló) holding a ring (gyűrű) which appear on their family crest belong into the large K-R wordgroup as does the word grail. Matthias Corvinus Rex’s famous library and his Corvinae may have held great amounts of European early history. Pitifully they have become scattered by foreign invaders. The presence of ravens is greatly connected with the Arthurian legends and a still nurtured, living tradition in England.

When the cap is used as a vessel, hollow side up it becomes a symbol of femininity, which is able to contain, to enfold. Yet the cap and the cup are both essentially the same. The Magyar language expresses this concept of interchangeability of energy, which is considered the male principle of creation and matter, which is the female principle through the reciprocity of words. The Magyar bak (buck) is a male, its reciprocal form kupa (cup) is a female symbol along with the word kap (to receive). One also must note that the Magyar and English words are identical both in meaning and form. There are several hundred words identical between the Magyar and English language, which is the subject of a separate study. I will touch only upon the few words closely related to this present article.

The memory of the gold Magyar Sun-crown was handed down from ancient traditions. The object and its symbology originated in a time when only Magyars (humans) lived on this earth in a happy Golden Age. Later historical epochs handed down this symbol to many generations where these still live in their souls, language and traditions. When overpopulation of the Carpathian basin spilled over to the neighboring lands and new successive societies were formed this symbol still remained important in the mythology of Magyar peoples. Let us take a look what the Greek authors wrote.

*

The first saga of Herodotos





The “feathers," pihe in the Magyar language denotes both down and snowflakes. The informant of Herodotos must have spoken Magyar according to this remark. If there would be no further proof even this one word could serve as important testimony of the common language and origins of the Magyars-Skythans and Huns. According to Herodotos at the time of these princes a golden plow, and yoke fell from the sky, symbols of a settled, agricultural life which originated at the time of Fairies’ Golden Age. According to Magyar legends God thought our ancestors this peaceful mode of living. The word ****bárd**** I am translating as “fokos," the double ax of the Siculs and which is also a symbol of life. The cup, as we have already seen symbolizes the Sky and Earth, energy and matter, in summary: it is the symbol of Life.

Later on we will see that the Holy Grail is also a life- and sustenance-giving properties much like the magic table of the Magyars. But it is only in the Magyar language where life and sustenance can be expressed with the same word: élet.

The second legend of Herodotos





The royal princes wear a cup here too as sign of their ancestry. It is an important circumstance that Skythes won the cup, from whom the Huns and Székelys (Siculi) descend and among whom the Székely holy, sacramental vessel (székely áldozópohár) still upholds this heritage. It is also important to note that beginning with Skythes all Skythans wear this holy cup on their belts, which is an important symbol of the equality of all Székelys to this day. The ideal of equality emerges again in the legends of King Arthur and which ideal is part of a Sarmatian and Skythian heritage. Arnold Ipolyi held the traditions of the Székely holy vessel very important and he followed the fate of the hereditary priestly order of the Rabonbáns up to our days. (9:II. Vol. 296) He also makes mention of other libation vessels: “...at sacrificial ceremonies the cauldrons could not be missed and so certain holy vessels were used at the libation ceremonies. Anonym (one of the first codex writers during the reign of the Árpáds) mentions them in conjunction with blood ceremonies: ’Fusis sanguinibus in unum vas.’ The Székely Holy Cup is mentioned in this context which may be a surviving part of an ancient tradition inherited from the Scythian antiquity as part of a tradition as the Székely Chronicle’s historical segment tells us (9:II, 276-8), as if this cup would have belonged to the well known Skythan Anacharsis; how holy this vessel was to them it is shown by the fact that this cup was used in ceremonies performed by the Rabonbáns.” Beautiful examples of such cauldrons were excavated in the Hungary proper and its surrounding areas. Ipolyi also mentions the horns that served as libation vessels, musical instrument and weapon of defense at the same time. The horn of plenty’s additional meaning of light and plenty is discussed in detail by Adorján Magyar.

A holy vessel of the Székelys is called the Ukkon cup is a wide, flat vessel with a rounded bottom used at ceremonies sealing an agreement. This vessel cannot be put down due to this construction until it has not been fully emptied. Ipolyi brings this word in relation with the Magyar words ük (ancestor) and ég (sky). He also mentions the “zádok” trees which were considered in ancient pagan times a holy tree, God’s tree; in later Christian times they were grown near the churches; out of the wood of these trees were the ancient holy vessels or cups made.” (9:I,330)

Dr. Tibor Baráth brings a cup pertaining to the Nagyszentmiklós treasure in Hungary, which is a low, wide mouthed vessel studded with precious stones. Its shape and decoration are the equivalent of the Holy Grail’s appearance as tradition describes it. (7:I,4). Dr. Baráth believes that it was this cup used to poison Atilla. Imre Oláh researcher of runic writings translated the runic script as a blood holding vessel. The different translations necessitate further studies. Considering that today’s historians connect the Grail legend also with the arrival of the Alans in the West, these two synchronicities cannot be accidental.

The Sumerians speaking an agglutinative, non Indo-European European language lived in a matriarchal society. Their holy vessel in the Dumuzi legend held milk. When this cup was broken by the evil spirited Gallas, his life came to an end too.

Archaic Magyar prayers also preserved the memory of an ancient holy vessel. In its Christianized form “three drops of blood of our Lord Christ and three crops of milk of the Virgin Mary were collected in this vessel” (8:247). Jenő Szilveszter, researcher of Hungarian history pointed out that the content of these holy vessels is a mirror of the society which holds them in reverence. The cup’s content in a matriarchal society is the milk of a Goddess. In patriarchal societies where life has to be protected through the shedding of blood, especially at times of war — as we have seen in case of the Árpáds’ covenant — the sense of unity is expressed through blood. The cups of the ancient Magyar prayers contain both: milk and blood. I consider this an eloquent sign of their society based upon the equality of the sexes; the crown witness of the existence of this society is the Magyar word “feleség” meaning “my half," meaning my wife. When faced with the overwhelming force of an enemy the women fought next to the men like the famous women of Eger fought against the onslaught of the Turks even in the 16th century AD. Women also kept their maiden names, like Ilona Zrinyi, Zsuzsanna Lórántffy, mentioning only the two best known historical figures.

The previously mentioned golden Sun-cap, which originated in the fairy times of the Golden Age and made out of the gold of the Csallóköz was the original, ancient Magyar Holy Crown. At the time of the last coronation it disappeared and a gold fabric has been put in the cup’s place. Was this “disappearance” an act of malicious robbery, or is the saga of the Holy Grail thus continuing?



History as told by Diodorus Siculus



“This narrative uses similar method of originating words concerning the names of Palos and Napus, similar to that of Herodotos in the case of Scythes; according to Siculus the Palos and Napus people got their names, which sound very familiar to the Magyar ears, from their two kings. It is easy to recognize in the first one the Palóc nation’s name, in Napus we recognize our word for Sun (Nap). This name is also preserved in the ancient name of Kolozsvár that was Napóca in Erdély (Transylvania). The Saka, Sekel, Sicul or Székely nation belonged to the ancient Scythians. According to Diodoros we also have to place the Massagetae, the Arimasp and the Sarmatians to the Scythian people” says Endre K. Grandpierre, dedicated researcher of Hungarian antiquities.

Diodorus Siculus also talks about the huge territories which the Scythians occupied and this will be important in relationship with the origin saga of the Scottish people. The name of Media is also related to the Magyar mező, méz, and méh (meadow, honey and bee) words. The concept of a land “flowing with milk and honey” as the epitome of plenty must have originated in the lands of the milk drinking Skythans.

Studying the history of the British Isles the Magyar historical and geographical names are frequent obvious.



Arthur

Geoffrey Ashe mentions that the Celts have no mythology in which a god by the name of Arthur can be found.

In Magyar traditions the name Artur leads us to our Őstörök nation and the prehistory of the Turanian peoples. The second syllable of this name “tur” means bull and a maleness. The feminine of this word is “tér," which means a well defined, material space, and also a return. This word describes our beautiful Sun’s daily journey and return just as much it describes the circling flight of the falcon, which the Török group called Turul-bird. In this context Arthur’s name means Bull Man, Sun man, whose role is linked inseparably with his return.

Arthur’s first appearance and his birth by sea and fire are miraculous. Maybe a Magyar folk song describes this and similar miraculous births the best: “I have not been born by a mother, I grew on a rose tree, I was born at the dawn of Whitsuntide (pünkösd)”. The word pünkösd clearly indicates an affiliation to the Magyar words of sun and shine (fény and nap), thus connecting this concept with the ancient Sun religions. This legend designates Cornwall as Arthur’s birthplace Cornwall’s name alone has many linguistic and symbolic affinities with these religions within the Magyar culture-sphere. Ashe cited Tennyson’s Idylls in which Arthur is the descendant of the ancient peoples of light. His miraculous sword which was forged by fairies came into his possession under miraculous circumstances. His taking possessions of the sword greatly resembles the sword legend of Atilla. Arthur’s sword was embedded in a stone, Atilla’s in the earth of a meadow where it was found by a shepherd boy. These two different sceneries mirror the different environments where the same legend was preserved.

According to another legend, Arthur is the son of Uther and Ygerna. Uther’s other name is Pendragon, meaning Dragonhead, or Head dragon, where the latter may designate a military title. Here I have to mention the Báthory family. According to their family history they ancestors were so ancient that they still slew dragons. Behind the Pendragon cognomen a similar memory may be hiding. The Welsh name “pen” means head, “fő” in Magyar and both are related to the Magyar “nap” and “fény," which are but reciprocal forms of one another and leads us to the religious vocabulary of our Pannon people. The first syllable of the Greek word “drákon” may also be connected with a word of light, shine (Magyar dél, deli and the name Greek island of Delos, where Apollo’s sanctuary stood). The last syllable of both words is connected with the Magyar kun, kan, meaning a maleness. Considering these the Pendragon name may be understood as Sun-Man, Radiant Man, Son of the Sun.

The greater part of Arthur’s life is connected with the Glastonbury Tor; both names belong into the same T-R wordgroup. Almost every stone of Glastonbury carries memories of a bygone Fairy Age. According to the legends of the British isles, the fairies spoke the language of the Trojans. The Tor itself is a hill, spiraling upwards with a building on top. This construction reminds us of the ancient spiraling towers (tűrt torony). The spiraling turf designs of a maze at different parts of the Isles and may have encircled the Tor. The Welsh name Caerdroia, meaning Troy connects us with another Magyar group’s religious vocabulary utilizing the K-R sounds. The seven walls of the maze, its affiliation with Troy, the Aegeans and some of the American Indian structures places the concept these buildings into great antiquity. According to legends, the church of Glastonbury stands since times immemorial and its floor design holds a message that has not been understood yet. Some of the floor-plans of the ancient Magyar castles in Erdély also convey a meaning which I discussed in another paper in detail.

Between Glastonbury Tor and the Chalice hill we find a place called Chalice Well, all are connected with the Arthurian legends. Todays hills around Glastonbury once formed a peninsula with a very narrow landbridge. Today it is a wetland. Because of the surrounding waters some believe it to be Avalon. In prehistoric times the Tor was the original home of a Mother Goddess, called Matrona. This name appears Latin, but its Magyar affiliations cannot be easily dismissed. The already mentioned Magyar names mét and mező, the Sarmatian mata, the Sumerian matu mean meadow and land, and accordingly Matrona may have been the name of Earth Mother. Morgan, was Avalon’s owner and Arthur was taken to her in the hope of recovering from his illness by Barinthus, who knew these waters well. In later legends Barinthus became St. Brendan, the traveling Irish saint. Barinthus’ name is kin with the Avar B-R wordgroup, with such words as vár, barlang, bárka meaning castle, cave and boat. The Avar Earth Goddess’ name Baranya also belongs here and are part of their mythology.

The local folklore believes that the inside of the Tor is hallow. The legends concerning this cave are varied and many. The surrounding earth formations are called Arthur’s chair, oven, round table, to mention only a few. One of the stones bears the footprints of Arthur’s dog called Cabal. The etymology of this name is not known and is brought into some relationship with the Latin caballus, thus mentioning Arthur’s horse too. Even so the legends of Arthur’s dog represent more ancient layer of folklore. The word Cabal may be a derivative of the Magyar hab meaning water. The dog may be a logical personification of the water in this region and would merit some further study. (The pastoral society of the Balaton region in Hungary called the waves of the Balaton “goats”.)

According to legend Arthur lives in a cave (barlang) as does Plutarch’s Cronos; both of them are believed to return and for the sole purpose to bring back the Golden Age. Cronos’s name and mythology was derived from a pre-Greek source and is connected with the Magyar word “kor” meaning aetas; this word also contains the word “kör” meaning circle, a line returning within itself. Arthur’s name contains the tár, tér element. Both the kör and the tér mean the same circle expressed with the different religious vocabulary of two dialectal groups.

Legend holds, that after death (halál) Arthur changed into a raven (holló) and awaits the time of his return in this form. The word holló is also but a softened form of the kör (circle), it is also the bird of sorrow and mourning. It is interesting to note that according to legends it was the raven who stole the fire from the heavens. Considering that Arthur’s role is to bring back the Golden Age, the origins of this legend lead us back into the very ancient times of the fairies and the Golden Age.

The circles of ancient earthworks with flat tops are mentioned as Arthur’s table. This again brings the Magyar legends of the miraculous little table that gives instant sustenance to anyone who is asking, similar in role to the Holy Grail. This miraculous table was the symbol of the Earth, a feminine concept. The castles of Mayburgh, Avebury, the Stirling castle in Scotland are the better known. The English words “bury” and “burgh” are related to the Magyar rovás and vár words, which are again words of the Avar culture sphere.

The towns near the Tor hide La Tčne artifacts. The Tor was excavated by Ratz in 1960 and according to him its origins lead back to Neolithic times, when it must have been the center of a religion predating Christianity.

As we can see even from this short overview, Arthur’s legends go back much further than the fifth century AD, back to the Golden Age. His role has changed according to whose traditions we are looking at. He is mentioned as a King in Britannia. The Welsh consider him as a hero. As the Tor points to a greater antiquity, so does Arthur’s name which leads us back to the name of a divinity. It is significant to note that the Arthur legends survived the longest on Celtic grounds, within the Celtic culture.

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The Arthur legends are closely associated with the legends of fairies, and the history of Britain really is the Age of the Fairies. This has several legends clustered around objects, places. Among these legends it is important to note from a Magyar point of view that these fairies, according to tradition spoke the language of Troy. Both Arthur’s and Troy’s name is affiliated with the Magyar “túr” (bull). Ashe also mentions that this name cannot be derived from any Celtic divinity’s name. On the other hand the Magyar word-affiliations bring them in connection with some of the Magyar nations, in which Arthur, more correctly Artur was the personification of the Sun just as much, as the Magyar Toldi Miklós, or his mythical equivalent Tar Lőrinc. Tor of the Germanic people, William Tell was also the product of this mythology.

The fairies remained in Craig-y-Ddinas and Glamorgen and from here they moved on to their heavenly home. The same happening is remembered in Magyar legends, where the fairies fled their home in Csallóköz from the gold-hungry intruders and went first to Erdély, later moved back to their home in the Cygnus star system. The Magyar fairy-folk was the personification of eternal goodness, youth; the representatives of the new faith began to paint them evil to discourage people from talking about them, but these efforts never really took root. The sometimes playful or sinister fairy stories of the British Isles probably underwent such transformation also.

It is important to note, that all pre-Christian places of worship, the fairies themselves in Britain are connected in legend with the art of healing. This is the case in Magyar tradition also. A Magyar folksong mentions that the avocation of Magyars is to heal all the wounds that others inflicted with “whistles, drums and violins made of reed.” Both the fairy traditions of the British Isles and the Magyar traditions held that the fairies lived in a matriarchal society. The British tradition remembers that they had luminous white dogs with red ears, which remind me of the symbolic animal of the white Huns.

A fairy King is also known, whose name is Ap-Nudd. Their King of the waters is called Nodon, who was the king of dogs, fishermen and hunters also. He participated in healing and he is the finder of lost objects. His role was passed onto St. Anthony later. According to legend his home was at the Glastonbury Tor. Considering, that he was the god of the fishermen also, the Grail legend’s Fisher King must have come down from this ancient age also. Around the Tor there was once an extensive wetland, the Tor itself was surrounded by a trench and mote which reminds us of the Avar and ancient Magyar castles. The pre Árpád city of Vetvár, meaning Vízvár (water castle) bears testament of this.

The Tuatha de Danann people of Ireland revered a Goddess named Danann of whom they believed that she is the mother of the Gods. Her place of worship is in Conacht. The king of Tuatha-De-Danann, Nuadu is identical with Nudd and Noden deities. Geoffrey Ashe mentions the Danann name in conjunction with the river names of Don and Duna, the Sanskrit danu, meaning water. The word nedű meaning liquid and the name of the giant Tana, one of the forebearers of the Magyars is in close connection with these ancient names. The figure of the Long Man of Wilmington as he walks toward the river is the summary of the two.

Avalon’s Fairy Queen was Argante-Morgan, its inhabitants were maidens. The Welsh name is Ynys Avallach, where Arthur’s sword was forged. This name is tentatively translated as “Apple Island." Morgan’s other homes are an island, Ile de Seins beyond the borders of Britannia and a place in Sicily. The founding of Sicily is attributed to the Sicul people who are related to the Siculs in Hungary, living in the Göcsej region. In this way we have to count among the Sicul fairy castles not only the ones in Erdély but in Sicily also. According to legend Morgan was able to fly. At the time this legend originated people did not know that in Addura city Sicily there is a cave drawing depicting human figures in the act of a gravity free enviroment: flying without wings. This art has come to life during the second World War when an explosion opened up the cave and brought this drawing into the open. Morgan is the daughter of Ygerna and Morgause. She is possibly the same as the Welsh Modron who is believed to be the goddess of waters. The Ygerna name is related to the Magyar Ég (sky) and the Yggdrasil tree which reaches the sky of the Scandinavian myth. Avalon’s name reminds us of the Palóc Mother Earth Vilona. Her symbol was the forked trunk of a tree. Béla Sungod arose in this frame symbolizing the unity of energy and matter, which is Life itself. The English words valley, well belong into the same cultic vocabulary, meaning a hole a depression, a fork; the words life, love are also a part of the Palóc culture.. The name Ile de Sein brings into focus the aforementioned connection with the Magyar Mother of Life Ilona; the Sein part of the name is identical with the Magyar word sajó (flowing). This word in fact has become the name of several rivers in Europe, beginning with Hungary. This word also denotes shine, where the English and Magyar words are identical. In summary the name of Avalon can be connected with the concept of a place of shine, as the Magyar home of Ilona, the island in the Csallóköz means the same.

Ogygia, the land of “short nights” beyond the ocean means the abode of the Sun, the sky (Ég); the “ia” ending is the abbreviation of jó, jav and survived to denote a place of belonging. Óg in Magyar also means the highest point of a dome, such as the highest point of the sky.

The Irish mythology calls Avalon Tir-na-nOg meaning the land of the young. Another name is Mag-Mon with unexplained etymology. This latter reminds us of the names of Magor and Mén God names. Mona is the name of Anglesey, an island country of northwest Wales carries Mén’s name as does the name of the Island of Man.

The early mythology of the British Isles remind us of Elysium of the Greeks, which is Kronus’ abode that was believed to be beyond the western seas. Linguistically Kronos’ name belongs to the K-R wordgroup connected with a circle, return and eternity. Earlier we have pointed out the similarities of the Kronos and Arthur legends. In Greek makar means happiness and Magor, Makar God of the Magyar mythology is our proverb’s happy god who helps the plans of the poor. Considering that the island’s name is Mag-Mon we are faced again with ancient Magyar mythology. I have to stress, that as in Avalon, in the Csallóköz only fairy-girls assembled awaiting the arrival of young men for their spring festivals. Heroes visit this island also, which is frequently called “the Island of Happiness”, “Island of Girls”. When the heroes finally returned from such a visit they realized that they have spent not days there but a great many years and the people talk of them as of long gone ancestors. The possibility of traveling to the distant land of the Fairies and the implication of relativity is present in the Irish legends just as much as it is the Magyar legend in a story of a young man climbing the tree which reaches the heavens. Upon his return he realized that the cities, the people he knew are gone and he dies brokenhearted. The many implications of this Magyar story are numerous. To facilitate understanding I have to mention that the tree that reaches heavens is the starry sky in Magyar mythology. There is also a memory of moon travel among these ancient memories. Taliesin’s poem calls Avalon the island of the lucky. His poem also talks about our other home: “My original country is the region of the summer stars...”

Camelot’s geographical location is unknown. Tennyson mentions it was built by fairy kings, it appears-disappears easily, magic music emanates from it, statues come to life and he represents it as the epitome of a full life and beauty. As for the Fairy Kings:

“...they are building still, seeing the city is built

to music, therefore never built at all,

and therefore built for ever.”

This poem cannot be explained in any other way as by genetic memory of mankind’s most holy memories of a truly existing Golden Age. Magyar tradition cradles such memories and embedded them into the language also. The affiliation of Ilona’s name — who was the Magyar Earth Mother —contain the word él (life), illó (fleeting, disappearing); she lives in a disappearing castle (Ilona illó várban él). The name of one castle preserved this memory: Illavára. The connection of song and the creative processes is part of our Táltos traditions that preserve the memory that our Creator created with song and that creation is a song. Many believe that Cadbury is the true place of Camelot.

The sunken bells are integral part of both the Magyar and the Welsh mythology. There is mention of such near Goodwin Sands in Ker. The most famous places of sunken bells in Hungary are at the Csallóköz, Bodrogköz and lake Fertő along with their specific legends of fairies.

The Coranieids are fairy-like also. It is emphasized that they can hear at great distances and listen in on conversations. Their holiday is the first of May. Ashe believes that they are import from another culture. According to Welsh tradition they came from Arabia. In Breton they are called Korriganeds. Their ability to hear word over great distances reminds me of Atilla’s advisors who were able to participate invisibly at the enemy’s war councils and thus prepare well for the upcoming confrontations.









The Regős



Rheged kingdom was the protector of national poetry. The four great poets of the British isles are connected with Rheged. The Rheged name may be connected with the Magyar regős, who were the poets, sages, historians, preservers of ancient religion through music and song. They had lands allotted to them which not even in King István’s time when persecutions of “pagan” memories already began at the hand of the priests of the new religion. The Hungarian town of Regőc preserves their memory. Regőc is located in the ancient district of Sátorhegy where prince Ferenc Rákóczi spent his childhood with his mother Ilona Zrinyi. Both are the personifications of love of the country.

Taliesin was among the four great poets of Rheged. His name is translated as “Radiant Brow." He preserved the memory of an ancient home among the summer stars. His name is connected with the Magyar words for shine (dél, deli), song (dal) and our Táltos priestly class, who taught people through song. Arthur’s name belongs into the same wordgroup (T-R, T-L). Taliesin’s home among the morning stars may also be connected with Arctoúros and the rotation of the sky.

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Bors, knight of the Round Table



The Arthurian legends preserved the memory of Bors as a cousin of Lancelot. This latter is believed to be of Alanic origins and this relationship points of Magyar-Alan relationships also. Dr. Tibor Baráth studied the culture and history of the Alans and I refer the reader to his works. The Bors family’s presence in the Carpathian basin predates the arrival of the Árpáds by far. According to Arthurian legends Bors once traveled to an unknown place called Sarras across the sea. Later he continued his search for the Holy Grail, which showed up in Europe for a while, then disappeared again, to its ancient home in Asia, or to heaven according to diverse traditions. Bors and Lancelot settled finally at Glastonbury to establish a religious community, which dissolved after the death of Lancelot.

The name of Sarras is again connected with the Magyar word for shine (sár), the Sáros form means “shiny." Near the Bors family’s pre-Árpád ancestral home in Borsod is the town of Sárospatak; Bors may have traveled to one of the towns in Hungary named Sáros. The history of Borsod leads into great antiquity. Beginning with the Bükk culture its cultural layers lead in an unbroken line to our days. At Zöldhalompuszta the grave of a Skythan prince was excavated, and among the many splendid artifacts there was the most sacred symbol of the Magyar peoples: the golden Stag. During the great migrations Germanic people, Kvads and Sarmatians lived also in this region, and after the VI-IX century AD the Avars settled these lands. The early presence of the Sarmatians may place the Arthurian legends to an even earlier date. At the same time this makes Bors’s Sarras a part of this region at Sáros even more plausible. The Bors-Miskóc family had holdings in Borsod up to 1312 AD. Near Miskolc lies Diósgyőr where an anicent, ring shaped castle (Geuru, Győr) stood and the region was inhabited up to the 17th century AD. (10) This castle may also be connected with the Bors family. The official Hungarian historians of today do not accept the idea of a pre-Árpád Magyar presence in Hungary. Considering the ancient round castle of Borsod, the probable historical time of the Arthurian legend of the 5th century AD the presence of the Bors family in Europe including Borsod county cannot be dismissed and the present notions of Hungarian presence in the Carpathians have to be reevaluated. The Bors family name is frequent even today in Hungary.



Arthur’s sword



One Arthurian legend holds that his sword was embedded in a huge stone and only a very deserving person, destined to be king can extract it. This legend was preserved by Sir Thomas Malory in the 15th century AD. (3:Vol.4:626) The ancient Magyar method of changing iron into steel was the following: the swords were stuck blade up into a mound exposing them to lightning. When lightning hit these swords their molecular structure changed and made their material far better than it was before. They were also touched by God in the most literal sense since the Magyar expression for lightning is “The arrow of God” (Isten nyila). The sword in the stone may also be connected with the knowledge of iron ore, in which the sword was embedded and has to be extracted, in a very literal sense. The well known story of Atilla’s sword, which became called God’s Sword (Isten kardja) originated in such a method of sword craftsmanship. According to this story a shepherd boy found a piece of iron sticking out of the meadow. He tried to lift it out, but the sword started to flame and jumped out of the earth. As it cooled down the boy took the sword to Atilla realizing that this is fit for a king only. The episode of the flaming sword brings the lightning stricken swords to mind. The first iron foundries of Europe were in Hámor, Bors county of Hungary. At the much later time of Árpád in the ninth century iron was also extracted from the iron ore found free in the meadows and each center of the seven dukes had such foundries.****

According to the second version Arthur’s sword was made by fairies and an arm emerging from the waters handed it to him; the sword’s return at the end of Arthur’s life followed the same pattern. This sword was called Excalibur, originating it from the Latin chalybs, meaning steel, but this etimology is believed to be uncertain, which shows that the origin of the story, the names have not originated within the English culture sphere, even though it is very much a part of the thought process of the English people. Irish tradition calls the sword Caladbold, and this is the older version of the sword legend.

The Magyar kar, kard words are related to the cal syllable, but it is also related to the word hal which means to sink. An arm lifts the sword out of the water and this arm sinks into the waters with the sword is expressed the following way in the Magyar language: “Kar emeli ki a kardot a vízből, s a kar a karddal a vízbe hal.” If we take the Magyar translation of Excalibur and equate the syllable cal with sinking, the bur syllable with castle we get the meaning of “from the sunken castle”. This translation becomes even more plausible when we take into consideration that in Denmark a great many swords were found buried into a watery grave. According to Magyar symbology the sword and its cover was a symbol of life as the water was too. A great word cluster relates to this idea.

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Background of the Grail legend



The history of the British Isles leads us back into a pre-nation antiquity. Their legends and landscapes are filled with beings of light, fairies, giants. The first historical people may be the Pickts. Originally they came from Skythia in the third century AD. Their king Sodrik died in battle while attempting to occupy the land on the British isles. They were banned to Caithness where their population increased greatly. Their society was matrilineal. At the time of their arrival they had their own script which appears to contain a pre-Celtic language. Their name as they called themselves is not known. The term Pict was given to them by the Romans. The best known Pictish king Erp’s son Drust ruled for a hundred years, mainly in the fifth century AD. They were noted for their tattoos and their name Cruithne given by the Irish means “picture people”.The Scythian may belong rightfully to the Scots.

The Scots arrived from Scythia. According to legend one of their noblemen married the Pharao’s daughter Scota and they adopted her name. They were expelled from Egypt and after wandering for 42 years they finally settled in Spain. They remained here for a thousand years. From here they went to Ireland’s Argyll county which they called Dalriada. Before they arrived here a queen by the name of Cessair ruled there whose father was Bith, son of Noah. According to another legend the flood’s only survivor was Fintan on this land. He belonged to the shape-shifting beings who became immortal. Fintan’s name is related to the Magyar fény and his aforementioned qualities bring him into contact with the Golden Age.

The settling of Ireland happened in five successive waves before the present Gael’s ancestors appeared on this land. During one of these occupations according to the Historia Brittonum Partholon and his followers of about a thousand people arrived. They were expelled from their original country in the 4th century AD and it is at this time that they arrived. Geoffrey Manamouth places them also into this timeframe but according to him they came from Spain to Orkney and with royal permission they settled in Ireland. Here they busied themselves with agriculture, animal husbandry, brewing and architecture thus establishing the basis of a peaceful agricultural society. His descendants, Nemed and Fir Bolg founded separate kingdoms later. Partholon’s name, the story of his expulsion, reminds us of the Magyar part, pártos (partition and dissenter) words and the name of the Parthian empire which played a large role in the history of Palestine among others. This link deserves further examination.



Places of worship



In Ireland near Killarney a mother goddess by the name of Anu or Annan was worshipped. Anu’s name is identical to the Magyar anyu, anya and anyag words (mother and matter). It is worthy to note that here this name has been applied properly to express motherhood. In Mesopotamia, further away from the Carpathian valley Anu’s name underwent a radical transition due to misunderstanding of a mythology and became a male deity. The road leading to this misunderstanding is easy to follow and to explain but would take us far from the goal of the present study. Annwfn’s name seems to bear connections with the Magyar an, anna, anya, anyag (mother, matter, land) and the fény (shine) words. These give a meaning “the land of shine” to the composite.

Britain’s most important place of worship was at the monument we call Stonehenge today, a round structure of huge stones. According to native legend the giants who built it came from Africa. It was believed that these stones have healing properties. Its old name was simply Chorea Gigantum, the round dance of the giants, or just simply: the circle. The blue stones of Stonegenhge came from the vicinity of Carmarthen’s Prescelly mountains. Geoffrey Ashe brings these structures into connection with the round temples of Hecataeus of Abdera which graces the lands of the Hyperboreans. He places the lands of the Hyperboreans onto an island above Gaul. According to legends the stones of this temple cannot be counted. Adorján Magyar’s work deals with an early map of Europe where the island of Csallóköz, the mythical home of the fairies and the Magyars is drawn as a huge island, covering almost half of Europe. He explains this vast overstatement of size with the great importance of the European origin myths which it symbolized. Stonehenge II and III was built between 2.500 and 2.000 BC. The later priests of this holy place, the Druids were also Hyperboreans according to Greek legends. They also state that Apollo visits this land every 19 years. The fact is that the Druids created a 19 year calendar to reconcile the solar and lunar calendars and this fact seems to connect them with the Hyperborean legends.

The ancient round temples of the Magyars are well known. The latest such excavation was at Sárospatak Hungary. The church of Őskű belongs also into this line. Őskű’s name means: ancient stone; the English word for church carries the same meaning. The Druids of Stonehenge were not only priests but constituted a priestly cast akin to the Magyar Magi and Táltos. The name of the Druids cannot be explained with Indo-European etymology. E famous priest among them was called Mog Ruith, who, according to legend was dressed in a suit of bull skin, over which he placed a bird costume and he was able to fly. Because of this legend historians attempt to link them with the Siberian or Asiatic shamans with little enthusiasm. Ariesteaus places Hyperborea “the land behind Boreas” into the Altai mountains. Abaris is also said to have come from Hyperborea. Later Greek historians *** give him a Skythian origin. They also call the upper portion of the Danube Hyperborea. (1:129), the ancestral home of the Magyars. The name of Mog-Ruith is in connection with Magor the Magyar Sungod, the “Ruith” part is connected with the T-R wordgroup represented in the Arthur legend.

The Druids worshipped a God by the name of Esus or Jesu and for this reason they welcomed the first Christian priests. The names of Esus or Jesu are of “pagan” origin and are identical of the Jász-Magyar peoples’ Jós, Jász, Jizzu names, who was their god of shine, light, represented by the Sun. Only much later legends connect this land with Joseph of Arimathea who was supposedly accompanied on one of his trade journeys by Jesus. Claudia and Linus mentioned in Paul’s letters in 63 AD may have originally come from this land.

Geoffrey Ashe originates all great religions from the Hyperboreans in the following order:

Hyperboreans

1. the Greek cult of Apollo, out of which arose

1.a the Pythagorean school



2. the Druids



3. the wisdom literature of the Vedas

3.a. Sumerian wisdom literature



4. Wisdom literature of the lama monasteries of the Altai



I have to mention that the only sub-branch of the Pythagorean school outside Greece was in Carthage, which land and people were very much connected with the settling of the British Isles.

Another common tradition of these places are the labyrinths, the meaning of which still eludes us. The recurring septenary maze in Rockey Valley near Tintagel is remarkable for its cross design intertwined with the seven lines of the maze. The cross in Magyar symbology is the symbol of light, the number seven was the holy number of infinity, eternity according to Ipolyi. There is surviving memory that the Druids were able to see the mountains of the moon, which presupposes that they had some sort of telescope.

In spiritual matters they busied themselves to bring back the wisdom of the ancient. One of their holy ceremonies were connected with the oak tree and mistletoe. Their priests stood in the fork of the oak tree akin to the ancient Magyar táltos ceremonies. They believed in immortality. According to Clement Pythagoras learned from them. But Stonehenge was the product of a pre-Druidic culture. The Druids maintained their organization which has two branches today. The Albion lodge initiated Winston Churchill in 1908.

Manopus is the name of an Irish divinity who is represented with a harp in his hand. His representation is similar to that of Apollo but he was not considered a solar deity. This name is related to the Magyar divinity Mén.

Avebury and Silbury is older than Stonehenge according to modern research. Avebury’s name consists of the following Magyar syllables: év (circle) and vár (bury) giving it a meaning of “round castle”. According to legend Silbury is the resting place of a king named Sil who was buried with golden armor. This names has a close affinity with the following Magyar words: Szil (pronounce Sil) is a place name in Hungary, a tree called szil-fa which played part in the ancient religion, Szél-úrfi (young master Wind) who was the symbol of energy and for his pollinating powers of fecundity also. The constellations of Sellő (mermaid) and Tündérfő (the head of the Fairies) belong into this category also. It is interesting that from these latter two places the fairies arrive always treesome as Sun, Moon and Star mothers according to Ipolyi’s research. These three mothers may be in the background of the Celtic triune female figures. The watery surrounding of Silbury can easily be connected with the sellő (mermaid) and hableány (girl of the waters) concepts. The legend of the Lady in the Lake may point to such ancient affiliations.

The legend of the stone circle at Cornwall calls it “Merry Maidens”, and its stones can be counted only by women. These too come to life to dance in a circle like Stonehenge’s stones.

Ancient tradition remembers a time when the ancestors were able to fly.

Hengist was the lord of Kent and his name is explained as “horse”. Both, the name of the person and the place is in connection with the Hun nation name and the word kanca (mare).

The horse is important in the symbology of the British isles. Most of these horses are white, like the Uffington horse, and there was one horse at Tysoe which was red. King Alfred is also connected with the legends of the white horse; the king’s name is explained as “Elf-rede” which points to the ancient times of the Fairies. He was brave, his laws stopped the bloodshed so popular in those days. In Magyar legends the white horse was part of the lunar, the red horse with the solar symbology. One of the last legends of the white horse are connected with Atilla. Mythology of the British isles honored a horse goddess by the name of Epona and her cult was also adopted by the Romans, who honored her as Regina. Epona’s name seems to echo the name of the sun and light (nap and fény) of the Pannons, an aboriginal culture of Pannonia on the western bank of the Danube.

Alfred’s son Athelstan lived in Northumbria and ruled Britain between 925-940 AD. A great many stories are attached to his figure. One of these stories makes mention that he accidentally burned the cakes of a poor man in the fire. This reminds me to the ever-present “cakes baked in ashes” which are integral part of Magyar stories. Athelstan’s name is related to the Etel, Atil names.

Cerne is the place of worship of a divinity named Helith, Helis or Heil. The Giant of Cerne holds a huge club in his right hand and his phallic importance is obvious in this handiwork of ancient artists. The name of the place, the name of the divinity, the club he is holding are connected with the Magyar kör (circle) and kel (arise, i.e. the rising sun), kalló (club) one of the names of the Sungod, Kallós, whose name was preserved in the names of Kolozsvár, Kolozs, city and place names in Erdély. Both the name and the representation is identical with Hercules of classical mythology, where the linguistic connection between Hercules and his club does not exist, but which is strong in both the Magyar and the British mythology.

The most authentic of the Lays, lines of sanctuaries is the one connected with Saint Michael. In another paper I discussed the connections of the “pagan” St. Michael, who was called Mikelu, Makal and similar names and Magor, Makar sungod names of the Magyars. The idea of the lays seems similar also to the Inka line of sanctuaries laid out in a sun-ray pattern with a center at Cuzko which shows the antiquity and universality of this thought.

The Temple of the Stars are ancient roads around Somerset’s Glastonbury which form the twelve figures of the zodiac. Its discoverer Katharine Maltwood believes them to e the work of Sumerians but because of their huge size and great antiquity her theory is questioned. Never having been in this region I am quietly proposing the consideration of the following. These lines may represent frequently traveled roads. In ancient times nighttime wanderers followed a “map of the sky”: they knew exactly which star points them into the right direction to reach from A to B. Each locale in Hungary had a representative star. Above Hollókő, the home of King Matthias Corvinus there are two stars visible: King Matthias and his beloved changed after their death into these stars.

Celtic tradition holds that the name of Brennius who was the lord of the northern part of the Isle came from a god called Bran. This name means raven, and in fact according to the Magyar law of reciprocity of words which is also present in the English language the two are but one another’s reciprocal form. The Magyar word for crow, rook (varjú) belongs into the same wordgroup. Bran was the lord of the druidic Beltain, their spring festival. A divinity called Belinus or Belenos was known in Northern Italy and Southern Gaul, and both of these are identical with the sungod Bál, Béla of the Palóc people.

Welsh legends know of a Beli-Mawr (Beli the Great), or Beli, the son of Manogan in whom they honor the ancestor of their people. The many geographical names containing the “-billing” affix are connected with the name of Belinus on the British Islands. The Welsh name, their progenitor’s name Beli, the North Italian Belinos or Belenos deities all lead to Bál, Béla Sungod of the Palóc nation. This name is also in direct relationship with the name of Palos Scythian prince mentioned by Diodorus Siculus. This name has no known etymology in the Germanic languages.

There is a belief in the mythology of the British Isles according to which male children are able to change to a stag, boar or wolf according to their will then turn back again into human form. This belief system is in connection with the Magyar Miracle Stag (Csodaszarvas) concept and the mythology of the boys who turned into a deer. I will return later to this legend when discussing the name of Oisin, later. A variation of this belief system is still celebrated among some of the American Indians as a testament of mankind’s once unified belief system and culture.

Llyr’s son Manawydan, or Lir’s son Mannan is the name of an Irish Sea-god. In Magyar the lé, lőre (liquid, turbulent liquid) is connected with god Lir. Mannan reiterates the name of Mén (stallion) who frequently represented the Moon. To link the name of the Moon and the waters is scientifically correct, since the moon exerts a lot of influence upon the waters, especially the sea. The Welsh name for the island of Man is Manaw, the Irish name is Mana, Manu, which also are connected with the Magyar Mén. This frequently mentioned Mén deity name has an enormous linguistic base in the Magyar language. Its comprehensive discussion is again beyond the scope of this paper.

Arthur’s Queen Guinevere appears in three figures occasionally and for this reason she is believed to be the Triune female goddess of the Welsh mythology. Earlier we brought the Magyar parallel for this phenomena as she may represent the Sun, Moon and Star-mothers of this mythology. She may also represent the three phases of moon according to the contents of the legend.

The cult of the “Stone of Destiny” goes back to Pictish origins. Their coronations used to take place in Scone, near Perth. The person to be crowned was seated on this stone. As the Scythian descendants, the Scoots occupied more and more lands. Finally Kenneth MacAlpine claiming Pictish ancestry had himself crowned King of the Picts and Scots. According to Scotish legends a princess Tea brought this stone to Ireland where she married Tamair. Tara’s landscape is adorned with round, flat topped mounds clearly discernible even today. Since the arrival of this stone all kings were crowned there. Prince Fergus, founder of Dalriada brought the stone first to the Island of Iona from Ireland, later the above mentioned Kenneth brought it to Scone. Edward I. brought it to Westminster, when Queen Elizabeth the II. with a magnanimous gesture returned this stone to Scotland. Linguistic connections of the above are as follows: Considering the round, flat topped mounds of Tara it is reasonable to connect this legend, its people to the Magyar tár-tér (return, space), Tera, Turan mother goddesses. These names are also connected with Arthur’s name and legends. Iona’s name is connected with the Jász nation’s name which is Ion. (Journal of Hungarian Studies 1996. 2.vol.) According to the much later Christianized legends Abraham slept on this stone when he saw the angels walking up and down between heaven and earth.



The Magyar connection of historical and geographical names.



Albactanus, king of Scotland was killed in a battle with the Huns 25 years after the arrival of the Trojans to the British Isles. (1:78) Later they were expelled from the southern part of the isle by Locrinus, and their leader by the name of Humber drowned in a river during the battle. This river is called Humber ever since. Ashe tentatively assigns British etymology to this name translating it as “good river”. Humber’s name seems to be affiliated with the Hun. In the patriarchal society of the Huns the river was always a symbol of masculinity and procreation: the Magyar words for to pour and semen (ont, ondó) are closely related thus preserving this concept up to this day. To give the Hun hero Humber’s name to the river seems logical. Ashe believes that the mention of the Huns at this age is incorrect and the result of a later historian’s error since Atilla’s Huns arrived centuries later in the European arena. The Huns were present as part of the Magyar nations since times immemorial in the Carpathian valley and have left many traces all over Western Europe from the earliest times on. The word home (hon), homo are a part of the Hun vocabulary. The full exploration of this line belongs to the future.

Another story tells us about Locrinus’ love for the German girl Estrildis. She was his lover for seven years and bore him a little girl named Habren. Once in Locrinus’ absence his wife had both mother and child killed by throwing them into a river. As an afterthought the called the river after the little girl Habren. This name became in the Latin language territory Sabrina, in the British Severn. The etymology of either name is unknown and cannot be explained based on Indogermanic etymology. The love affair which lasted seven years takes us back into the ancient times when legends were born. Geoffrey Ashe states the same and that according to ancient legends we are faced here with the guardian spirits of the waters. The Magyar word hab (water) and hableány (lit.: water-maidens) are part of the language and mythology. The later names of Sabrina and Severn are based on the Magyar word water (víz) and to seep away (visz). Considering that the water names of the British Isles are pre-British and many of them are identical with the pre-Árpád water names of Hungary we have to recognize the presence of the ancient Magyar peoples in both places. The western European link of the Magyar culture has been totally neglected by the foreign dominated historians who still try to maintain the Asian origins of the Hungarians. This act prevented the Western European nations to know their own history fully.

Molmutin was the founder of a new royal line. He built churches which were used as places of refuge and these constituted the first Christian churches. His sons ruled according to the idea of dual kingship which was practiced by the Magyar peoples also.

Belinus was the ruling king, his brother Brennius ruled over the Northern lands. Belinus’ name is identical with the name of the Palóc sungod Béla, which is still a frequent name in Hungary. Originally it meant “white light”. Caswallan, the son of Beli was able to become invisible with the help of his cloak which, when he was wearing it showed only his sword. This legend originated in the ancient times of the fairies. Brennius’ name belongs to the B-R wordgroup and is related to the Baranya and Baratya the Earth mother and Sun of the Avars. Baranya’s name is preserved in the name of one of the counties of Hungary.

There is mention that in the absence of the King a council of seven ruled the country. This same practice is echoed by the role of Árpád’s seven dukes. Tascianus ruled the two last decades BC. On his coins we find his name as Tas which was the name of these seven dukes. His other name was Tenuantius, the father of Cunobelinus who was also called Cymbeline. He was raised in Caesar’s court. The meaning of his name is explained as “The dog of Belinus”, or “The faithful follower of God”. On his coins he is portrayed a round headed, mustached gentleman with large, open eyes so often seen in Scythian representations. The Bel name in the transliteration of his name has been taken as “God”. The first syllable “cuno” is in connection with the Magyar kún, kan (cuneus, male principle) and would translate into “The Son of Bel”, or “The Son of the Sun”.

Arviragus was defeated by the Romans at Hampton. He married the daughter of Claudius and later he established Glouchester. His name brings us closer to the cultic vocabulary of the Avars (virág = flower, ar = a male), who were the horticulturists of their time.

Athelney is the name of the wetlands around Somerset’s Glastonbury. Athel following the analogy of Etel, Itil river and water names means water, but it is also connected with Atilla’s Magyar name, which is Etele. It is also interesting to note the “atheling” title of the British nobility. The Old and Middle English variation of this title is the masculine ćtheling and the feminine ćthelu. Considering the fact that legends of the British Isles talk about Huns way before the arrival of Atilla these names and titles take us back to ancient times also thus preserving an ancient Hun title. Atilla’s Etele name probably meant a royal prince originally, which was the expected title of the son of Bendeguz. In Anonymus Gesta Hungarorum he is mentioned as Athile (Anon. 1 and 5). The later doubling of the letter “t” in Atilla’s name rendering it Attila conformed to the accent of the German historians and writers. His name may also have meant that he descended from the line of the Royal Scythians. At the time of Álmos Emese’s dream is connected with the Atil-Etil-Itil related legends. She dreamt that from her womb a huge river ensued which engulfed the land and out of this a mighty nation will be born. Ipolyi sums up the traditions connected with the Etele name as follows: “...the Atel, Etel name is identical with with the name of the river Etel in Etelköz which flowed in that Magyar territory. This can be also observed in the case of another ancient progenitor’s name which was Tana and the river Don, or Tanais is identical with his. This also reminds us of the legendary descendancy of heroes from deities on an elemental level which we also find in the later saga of the hero Álmos, and also in the Scythian legends which talk about Targitaus, the ancestor of the Skythans as a descendant of Zeus and the nymph of the river Borysthenes (Herodot 4,5).” Returning to Tana’s name “...Tana, the ancient father of our (i.e. Magyar) chronicles may well be the first Skythan ruler with the same Tana name... In our language tanya means a settled mode of living, a permanent base, and as we have seen it may mean a “seat”, settlement meaning the descensus of the earlier generation.” (9: vol.I:203)

So Etele’s name is in direct relationship with the Skythan ancient legends whence as we have seen, the holy vessel, symbol of life and the Holy Grail originated. Considering that the British historians take the origins of Britain to the time shortly after the arrival of Troyan refugees one one side and the lost tribes of Israel on the other, culminating in William the Concqueror’s arrival in 1066 and that the Skythan ancient legends take us back to the very earliest times of human history the origin of these legends, geographical and historical names can be considered the products of the early Magyar culture-sphere. It seems appropriate to mention that while a strong central government based on an organized county system was existing in the year 1.000 as a unified political entity, the same could come about only some eight-hundred years later in other parts of Europe, like during the unification of German and Italian principalities. The aforementioned historical names, such as Duna, Don, Dentumagyar can also be found in the British Isles. The name Dana, Damasek ancient Magyar God-name is affiliated with the name of the Mesopotamian Dumuzi; this helps us realize that a very unified Magyar culture was the cultural base of Eurasia.

Iona was the name of an island which was the holy land and burial ground of the Pikts, Scots and the inhabitants of Northumbria. Later it became the northern center of Christianity. Iona is another name of our Jász people. This name is also connected with mourning (gyász).

Kenneth MacAlpine was king of Dalriada in 843 AD. He occupied the territory of the Pikts and brought the Stone of Destiny to Albany. Dalriada’s name has a Magyar meaning.



Legends



The oldest collection of mythological material, The Four Branches of Mabinogi dates to the 11. century AD.

The white horse is an integral part of the Royal Welsh mythology, along with the deer hunt in which Annwfn’s gleaming white dogs with red ears try to capture the stag. Both the stag and the dog are symbolical animals of the Magyar peoples and their figures are present as architectural motif, drawings from the earliest times. In this legend the lord of the otherworld is Arawn which echoes the Magyar word arany with a meaning of shine and gold.

In a battle between the Irish and the Welsh people only seven soldiers (Britons) escaped alive. In Magyar legends this same symbolic story is part and parcel of several legends one dating to the Ice age (the seven regős), later the story was attached to some battles (time of the Árpáds) and even a Christian legend of the seven bards who visited Jesus and are now buried in the tiny town of Hetény, which name is also a variant of the word hét, meaning seven. Recent excavations found several sanctuaries which give some credence to this story. The use of the number seven, which is the Magyar’s holy number always points to the legends’antiquity.

The Cornish descent from the giant Gogmagog and the princess Albina’s union with demons and consequently giving birth to giants is also part of the Scythian-Magyar origin stories.**** Ipolyi believes the origin legend of Góg and Magóg (9:I:203-204) is an authentic pre Christian Magyar tradition. He refers to Anonymus who talks about an ancient tradition which has become somewhat clouded in the course of centuries; this legend preserved a knowledge Skythans and the surrounding peoples along with this mythology.

Tristan and Isolda’s stories originated in the Pictish legend of Drust. Isolda’s name was Essylt, Iseult, Isolt Yseut according to tradition. There is mention of a Tristan stone in Cornwall near Castle Dore. A Latin inscription states the following: “Drustanus lies here the son of Cunomorus.” The latter name is spelled Kynovawr. The “cuno” syllable brings the Hun, Kun group to mind.

Land’s End is the name of a territory near the ocean and beyond it lies the sunken Lyonesse. Land’s End is frequently mentioned in our legend. The ancient stories clearly indicate a knowledge of the roundness of the Earth, but later stories may be connected with this region. There is knowledge of the fact that Magyars did come to the Irish sulfur caves and their surrounding religious communities seeking spiritual enlightenment during the days of early monasticism which quite possibly began in the ancient pagan days. Their connection with the British isles continued through the centuries. It is by no accident that the birth of the Magna Carta and the Magyar Golden bull was written within a few years. Oxford’s first student was a Magyar. According to the records here his name was Nicola de Hungaria. His education was provided for between 1193-96 by Richard the Lionhearted who was the brother in law of Hungary’s queen Margaret. (V.16:18)

The Scots, who originated themselves from the Scythians call their kingdom in Argyll Dalriada. Prince Árgyélus’ memory has been preserved in early and later literature alike and his figure takes us back to the time of the Fairies. Dalriada’s famous hero Colum was famous not only his literacy but his mighty voice which carried for miles. With this voice he could call people to battle easily. Considering that his life centered around the church of St. Finnian and the Finnian name carries pagan memories, Colum’s role must have been connected with ancient memories and may even have been the name giver of Dalriada which has a Magyar meaning of “battlesong”.

The legend of the birth of Loch-Ness talks in a very detailed manner of the topography of the land prior to the birth of this lake. When, due to certain happenings the ground waters were given free way and the lake ensued the people called out: “Ta loch nis ann!” (there is a lake now), thus explaining the lake’s present name. This legend contains two important aspects: One, the people remembered that long time ago there was no lake. At the time when this legend originated the people did not know that at the end of the 20th century American scientists looking for “Nessie” found three stone circles similar to that of Stonehenge on the lake’s bottom. which These stone circles must have been built by men prior to the sinking of this land. According to science the separation of the North American continent and Europe gave birth to this lake. The word loch is related to the Magyar lok, lék, luk words, meaning a “hole”. Similar ancient legends report a knowledge of the inland seas of the Great Plains and Pannonia in Hungary.

In Fingal and Ossian’s legend the word Finn means a blond, fair haired person. Its Magyar equivalent is fény (light). He was renown for his otherworldly knowledge and also could change his figure into dog or stag depending on the angle of how he wears his cap. These shifting of figures and his name connect him to the Fairy times. The historical Finn died in 230 AD. The same role was assigned in Ireland to Finn, in Scotland to Fingal, in Wales to Arthur. According to legend Finn was born of Nuadu whose name is akin to the Magyar nedű (liquid) which we already discussed.

Gwynn of the Welsh legend is the son of Nudd and consequently it is believed his name must mean white. His son is Oisin meaning “little fawn”. The first syllable of this name is identical with the Magyar “őz”. The linguistic connections are ős, ősz (ancestor, old) words, the legend may contain the Magyar legend of the boy who became a deer. The legend may lead us even further, to our beginnings and the Miracle Stag who was the personification of the starry sky, the Tree of Life and was God’s messenger bringing with him the song of Creation. Oisin was one of the poets who moved to Tir-na-nOg for a long time. As we know it, the Magyar Miracle Stag was the starry sky, and so the “Little Fawn’s” departure to the world of the stars is understandable since symbolically he was the son of the Miracle Stag.























Linguistic affiliation of the Grail legend with the Magyar language.



As we know the Holy Grail is believed to be a round vessel, its custodian at one point was the Fisher King. These aspects have the following linguistic affiliations.



K-R group

kör circle

kerek round

korsó a round vessel

kor aetas

kór chronic disease

király king

korona crown

caer city, akin to kör=circle

Corbenic place name



H-L group

hál to sleep

hal - to sink

hal fish

halász fisher

hal meghal

halál death

hely a place

Heil Celtic divinigy

Heli son of Lud

holló Corvinus



gyűrű

győr vár, város



grail kerek edény

Glastonbury place name





T-R

tur bull

turni to dig up

tér enclosed space

tér to return

tűr to roll something

into a round shape

Turul hunting bird with a

circular flight- pattern

Tor is a round mound







The Grail legend is believed to be of Sarmatian origin. It is a round, royal vessel holding life, and food. The Magyar wordgroup connected with the Holy Grail express this concept. The idea and role of this vessel has a close relationship with the ancient round, gold Magyar Suncap which was a male-female united symbol, thus the symbol of Life. The ability of independent action is part of both the Magyar and the Grail legends. It is said that the the last time Holy Crown appeared independently was when it was realised on the head of Rex Mathias Corvinus. Thus the Holy Crown selected him king. The cognomen of this king is Hollós, or Corvinus and both words belong into the same consonantal group. The Holy Crown is considered a personage in Hungary and has a title of His Majesty. We also have to realize that linguistics “proto” languages, may they be “proto Indo-European”, “proto Greek” or any other “proto” language are all based upon the Magyar language.

The places of the Grail legend are often called caer, like Caer Lud, the city of Lud, which name is akin to the Magyar kör, meaning a circle, an enclosed space. Lud was the son of Heli whose name is also part of the K-R wordgroup.

The Magyar linguistic affiliation of the Fisher King (Halász Király) are numerous and noteworthy. The personification of death is often expressed as a fisher and part of our ancient legend. According to Ipolyi (II:123-124) “the memory of Death as a fisher and his net is a vague but still existing concept” and “talking about the spirit world of the river Sajó as one enters this castle one sees glass bells on the table. The Fairy of this castle explains that the spirit of the people who drowned in the river are kept in these glass bells and when one lifts them up white doves fly up from under the glass bells.” In constantly bleeding person we recognize Life which is constantly dying and resurrecting and is part of the Magyar Mythology. The Holy Grail, the lance, the sword of the legend are all life-symbols with a wide circle of linguistic affiliations.

[We are discussing the Sarmatian-Alan-Karthaginian cultural affinities in context with the excavation in Regöly, Hungary. The cultural identity of the Sarmatian-Iazyg culture we discussed in our 1996 Journal. Ed.]



*

The basis of the Magyar legends and the legend of the British Isles is a memory of an ancient Fairy Age and Golden Age which tells us about eternal life and eternal beauty. Heroes who undertook a journey into the lands among the stars had always an open door for return to this Earth. They did not believe in death. In a Magyar ancient history there is mention of certain “special creations”, men, who are not subject to death. In later legends prince Csaba, son of Atilla and his heroes return on the Milky Way to help their people. The Milky Way since then it is also called the Road of Battle-troops. The same spirit shines through the legends of the British Isles to us in which — as in a magic mirror — we recognize ourselves. Geoffrey Ashe summarizes the Arthur legends with the following words: “The Arthurian legend owes much of its lasting fascination to the perennial dream of a golden age, which comes to its sharpest Arthurian focus in Malory, but it is constant in all the forms which the legend assumes.”



Reference

1. Geoffrey Ashe, Mythology of the British Isles, Trafalgar Square Publishing, North Pomfret, Vermont

2. Grandpierre, K. Endre Aranykincsek Hulltak a Hargitára, (Gold treasures fell upon the Hargita) Népszava Publ. Budapest, 1990

3. Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol. 4, 5, 10

4. Herodotos History, 2 vol. Every Man’s Library 405, 406 London, 1949

5. Magyar, Adorján Az Ősműveltség, Budapest, 1955

6. C. Scott Littleton Were the Sarmatians the source of Arthurian legend? Archaeology, January/February 1997

7. Dr. Baráth, Tibor A Magyar Népek Őstörténete (The History of the Magyar Peoples) Publ. Zoltán Somogyi 1968

8. Erdélyi, Zsuzsanna Hegyet hágék, lőtőt lépék, (A collcetion of archaic Magyar prayers) Magvető Könyvkiadó Budapest 1976

9. Ipolyi, Arnold Magyar Mythologia, (Magyar Mythology) Ferenc Zajti publ. Third edition, Budapest, 1929

10. Papp, Antal Utikönyvek. Magyarország, (Hungarian Travel books) Seventh edition. Panoráma Publ. Budapest.

11. Archćologiai Értesítő, 1966. I. szám, 93. kötet, Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest

12. Tomory, Zsuzsa Magyar English Word Origins,Manuscript, 1995

13. Tomory, Zsuzsa Kezdeteink, (Our Beginnings), Manuscript 1995























Scots

Came from Scythia. One of their nobles married the Pharao’s daughter Scota. They were eventually expelled from Egypt, wandered for fourtytwo years and finally settled in Spain for a thousand years, from here they went to Ireland’s Argyll, called Dalriada by the Scots

divinity



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Szerk.



The Holy Grail and the Hungarian Holy Crown



According to the Encyclopćdia Britannica, the Holy Grail is a round, wide vessel. The etymology of the word is not known but it is assumed that it goes back to Celtic origin, since there is a long tradition of magic cauldrons, horns of plenty, vessels that give new life and so on. The Grail’s first written record dates to 1200 AD to Robert de Boron’s work on this subject. This word is sometimes connected with the Old French word graal, which means a large, deep serving vessel. Its Magyar etymology through the “K-R” wordgroup and its affiliations gives added explanations not only to this name but the names of places, historical and mythical figures of the British Islands that were touched by the Grail’s presence. In our further discussions we will follow the data of Geoffrey Ashe’s cited work. Within the limited scope of this paper we will mention only the some of the Grail related materials.

Ashe mentions among the custodians of the Holy Grail the Fisher King, whose land and he himself are dying, bleeding of several wounds. There is mention of an invisible and very holy father. Young attendants carry the Holy Grail and a bleeding lance. The Grail is described here as a splendid vessel studded with jewels; it can provide new life, food and religious ecstasy. Ashe believes it to be a holy object of the old pagan cultures as these qualities all appear in the pre Christian legends of the Iles. The quest for the Holy Grail is similar to the old Irish imramas. These journeys lead the seekers even King Arthur later on to Annwfn, which is neither heaven nor hell, but a parallel universe of the Celtic people. One of the heroes of the Grail, Perleslaus embarks on such a journey, across the waters. Magyar heroes looking for the water of life go beyond the “Óperenciás” Ocean, which name denotes not only the oceans embracing the dry lands, but our atmosphere too, which revolves with our Earth. It is this ocean through which the heroes travel on magic, talking-flying horses (Táltosparipa) until they reach Ilona’s fairy castle, where they had to slay a seven headed dragon in order to accomplish their task. Ilona is the Magyar’s mother Earth and her name translates into “Mother of Life.” Her abode was an Island in heavens (ég) Milky Way, and she had an Island home in the Carpathian basin also. Her name later became synonymous with “island” in many western European languages, such as the English island, the old English iland or igland and the French l’il.

Avalon, Glastonbury and Corbenic are prominent places connected with the Arthurian and Grail legends. Considering that these legends are connected with peoples of Scythian origin, like the Picts, the Welsh, the Irish and Scots it is no wonder the some traditions hold that the Holy Grail finally returned to Asia its original homeland, or it went up to Heaven. Since the Grail origins are now connected with Sarmatian origins, its Magyar affiliations will give further important data.

Ashe, the dedicated researcher of the Arthurian legends believes that the Holy Grail is a summation of the male-female principle and symbols. At the base of Magyar consciousness is the knowledge of the interchangeability of energy and matter. This knowledge was built into their language and is part of their symbology also. The pure gold sun-cap of the ancient Magyar kings, as a cap when worn round side up on one’s head was considered a male symbol, which united heaven and earth into a creating unit. According to Magyar legends only a man, who was chosen by the Holy crown can become king. The last such king was Hollós Mátyás, Mathias Corvinus. Tradition holds that the Holy Crown just appeared on his head and in this way did it become apparent who should be King. Both the Hollós and the Corvinus cognomens and the Magyar names of the raven (holló) holding a ring (gyűrű) which appear on their family crest belong into the large K-R wordgroup as does the word grail. Matthias Corvinus Rex’s famous library and his Corvinae may have held great amounts of European early history. Pitifully they have become scattered by foreign invaders. The presence of ravens is greatly connected with the Arthurian legends and a still nurtured, living tradition in England.

When the cap is used as a vessel, hollow side up it becomes a symbol of femininity, which is able to contain, to enfold. Yet the cap and the cup are both essentially the same. The Magyar language expresses this concept of interchangeability of energy, which is considered the male principle of creation and matter, which is the female principle through the reciprocity of words. The Magyar bak (buck) is a male, its reciprocal form kupa (cup) is a female symbol along with the word kap (to receive). One also must note that the Magyar and English words are identical both in meaning and form. There are several hundred words identical between the Magyar and English language, which is the subject of a separate study. I will touch only upon the few words closely related to this present article.

The memory of the gold Magyar Sun-crown was handed down from ancient traditions. The object and its symbology originated in a time when only Magyars (humans) lived on this earth in a happy Golden Age. Later historical epochs handed down this symbol to many generations where these still live in their souls, language and traditions. When overpopulation of the Carpathian basin spilled over to the neighboring lands and new successive societies were formed this symbol still remained important in the mythology of Magyar peoples. Let us take a look what the Greek authors wrote.

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The first saga of Herodotos





The “feathers," pihe in the Magyar language denotes both down and snowflakes. The informant of Herodotos must have spoken Magyar according to this remark. If there would be no further proof even this one word could serve as important testimony of the common language and origins of the Magyars-Skythans and Huns. According to Herodotos at the time of these princes a golden plow, and yoke fell from the sky, symbols of a settled, agricultural life which originated at the time of Fairies’ Golden Age. According to Magyar legends God thought our ancestors this peaceful mode of living. The word ****bárd**** I am translating as “fokos," the double ax of the Siculs and which is also a symbol of life. The cup, as we have already seen symbolizes the Sky and Earth, energy and matter, in summary: it is the symbol of Life.

Later on we will see that the Holy Grail is also a life- and sustenance-giving properties much like the magic table of the Magyars. But it is only in the Magyar language where life and sustenance can be expressed with the same word: élet.

The second legend of Herodotos





The royal princes wear a cup here too as sign of their ancestry. It is an important circumstance that Skythes won the cup, from whom the Huns and Székelys (Siculi) descend and among whom the Székely holy, sacramental vessel (székely áldozópohár) still upholds this heritage. It is also important to note that beginning with Skythes all Skythans wear this holy cup on their belts, which is an important symbol of the equality of all Székelys to this day. The ideal of equality emerges again in the legends of King Arthur and which ideal is part of a Sarmatian and Skythian heritage. Arnold Ipolyi held the traditions of the Székely holy vessel very important and he followed the fate of the hereditary priestly order of the Rabonbáns up to our days. (9:II. Vol. 296) He also makes mention of other libation vessels: “...at sacrificial ceremonies the cauldrons could not be missed and so certain holy vessels were used at the libation ceremonies. Anonym (one of the first codex writers during the reign of the Árpáds) mentions them in conjunction with blood ceremonies: ’Fusis sanguinibus in unum vas.’ The Székely Holy Cup is mentioned in this context which may be a surviving part of an ancient tradition inherited from the Scythian antiquity as part of a tradition as the Székely Chronicle’s historical segment tells us (9:II, 276-8), as if this cup would have belonged to the well known Skythan Anacharsis; how holy this vessel was to them it is shown by the fact that this cup was used in ceremonies performed by the Rabonbáns.” Beautiful examples of such cauldrons were excavated in the Hungary proper and its surrounding areas. Ipolyi also mentions the horns that served as libation vessels, musical instrument and weapon of defense at the same time. The horn of plenty’s additional meaning of light and plenty is discussed in detail by Adorján Magyar.

A holy vessel of the Székelys is called the Ukkon cup is a wide, flat vessel with a rounded bottom used at ceremonies sealing an agreement. This vessel cannot be put down due to this construction until it has not been fully emptied. Ipolyi brings this word in relation with the Magyar words ük (ancestor) and ég (sky). He also mentions the “zádok” trees which were considered in ancient pagan times a holy tree, God’s tree; in later Christian times they were grown near the churches; out of the wood of these trees were the ancient holy vessels or cups made.” (9:I,330)

Dr. Tibor Baráth brings a cup pertaining to the Nagyszentmiklós treasure in Hungary, which is a low, wide mouthed vessel studded with precious stones. Its shape and decoration are the equivalent of the Holy Grail’s appearance as tradition describes it. (7:I,4). Dr. Baráth believes that it was this cup used to poison Atilla. Imre Oláh researcher of runic writings translated the runic script as a blood holding vessel. The different translations necessitate further studies. Considering that today’s historians connect the Grail legend also with the arrival of the Alans in the West, these two synchronicities cannot be accidental.

The Sumerians speaking an agglutinative, non Indo-European European language lived in a matriarchal society. Their holy vessel in the Dumuzi legend held milk. When this cup was broken by the evil spirited Gallas, his life came to an end too.

Archaic Magyar prayers also preserved the memory of an ancient holy vessel. In its Christianized form “three drops of blood of our Lord Christ and three crops of milk of the Virgin Mary were collected in this vessel” (8:247). Jenő Szilveszter, researcher of Hungarian history pointed out that the content of these holy vessels is a mirror of the society which holds them in reverence. The cup’s content in a matriarchal society is the milk of a Goddess. In patriarchal societies where life has to be protected through the shedding of blood, especially at times of war — as we have seen in case of the Árpáds’ covenant — the sense of unity is expressed through blood. The cups of the ancient Magyar prayers contain both: milk and blood. I consider this an eloquent sign of their society based upon the equality of the sexes; the crown witness of the existence of this society is the Magyar word “feleség” meaning “my half," meaning my wife. When faced with the overwhelming force of an enemy the women fought next to the men like the famous women of Eger fought against the onslaught of the Turks even in the 16th century AD. Women also kept their maiden names, like Ilona Zrinyi, Zsuzsanna Lórántffy, mentioning only the two best known historical figures.

The previously mentioned golden Sun-cap, which originated in the fairy times of the Golden Age and made out of the gold of the Csallóköz was the original, ancient Magyar Holy Crown. At the time of the last coronation it disappeared and a gold fabric has been put in the cup’s place. Was this “disappearance” an act of malicious robbery, or is the saga of the Holy Grail thus continuing?



History as told by Diodorus Siculus



“This narrative uses similar method of originating words concerning the names of Palos and Napus, similar to that of Herodotos in the case of Scythes; according to Siculus the Palos and Napus people got their names, which sound very familiar to the Magyar ears, from their two kings. It is easy to recognize in the first one the Palóc nation’s name, in Napus we recognize our word for Sun (Nap). This name is also preserved in the ancient name of Kolozsvár that was Napóca in Erdély (Transylvania). The Saka, Sekel, Sicul or Székely nation belonged to the ancient Scythians. According to Diodoros we also have to place the Massagetae, the Arimasp and the Sarmatians to the Scythian people” says Endre K. Grandpierre, dedicated researcher of Hungarian antiquities.

Diodorus Siculus also talks about the huge territories which the Scythians occupied and this will be important in relationship with the origin saga of the Scottish people. The name of Media is also related to the Magyar mező, méz, and méh (meadow, honey and bee) words. The concept of a land “flowing with milk and honey” as the epitome of plenty must have originated in the lands of the milk drinking Skythans.

Studying the history of the British Isles the Magyar historical and geographical names are frequent obvious.



Arthur

Geoffrey Ashe mentions that the Celts have no mythology in which a god by the name of Arthur can be found.

In Magyar traditions the name Artur leads us to our Őstörök nation and the prehistory of the Turanian peoples. The second syllable of this name “tur” means bull and a maleness. The feminine of this word is “tér," which means a well defined, material space, and also a return. This word describes our beautiful Sun’s daily journey and return just as much it describes the circling flight of the falcon, which the Török group called Turul-bird. In this context Arthur’s name means Bull Man, Sun man, whose role is linked inseparably with his return.

Arthur’s first appearance and his birth by sea and fire are miraculous. Maybe a Magyar folk song describes this and similar miraculous births the best: “I have not been born by a mother, I grew on a rose tree, I was born at the dawn of Whitsuntide (pünkösd)”. The word pünkösd clearly indicates an affiliation to the Magyar words of sun and shine (fény and nap), thus connecting this concept with the ancient Sun religions. This legend designates Cornwall as Arthur’s birthplace Cornwall’s name alone has many linguistic and symbolic affinities with these religions within the Magyar culture-sphere. Ashe cited Tennyson’s Idylls in which Arthur is the descendant of the ancient peoples of light. His miraculous sword which was forged by fairies came into his possession under miraculous circumstances. His taking possessions of the sword greatly resembles the sword legend of Atilla. Arthur’s sword was embedded in a stone, Atilla’s in the earth of a meadow where it was found by a shepherd boy. These two different sceneries mirror the different environments where the same legend was preserved.

According to another legend, Arthur is the son of Uther and Ygerna. Uther’s other name is Pendragon, meaning Dragonhead, or Head dragon, where the latter may designate a military title. Here I have to mention the Báthory family. According to their family history they ancestors were so ancient that they still slew dragons. Behind the Pendragon cognomen a similar memory may be hiding. The Welsh name “pen” means head, “fő” in Magyar and both are related to the Magyar “nap” and “fény," which are but reciprocal forms of one another and leads us to the religious vocabulary of our Pannon people. The first syllable of the Greek word “drákon” may also be connected with a word of light, shine (Magyar dél, deli and the name Greek island of Delos, where Apollo’s sanctuary stood). The last syllable of both words is connected with the Magyar kun, kan, meaning a maleness. Considering these the Pendragon name may be understood as Sun-Man, Radiant Man, Son of the Sun.

The greater part of Arthur’s life is connected with the Glastonbury Tor; both names belong into the same T-R wordgroup. Almost every stone of Glastonbury carries memories of a bygone Fairy Age. According to the legends of the British isles, the fairies spoke the language of the Trojans. The Tor itself is a hill, spiraling upwards with a building on top. This construction reminds us of the ancient spiraling towers (tűrt torony). The spiraling turf designs of a maze at different parts of the Isles and may have encircled the Tor. The Welsh name Caerdroia, meaning Troy connects us with another Magyar group’s religious vocabulary utilizing the K-R sounds. The seven walls of the maze, its affiliation with Troy, the Aegeans and some of the American Indian structures places the concept these buildings into great antiquity. According to legends, the church of Glastonbury stands since times immemorial and its floor design holds a message that has not been understood yet. Some of the floor-plans of the ancient Magyar castles in Erdély also convey a meaning which I discussed in another paper in detail.

Between Glastonbury Tor and the Chalice hill we find a place called Chalice Well, all are connected with the Arthurian legends. Todays hills around Glastonbury once formed a peninsula with a very narrow landbridge. Today it is a wetland. Because of the surrounding waters some believe it to be Avalon. In prehistoric times the Tor was the original home of a Mother Goddess, called Matrona. This name appears Latin, but its Magyar affiliations cannot be easily dismissed. The already mentioned Magyar names mét and mező, the Sarmatian mata, the Sumerian matu mean meadow and land, and accordingly Matrona may have been the name of Earth Mother. Morgan, was Avalon’s owner and Arthur was taken to her in the hope of recovering from his illness by Barinthus, who knew these waters well. In later legends Barinthus became St. Brendan, the traveling Irish saint. Barinthus’ name is kin with the Avar B-R wordgroup, with such words as vár, barlang, bárka meaning castle, cave and boat. The Avar Earth Goddess’ name Baranya also belongs here and are part of their mythology.

The local folklore believes that the inside of the Tor is hallow. The legends concerning this cave are varied and many. The surrounding earth formations are called Arthur’s chair, oven, round table, to mention only a few. One of the stones bears the footprints of Arthur’s dog called Cabal. The etymology of this name is not known and is brought into some relationship with the Latin caballus, thus mentioning Arthur’s horse too. Even so the legends of Arthur’s dog represent more ancient layer of folklore. The word Cabal may be a derivative of the Magyar hab meaning water. The dog may be a logical personification of the water in this region and would merit some further study. (The pastoral society of the Balaton region in Hungary called the waves of the Balaton “goats”.)

According to legend Arthur lives in a cave (barlang) as does Plutarch’s Cronos; both of them are believed to return and for the sole purpose to bring back the Golden Age. Cronos’s name and mythology was derived from a pre-Greek source and is connected with the Magyar word “kor” meaning aetas; this word also contains the word “kör” meaning circle, a line returning within itself. Arthur’s name contains the tár, tér element. Both the kör and the tér mean the same circle expressed with the different religious vocabulary of two dialectal groups.

Legend holds, that after death (halál) Arthur changed into a raven (holló) and awaits the time of his return in this form. The word holló is also but a softened form of the kör (circle), it is also the bird of sorrow and mourning. It is interesting to note that according to legends it was the raven who stole the fire from the heavens. Considering that Arthur’s role is to bring back the Golden Age, the origins of this legend lead us back into the very ancient times of the fairies and the Golden Age.

The circles of ancient earthworks with flat tops are mentioned as Arthur’s table. This again brings the Magyar legends of the miraculous little table that gives instant sustenance to anyone who is asking, similar in role to the Holy Grail. This miraculous table was the symbol of the Earth, a feminine concept. The castles of Mayburgh, Avebury, the Stirling castle in Scotland are the better known. The English words “bury” and “burgh” are related to the Magyar rovás and vár words, which are again words of the Avar culture sphere.

The towns near the Tor hide La Tčne artifacts. The Tor was excavated by Ratz in 1960 and according to him its origins lead back to Neolithic times, when it must have been the center of a religion predating Christianity.

As we can see even from this short overview, Arthur’s legends go back much further than the fifth century AD, back to the Golden Age. His role has changed according to whose traditions we are looking at. He is mentioned as a King in Britannia. The Welsh consider him as a hero. As the Tor points to a greater antiquity, so does Arthur’s name which leads us back to the name of a divinity. It is significant to note that the Arthur legends survived the longest on Celtic grounds, within the Celtic culture.

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The Arthur legends are closely associated with the legends of fairies, and the history of Britain really is the Age of the Fairies. This has several legends clustered around objects, places. Among these legends it is important to note from a Magyar point of view that these fairies, according to tradition spoke the language of Troy. Both Arthur’s and Troy’s name is affiliated with the Magyar “túr” (bull). Ashe also mentions that this name cannot be derived from any Celtic divinity’s name. On the other hand the Magyar word-affiliations bring them in connection with some of the Magyar nations, in which Arthur, more correctly Artur was the personification of the Sun just as much, as the Magyar Toldi Miklós, or his mythical equivalent Tar Lőrinc. Tor of the Germanic people, William Tell was also the product of this mythology.

The fairies remained in Craig-y-Ddinas and Glamorgen and from here they moved on to their heavenly home. The same happening is remembered in Magyar legends, where the fairies fled their home in Csallóköz from the gold-hungry intruders and went first to Erdély, later moved back to their home in the Cygnus star system. The Magyar fairy-folk was the personification of eternal goodness, youth; the representatives of the new faith began to paint them evil to discourage people from talking about them, but these efforts never really took root. The sometimes playful or sinister fairy stories of the British Isles probably underwent such transformation also.

It is important to note, that all pre-Christian places of worship, the fairies themselves in Britain are connected in legend with the art of healing. This is the case in Magyar tradition also. A Magyar folksong mentions that the avocation of Magyars is to heal all the wounds that others inflicted with “whistles, drums and violins made of reed.” Both the fairy traditions of the British Isles and the Magyar traditions held that the fairies lived in a matriarchal society. The British tradition remembers that they had luminous white dogs with red ears, which remind me of the symbolic animal of the white Huns.

A fairy King is also known, whose name is Ap-Nudd. Their King of the waters is called Nodon, who was the king of dogs, fishermen and hunters also. He participated in healing and he is the finder of lost objects. His role was passed onto St. Anthony later. According to legend his home was at the Glastonbury Tor. Considering, that he was the god of the fishermen also, the Grail legend’s Fisher King must have come down from this ancient age also. Around the Tor there was once an extensive wetland, the Tor itself was surrounded by a trench and mote which reminds us of the Avar and ancient Magyar castles. The pre Árpád city of Vetvár, meaning Vízvár (water castle) bears testament of this.

The Tuatha de Danann people of Ireland revered a Goddess named Danann of whom they believed that she is the mother of the Gods. Her place of worship is in Conacht. The king of Tuatha-De-Danann, Nuadu is identical with Nudd and Noden deities. Geoffrey Ashe mentions the Danann name in conjunction with the river names of Don and Duna, the Sanskrit danu, meaning water. The word nedű meaning liquid and the name of the giant Tana, one of the forebearers of the Magyars is in close connection with these ancient names. The figure of the Long Man of Wilmington as he walks toward the river is the summary of the two.

Avalon’s Fairy Queen was Argante-Morgan, its inhabitants were maidens. The Welsh name is Ynys Avallach, where Arthur’s sword was forged. This name is tentatively translated as “Apple Island." Morgan’s other homes are an island, Ile de Seins beyond the borders of Britannia and a place in Sicily. The founding of Sicily is attributed to the Sicul people who are related to the Siculs in Hungary, living in the Göcsej region. In this way we have to count among the Sicul fairy castles not only the ones in Erdély but in Sicily also. According to legend Morgan was able to fly. At the time this legend originated people did not know that in Addura city Sicily there is a cave drawing depicting human figures in the act of a gravity free enviroment: flying without wings. This art has come to life during the second World War when an explosion opened up the cave and brought this drawing into the open. Morgan is the daughter of Ygerna and Morgause. She is possibly the same as the Welsh Modron who is believed to be the goddess of waters. The Ygerna name is related to the Magyar Ég (sky) and the Yggdrasil tree which reaches the sky of the Scandinavian myth. Avalon’s name reminds us of the Palóc Mother Earth Vilona. Her symbol was the forked trunk of a tree. Béla Sungod arose in this frame symbolizing the unity of energy and matter, which is Life itself. The English words valley, well belong into the same cultic vocabulary, meaning a hole a depression, a fork; the words life, love are also a part of the Palóc culture.. The name Ile de Sein brings into focus the aforementioned connection with the Magyar Mother of Life Ilona; the Sein part of the name is identical with the Magyar word sajó (flowing). This word in fact has become the name of several rivers in Europe, beginning with Hungary. This word also denotes shine, where the English and Magyar words are identical. In summary the name of Avalon can be connected with the concept of a place of shine, as the Magyar home of Ilona, the island in the Csallóköz means the same.

Ogygia, the land of “short nights” beyond the ocean means the abode of the Sun, the sky (Ég); the “ia” ending is the abbreviation of jó, jav and survived to denote a place of belonging. Óg in Magyar also means the highest point of a dome, such as the highest point of the sky.

The Irish mythology calls Avalon Tir-na-nOg meaning the land of the young. Another name is Mag-Mon with unexplained etymology. This latter reminds us of the names of Magor and Mén God names. Mona is the name of Anglesey, an island country of northwest Wales carries Mén’s name as does the name of the Island of Man.

The early mythology of the British Isles remind us of Elysium of the Greeks, which is Kronus’ abode that was believed to be beyond the western seas. Linguistically Kronos’ name belongs to the K-R wordgroup connected with a circle, return and eternity. Earlier we have pointed out the similarities of the Kronos and Arthur legends. In Greek makar means happiness and Magor, Makar God of the Magyar mythology is our proverb’s happy god who helps the plans of the poor. Considering that the island’s name is Mag-Mon we are faced again with ancient Magyar mythology. I have to stress, that as in Avalon, in the Csallóköz only fairy-girls assembled awaiting the arrival of young men for their spring festivals. Heroes visit this island also, which is frequently called “the Island of Happiness”, “Island of Girls”. When the heroes finally returned from such a visit they realized that they have spent not days there but a great many years and the people talk of them as of long gone ancestors. The possibility of traveling to the distant land of the Fairies and the implication of relativity is present in the Irish legends just as much as it is the Magyar legend in a story of a young man climbing the tree which reaches the heavens. Upon his return he realized that the cities, the people he knew are gone and he dies brokenhearted. The many implications of this Magyar story are numerous. To facilitate understanding I have to mention that the tree that reaches heavens is the starry sky in Magyar mythology. There is also a memory of moon travel among these ancient memories. Taliesin’s poem calls Avalon the island of the lucky. His poem also talks about our other home: “My original country is the region of the summer stars...”

Camelot’s geographical location is unknown. Tennyson mentions it was built by fairy kings, it appears-disappears easily, magic music emanates from it, statues come to life and he represents it as the epitome of a full life and beauty. As for the Fairy Kings:

“...they are building still, seeing the city is built

to music, therefore never built at all,

and therefore built for ever.”

This poem cannot be explained in any other way as by genetic memory of mankind’s most holy memories of a truly existing Golden Age. Magyar tradition cradles such memories and embedded them into the language also. The affiliation of Ilona’s name — who was the Magyar Earth Mother —contain the word él (life), illó (fleeting, disappearing); she lives in a disappearing castle (Ilona illó várban él). The name of one castle preserved this memory: Illavára. The connection of song and the creative processes is part of our Táltos traditions that preserve the memory that our Creator created with song and that creation is a song. Many believe that Cadbury is the true place of Camelot.

The sunken bells are integral part of both the Magyar and the Welsh mythology. There is mention of such near Goodwin Sands in Ker. The most famous places of sunken bells in Hungary are at the Csallóköz, Bodrogköz and lake Fertő along with their specific legends of fairies.

The Coranieids are fairy-like also. It is emphasized that they can hear at great distances and listen in on conversations. Their holiday is the first of May. Ashe believes that they are import from another culture. According to Welsh tradition they came from Arabia. In Breton they are called Korriganeds. Their ability to hear word over great distances reminds me of Atilla’s advisors who were able to participate invisibly at the enemy’s war councils and thus prepare well for the upcoming confrontations.









The Regős



Rheged kingdom was the protector of national poetry. The four great poets of the British isles are connected with Rheged. The Rheged name may be connected with the Magyar regős, who were the poets, sages, historians, preservers of ancient religion through music and song. They had lands allotted to them which not even in King István’s time when persecutions of “pagan” memories already began at the hand of the priests of the new religion. The Hungarian town of Regőc preserves their memory. Regőc is located in the ancient district of Sátorhegy where prince Ferenc Rákóczi spent his childhood with his mother Ilona Zrinyi. Both are the personifications of love of the country.

Taliesin was among the four great poets of Rheged. His name is translated as “Radiant Brow." He preserved the memory of an ancient home among the summer stars. His name is connected with the Magyar words for shine (dél, deli), song (dal) and our Táltos priestly class, who taught people through song. Arthur’s name belongs into the same wordgroup (T-R, T-L). Taliesin’s home among the morning stars may also be connected with Arctoúros and the rotation of the sky.

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Bors, knight of the Round Table



The Arthurian legends preserved the memory of Bors as a cousin of Lancelot. This latter is believed to be of Alanic origins and this relationship points of Magyar-Alan relationships also. Dr. Tibor Baráth studied the culture and history of the Alans and I refer the reader to his works. The Bors family’s presence in the Carpathian basin predates the arrival of the Árpáds by far. According to Arthurian legends Bors once traveled to an unknown place called Sarras across the sea. Later he continued his search for the Holy Grail, which showed up in Europe for a while, then disappeared again, to its ancient home in Asia, or to heaven according to diverse traditions. Bors and Lancelot settled finally at Glastonbury to establish a religious community, which dissolved after the death of Lancelot.

The name of Sarras is again connected with the Magyar word for shine (sár), the Sáros form means “shiny." Near the Bors family’s pre-Árpád ancestral home in Borsod is the town of Sárospatak; Bors may have traveled to one of the towns in Hungary named Sáros. The history of Borsod leads into great antiquity. Beginning with the Bükk culture its cultural layers lead in an unbroken line to our days. At Zöldhalompuszta the grave of a Skythan prince was excavated, and among the many splendid artifacts there was the most sacred symbol of the Magyar peoples: the golden Stag. During the great migrations Germanic people, Kvads and Sarmatians lived also in this region, and after the VI-IX century AD the Avars settled these lands. The early presence of the Sarmatians may place the Arthurian legends to an even earlier date. At the same time this makes Bors’s Sarras a part of this region at Sáros even more plausible. The Bors-Miskóc family had holdings in Borsod up to 1312 AD. Near Miskolc lies Diósgyőr where an anicent, ring shaped castle (Geuru, Győr) stood and the region was inhabited up to the 17th century AD. (10) This castle may also be connected with the Bors family. The official Hungarian historians of today do not accept the idea of a pre-Árpád Magyar presence in Hungary. Considering the ancient round castle of Borsod, the probable historical time of the Arthurian legend of the 5th century AD the presence of the Bors family in Europe including Borsod county cannot be dismissed and the present notions of Hungarian presence in the Carpathians have to be reevaluated. The Bors family name is frequent even today in Hungary.



Arthur’s sword



One Arthurian legend holds that his sword was embedded in a huge stone and only a very deserving person, destined to be king can extract it. This legend was preserved by Sir Thomas Malory in the 15th century AD. (3:Vol.4:626) The ancient Magyar method of changing iron into steel was the following: the swords were stuck blade up into a mound exposing them to lightning. When lightning hit these swords their molecular structure changed and made their material far better than it was before. They were also touched by God in the most literal sense since the Magyar expression for lightning is “The arrow of God” (Isten nyila). The sword in the stone may also be connected with the knowledge of iron ore, in which the sword was embedded and has to be extracted, in a very literal sense. The well known story of Atilla’s sword, which became called God’s Sword (Isten kardja) originated in such a method of sword craftsmanship. According to this story a shepherd boy found a piece of iron sticking out of the meadow. He tried to lift it out, but the sword started to flame and jumped out of the earth. As it cooled down the boy took the sword to Atilla realizing that this is fit for a king only. The episode of the flaming sword brings the lightning stricken swords to mind. The first iron foundries of Europe were in Hámor, Bors county of Hungary. At the much later time of Árpád in the ninth century iron was also extracted from the iron ore found free in the meadows and each center of the seven dukes had such foundries.****

According to the second version Arthur’s sword was made by fairies and an arm emerging from the waters handed it to him; the sword’s return at the end of Arthur’s life followed the same pattern. This sword was called Excalibur, originating it from the Latin chalybs, meaning steel, but this etimology is believed to be uncertain, which shows that the origin of the story, the names have not originated within the English culture sphere, even though it is very much a part of the thought process of the English people. Irish tradition calls the sword Caladbold, and this is the older version of the sword legend.

The Magyar kar, kard words are related to the cal syllable, but it is also related to the word hal which means to sink. An arm lifts the sword out of the water and this arm sinks into the waters with the sword is expressed the following way in the Magyar language: “Kar emeli ki a kardot a vízből, s a kar a karddal a vízbe hal.” If we take the Magyar translation of Excalibur and equate the syllable cal with sinking, the bur syllable with castle we get the meaning of “from the sunken castle”. This translation becomes even more plausible when we take into consideration that in Denmark a great many swords were found buried into a watery grave. According to Magyar symbology the sword and its cover was a symbol of life as the water was too. A great word cluster relates to this idea.

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Background of the Grail legend



The history of the British Isles leads us back into a pre-nation antiquity. Their legends and landscapes are filled with beings of light, fairies, giants. The first historical people may be the Pickts. Originally they came from Skythia in the third century AD. Their king Sodrik died in battle while attempting to occupy the land on the British isles. They were banned to Caithness where their population increased greatly. Their society was matrilineal. At the time of their arrival they had their own script which appears to contain a pre-Celtic language. Their name as they called themselves is not known. The term Pict was given to them by the Romans. The best known Pictish king Erp’s son Drust ruled for a hundred years, mainly in the fifth century AD. They were noted for their tattoos and their name Cruithne given by the Irish means “picture people”.The Scythian may belong rightfully to the Scots.

The Scots arrived from Scythia. According to legend one of their noblemen married the Pharao’s daughter Scota and they adopted her name. They were expelled from Egypt and after wandering for 42 years they finally settled in Spain. They remained here for a thousand years. From here they went to Ireland’s Argyll county which they called Dalriada. Before they arrived here a queen by the name of Cessair ruled there whose father was Bith, son of Noah. According to another legend the flood’s only survivor was Fintan on this land. He belonged to the shape-shifting beings who became immortal. Fintan’s name is related to the Magyar fény and his aforementioned qualities bring him into contact with the Golden Age.

The settling of Ireland happened in five successive waves before the present Gael’s ancestors appeared on this land. During one of these occupations according to the Historia Brittonum Partholon and his followers of about a thousand people arrived. They were expelled from their original country in the 4th century AD and it is at this time that they arrived. Geoffrey Manamouth places them also into this timeframe but according to him they came from Spain to Orkney and with royal permission they settled in Ireland. Here they busied themselves with agriculture, animal husbandry, brewing and architecture thus establishing the basis of a peaceful agricultural society. His descendants, Nemed and Fir Bolg founded separate kingdoms later. Partholon’s name, the story of his expulsion, reminds us of the Magyar part, pártos (partition and dissenter) words and the name of the Parthian empire which played a large role in the history of Palestine among others. This link deserves further examination.



Places of worship



In Ireland near Killarney a mother goddess by the name of Anu or Annan was worshipped. Anu’s name is identical to the Magyar anyu, anya and anyag words (mother and matter). It is worthy to note that here this name has been applied properly to express motherhood. In Mesopotamia, further away from the Carpathian valley Anu’s name underwent a radical transition due to misunderstanding of a mythology and became a male deity. The road leading to this misunderstanding is easy to follow and to explain but would take us far from the goal of the present study. Annwfn’s name seems to bear connections with the Magyar an, anna, anya, anyag (mother, matter, land) and the fény (shine) words. These give a meaning “the land of shine” to the composite.

Britain’s most important place of worship was at the monument we call Stonehenge today, a round structure of huge stones. According to native legend the giants who built it came from Africa. It was believed that these stones have healing properties. Its old name was simply Chorea Gigantum, the round dance of the giants, or just simply: the circle. The blue stones of Stonegenhge came from the vicinity of Carmarthen’s Prescelly mountains. Geoffrey Ashe brings these structures into connection with the round temples of Hecataeus of Abdera which graces the lands of the Hyperboreans. He places the lands of the Hyperboreans onto an island above Gaul. According to legends the stones of this temple cannot be counted. Adorján Magyar’s work deals with an early map of Europe where the island of Csallóköz, the mythical home of the fairies and the Magyars is drawn as a huge island, covering almost half of Europe. He explains this vast overstatement of size with the great importance of the European origin myths which it symbolized. Stonehenge II and III was built between 2.500 and 2.000 BC. The later priests of this holy place, the Druids were also Hyperboreans according to Greek legends. They also state that Apollo visits this land every 19 years. The fact is that the Druids created a 19 year calendar to reconcile the solar and lunar calendars and this fact seems to connect them with the Hyperborean legends.

The ancient round temples of the Magyars are well known. The latest such excavation was at Sárospatak Hungary. The church of Őskű belongs also into this line. Őskű’s name means: ancient stone; the English word for church carries the same meaning. The Druids of Stonehenge were not only priests but constituted a priestly cast akin to the Magyar Magi and Táltos. The name of the Druids cannot be explained with Indo-European etymology. E famous priest among them was called Mog Ruith, who, according to legend was dressed in a suit of bull skin, over which he placed a bird costume and he was able to fly. Because of this legend historians attempt to link them with the Siberian or Asiatic shamans with little enthusiasm. Ariesteaus places Hyperborea “the land behind Boreas” into the Altai mountains. Abaris is also said to have come from Hyperborea. Later Greek historians *** give him a Skythian origin. They also call the upper portion of the Danube Hyperborea. (1:129), the ancestral home of the Magyars. The name of Mog-Ruith is in connection with Magor the Magyar Sungod, the “Ruith” part is connected with the T-R wordgroup represented in the Arthur legend.

The Druids worshipped a God by the name of Esus or Jesu and for this reason they welcomed the first Christian priests. The names of Esus or Jesu are of “pagan” origin and are identical of the Jász-Magyar peoples’ Jós, Jász, Jizzu names, who was their god of shine, light, represented by the Sun. Only much later legends connect this land with Joseph of Arimathea who was supposedly accompanied on one of his trade journeys by Jesus. Claudia and Linus mentioned in Paul’s letters in 63 AD may have originally come from this land.

Geoffrey Ashe originates all great religions from the Hyperboreans in the following order:

Hyperboreans

1. the Greek cult of Apollo, out of which arose

1.a the Pythagorean school



2. the Druids



3. the wisdom literature of the Vedas

3.a. Sumerian wisdom literature



4. Wisdom literature of the lama monasteries of the Altai



I have to mention that the only sub-branch of the Pythagorean school outside Greece was in Carthage, which land and people were very much connected with the settling of the British Isles.

Another common tradition of these places are the labyrinths, the meaning of which still eludes us. The recurring septenary maze in Rockey Valley near Tintagel is remarkable for its cross design intertwined with the seven lines of the maze. The cross in Magyar symbology is the symbol of light, the number seven was the holy number of infinity, eternity according to Ipolyi. There is surviving memory that the Druids were able to see the mountains of the moon, which presupposes that they had some sort of telescope.

In spiritual matters they busied themselves to bring back the wisdom of the ancient. One of their holy ceremonies were connected with the oak tree and mistletoe. Their priests stood in the fork of the oak tree akin to the ancient Magyar táltos ceremonies. They believed in immortality. According to Clement Pythagoras learned from them. But Stonehenge was the product of a pre-Druidic culture. The Druids maintained their organization which has two branches today. The Albion lodge initiated Winston Churchill in 1908.

Manopus is the name of an Irish divinity who is represented with a harp in his hand. His representation is similar to that of Apollo but he was not considered a solar deity. This name is related to the Magyar divinity Mén.

Avebury and Silbury is older than Stonehenge according to modern research. Avebury’s name consists of the following Magyar syllables: év (circle) and vár (bury) giving it a meaning of “round castle”. According to legend Silbury is the resting place of a king named Sil who was buried with golden armor. This names has a close affinity with the following Magyar words: Szil (pronounce Sil) is a place name in Hungary, a tree called szil-fa which played part in the ancient religion, Szél-úrfi (young master Wind) who was the symbol of energy and for his pollinating powers of fecundity also. The constellations of Sellő (mermaid) and Tündérfő (the head of the Fairies) belong into this category also. It is interesting that from these latter two places the fairies arrive always treesome as Sun, Moon and Star mothers according to Ipolyi’s research. These three mothers may be in the background of the Celtic triune female figures. The watery surrounding of Silbury can easily be connected with the sellő (mermaid) and hableány (girl of the waters) concepts. The legend of the Lady in the Lake may point to such ancient affiliations.

The legend of the stone circle at Cornwall calls it “Merry Maidens”, and its stones can be counted only by women. These too come to life to dance in a circle like Stonehenge’s stones.

Ancient tradition remembers a time when the ancestors were able to fly.

Hengist was the lord of Kent and his name is explained as “horse”. Both, the name of the person and the place is in connection with the Hun nation name and the word kanca (mare).

The horse is important in the symbology of the British isles. Most of these horses are white, like the Uffington horse, and there was one horse at Tysoe which was red. King Alfred is also connected with the legends of the white horse; the king’s name is explained as “Elf-rede” which points to the ancient times of the Fairies. He was brave, his laws stopped the bloodshed so popular in those days. In Magyar legends the white horse was part of the lunar, the red horse with the solar symbology. One of the last legends of the white horse are connected with Atilla. Mythology of the British isles honored a horse goddess by the name of Epona and her cult was also adopted by the Romans, who honored her as Regina. Epona’s name seems to echo the name of the sun and light (nap and fény) of the Pannons, an aboriginal culture of Pannonia on the western bank of the Danube.

Alfred’s son Athelstan lived in Northumbria and ruled Britain between 925-940 AD. A great many stories are attached to his figure. One of these stories makes mention that he accidentally burned the cakes of a poor man in the fire. This reminds me to the ever-present “cakes baked in ashes” which are integral part of Magyar stories. Athelstan’s name is related to the Etel, Atil names.

Cerne is the place of worship of a divinity named Helith, Helis or Heil. The Giant of Cerne holds a huge club in his right hand and his phallic importance is obvious in this handiwork of ancient artists. The name of the place, the name of the divinity, the club he is holding are connected with the Magyar kör (circle) and kel (arise, i.e. the rising sun), kalló (club) one of the names of the Sungod, Kallós, whose name was preserved in the names of Kolozsvár, Kolozs, city and place names in Erdély. Both the name and the representation is identical with Hercules of classical mythology, where the linguistic connection between Hercules and his club does not exist, but which is strong in both the Magyar and the British mythology.

The most authentic of the Lays, lines of sanctuaries is the one connected with Saint Michael. In another paper I discussed the connections of the “pagan” St. Michael, who was called Mikelu, Makal and similar names and Magor, Makar sungod names of the Magyars. The idea of the lays seems similar also to the Inka line of sanctuaries laid out in a sun-ray pattern with a center at Cuzko which shows the antiquity and universality of this thought.

The Temple of the Stars are ancient roads around Somerset’s Glastonbury which form the twelve figures of the zodiac. Its discoverer Katharine Maltwood believes them to e the work of Sumerians but because of their huge size and great antiquity her theory is questioned. Never having been in this region I am quietly proposing the consideration of the following. These lines may represent frequently traveled roads. In ancient times nighttime wanderers followed a “map of the sky”: they knew exactly which star points them into the right direction to reach from A to B. Each locale in Hungary had a representative star. Above Hollókő, the home of King Matthias Corvinus there are two stars visible: King Matthias and his beloved changed after their death into these stars.

Celtic tradition holds that the name of Brennius who was the lord of the northern part of the Isle came from a god called Bran. This name means raven, and in fact according to the Magyar law of reciprocity of words which is also present in the English language the two are but one another’s reciprocal form. The Magyar word for crow, rook (varjú) belongs into the same wordgroup. Bran was the lord of the druidic Beltain, their spring festival. A divinity called Belinus or Belenos was known in Northern Italy and Southern Gaul, and both of these are identical with the sungod Bál, Béla of the Palóc people.

Welsh legends know of a Beli-Mawr (Beli the Great), or Beli, the son of Manogan in whom they honor the ancestor of their people. The many geographical names containing the “-billing” affix are connected with the name of Belinus on the British Islands. The Welsh name, their progenitor’s name Beli, the North Italian Belinos or Belenos deities all lead to Bál, Béla Sungod of the Palóc nation. This name is also in direct relationship with the name of Palos Scythian prince mentioned by Diodorus Siculus. This name has no known etymology in the Germanic languages.

There is a belief in the mythology of the British Isles according to which male children are able to change to a stag, boar or wolf according to their will then turn back again into human form. This belief system is in connection with the Magyar Miracle Stag (Csodaszarvas) concept and the mythology of the boys who turned into a deer. I will return later to this legend when discussing the name of Oisin, later. A variation of this belief system is still celebrated among some of the American Indians as a testament of mankind’s once unified belief system and culture.

Llyr’s son Manawydan, or Lir’s son Mannan is the name of an Irish Sea-god. In Magyar the lé, lőre (liquid, turbulent liquid) is connected with god Lir. Mannan reiterates the name of Mén (stallion) who frequently represented the Moon. To link the name of the Moon and the waters is scientifically correct, since the moon exerts a lot of influence upon the waters, especially the sea. The Welsh name for the island of Man is Manaw, the Irish name is Mana, Manu, which also are connected with the Magyar Mén. This frequently mentioned Mén deity name has an enormous linguistic base in the Magyar language. Its comprehensive discussion is again beyond the scope of this paper.

Arthur’s Queen Guinevere appears in three figures occasionally and for this reason she is believed to be the Triune female goddess of the Welsh mythology. Earlier we brought the Magyar parallel for this phenomena as she may represent the Sun, Moon and Star-mothers of this mythology. She may also represent the three phases of moon according to the contents of the legend.

The cult of the “Stone of Destiny” goes back to Pictish origins. Their coronations used to take place in Scone, near Perth. The person to be crowned was seated on this stone. As the Scythian descendants, the Scoots occupied more and more lands. Finally Kenneth MacAlpine claiming Pictish ancestry had himself crowned King of the Picts and Scots. According to Scotish legends a princess Tea brought this stone to Ireland where she married Tamair. Tara’s landscape is adorned with round, flat topped mounds clearly discernible even today. Since the arrival of this stone all kings were crowned there. Prince Fergus, founder of Dalriada brought the stone first to the Island of Iona from Ireland, later the above mentioned Kenneth brought it to Scone. Edward I. brought it to Westminster, when Queen Elizabeth the II. with a magnanimous gesture returned this stone to Scotland. Linguistic connections of the above are as follows: Considering the round, flat topped mounds of Tara it is reasonable to connect this legend, its people to the Magyar tár-tér (return, space), Tera, Turan mother goddesses. These names are also connected with Arthur’s name and legends. Iona’s name is connected with the Jász nation’s name which is Ion. (Journal of Hungarian Studies 1996. 2.vol.) According to the much later Christianized legends Abraham slept on this stone when he saw the angels walking up and down between heaven and earth.



The Magyar connection of historical and geographical names.



Albactanus, king of Scotland was killed in a battle with the Huns 25 years after the arrival of the Trojans to the British Isles. (1:78) Later they were expelled from the southern part of the isle by Locrinus, and their leader by the name of Humber drowned in a river during the battle. This river is called Humber ever since. Ashe tentatively assigns British etymology to this name translating it as “good river”. Humber’s name seems to be affiliated with the Hun. In the patriarchal society of the Huns the river was always a symbol of masculinity and procreation: the Magyar words for to pour and semen (ont, ondó) are closely related thus preserving this concept up to this day. To give the Hun hero Humber’s name to the river seems logical. Ashe believes that the mention of the Huns at this age is incorrect and the result of a later historian’s error since Atilla’s Huns arrived centuries later in the European arena. The Huns were present as part of the Magyar nations since times immemorial in the Carpathian valley and have left many traces all over Western Europe from the earliest times on. The word home (hon), homo are a part of the Hun vocabulary. The full exploration of this line belongs to the future.

Another story tells us about Locrinus’ love for the German girl Estrildis. She was his lover for seven years and bore him a little girl named Habren. Once in Locrinus’ absence his wife had both mother and child killed by throwing them into a river. As an afterthought the called the river after the little girl Habren. This name became in the Latin language territory Sabrina, in the British Severn. The etymology of either name is unknown and cannot be explained based on Indogermanic etymology. The love affair which lasted seven years takes us back into the ancient times when legends were born. Geoffrey Ashe states the same and that according to ancient legends we are faced here with the guardian spirits of the waters. The Magyar word hab (water) and hableány (lit.: water-maidens) are part of the language and mythology. The later names of Sabrina and Severn are based on the Magyar word water (víz) and to seep away (visz). Considering that the water names of the British Isles are pre-British and many of them are identical with the pre-Árpád water names of Hungary we have to recognize the presence of the ancient Magyar peoples in both places. The western European link of the Magyar culture has been totally neglected by the foreign dominated historians who still try to maintain the Asian origins of the Hungarians. This act prevented the Western European nations to know their own history fully.

Molmutin was the founder of a new royal line. He built churches which were used as places of refuge and these constituted the first Christian churches. His sons ruled according to the idea of dual kingship which was practiced by the Magyar peoples also.

Belinus was the ruling king, his brother Brennius ruled over the Northern lands. Belinus’ name is identical with the name of the Palóc sungod Béla, which is still a frequent name in Hungary. Originally it meant “white light”. Caswallan, the son of Beli was able to become invisible with the help of his cloak which, when he was wearing it showed only his sword. This legend originated in the ancient times of the fairies. Brennius’ name belongs to the B-R wordgroup and is related to the Baranya and Baratya the Earth mother and Sun of the Avars. Baranya’s name is preserved in the name of one of the counties of Hungary.

There is mention that in the absence of the King a council of seven ruled the country. This same practice is echoed by the role of Árpád’s seven dukes. Tascianus ruled the two last decades BC. On his coins we find his name as Tas which was the name of these seven dukes. His other name was Tenuantius, the father of Cunobelinus who was also called Cymbeline. He was raised in Caesar’s court. The meaning of his name is explained as “The dog of Belinus”, or “The faithful follower of God”. On his coins he is portrayed a round headed, mustached gentleman with large, open eyes so often seen in Scythian representations. The Bel name in the transliteration of his name has been taken as “God”. The first syllable “cuno” is in connection with the Magyar kún, kan (cuneus, male principle) and would translate into “The Son of Bel”, or “The Son of the Sun”.

Arviragus was defeated by the Romans at Hampton. He married the daughter of Claudius and later he established Glouchester. His name brings us closer to the cultic vocabulary of the Avars (virág = flower, ar = a male), who were the horticulturists of their time.

Athelney is the name of the wetlands around Somerset’s Glastonbury. Athel following the analogy of Etel, Itil river and water names means water, but it is also connected with Atilla’s Magyar name, which is Etele. It is also interesting to note the “atheling” title of the British nobility. The Old and Middle English variation of this title is the masculine ćtheling and the feminine ćthelu. Considering the fact that legends of the British Isles talk about Huns way before the arrival of Atilla these names and titles take us back to ancient times also thus preserving an ancient Hun title. Atilla’s Etele name probably meant a royal prince originally, which was the expected title of the son of Bendeguz. In Anonymus Gesta Hungarorum he is mentioned as Athile (Anon. 1 and 5). The later doubling of the letter “t” in Atilla’s name rendering it Attila conformed to the accent of the German historians and writers. His name may also have meant that he descended from the line of the Royal Scythians. At the time of Álmos Emese’s dream is connected with the Atil-Etil-Itil related legends. She dreamt that from her womb a huge river ensued which engulfed the land and out of this a mighty nation will be born. Ipolyi sums up the traditions connected with the Etele name as follows: “...the Atel, Etel name is identical with with the name of the river Etel in Etelköz which flowed in that Magyar territory. This can be also observed in the case of another ancient progenitor’s name which was Tana and the river Don, or Tanais is identical with his. This also reminds us of the legendary descendancy of heroes from deities on an elemental level which we also find in the later saga of the hero Álmos, and also in the Scythian legends which talk about Targitaus, the ancestor of the Skythans as a descendant of Zeus and the nymph of the river Borysthenes (Herodot 4,5).” Returning to Tana’s name “...Tana, the ancient father of our (i.e. Magyar) chronicles may well be the first Skythan ruler with the same Tana name... In our language tanya means a settled mode of living, a permanent base, and as we have seen it may mean a “seat”, settlement meaning the descensus of the earlier generation.” (9: vol.I:203)

So Etele’s name is in direct relationship with the Skythan ancient legends whence as we have seen, the holy vessel, symbol of life and the Holy Grail originated. Considering that the British historians take the origins of Britain to the time shortly after the arrival of Troyan refugees one one side and the lost tribes of Israel on the other, culminating in William the Concqueror’s arrival in 1066 and that the Skythan ancient legends take us back to the very earliest times of human history the origin of these legends, geographical and historical names can be considered the products of the early Magyar culture-sphere. It seems appropriate to mention that while a strong central government based on an organized county system was existing in the year 1.000 as a unified political entity, the same could come about only some eight-hundred years later in other parts of Europe, like during the unification of German and Italian principalities. The aforementioned historical names, such as Duna, Don, Dentumagyar can also be found in the British Isles. The name Dana, Damasek ancient Magyar God-name is affiliated with the name of the Mesopotamian Dumuzi; this helps us realize that a very unified Magyar culture was the cultural base of Eurasia.

Iona was the name of an island which was the holy land and burial ground of the Pikts, Scots and the inhabitants of Northumbria. Later it became the northern center of Christianity. Iona is another name of our Jász people. This name is also connected with mourning (gyász).

Kenneth MacAlpine was king of Dalriada in 843 AD. He occupied the territory of the Pikts and brought the Stone of Destiny to Albany. Dalriada’s name has a Magyar meaning.



Legends



The oldest collection of mythological material, The Four Branches of Mabinogi dates to the 11. century AD.

The white horse is an integral part of the Royal Welsh mythology, along with the deer hunt in which Annwfn’s gleaming white dogs with red ears try to capture the stag. Both the stag and the dog are symbolical animals of the Magyar peoples and their figures are present as architectural motif, drawings from the earliest times. In this legend the lord of the otherworld is Arawn which echoes the Magyar word arany with a meaning of shine and gold.

In a battle between the Irish and the Welsh people only seven soldiers (Britons) escaped alive. In Magyar legends this same symbolic story is part and parcel of several legends one dating to the Ice age (the seven regős), later the story was attached to some battles (time of the Árpáds) and even a Christian legend of the seven bards who visited Jesus and are now buried in the tiny town of Hetény, which name is also a variant of the word hét, meaning seven. Recent excavations found several sanctuaries which give some credence to this story. The use of the number seven, which is the Magyar’s holy number always points to the legends’antiquity.

The Cornish descent from the giant Gogmagog and the princess Albina’s union with demons and consequently giving birth to giants is also part of the Scythian-Magyar origin stories.**** Ipolyi believes the origin legend of Góg and Magóg (9:I:203-204) is an authentic pre Christian Magyar tradition. He refers to Anonymus who talks about an ancient tradition which has become somewhat clouded in the course of centuries; this legend preserved a knowledge Skythans and the surrounding peoples along with this mythology.

Tristan and Isolda’s stories originated in the Pictish legend of Drust. Isolda’s name was Essylt, Iseult, Isolt Yseut according to tradition. There is mention of a Tristan stone in Cornwall near Castle Dore. A Latin inscription states the following: “Drustanus lies here the son of Cunomorus.” The latter name is spelled Kynovawr. The “cuno” syllable brings the Hun, Kun group to mind.

Land’s End is the name of a territory near the ocean and beyond it lies the sunken Lyonesse. Land’s End is frequently mentioned in our legend. The ancient stories clearly indicate a knowledge of the roundness of the Earth, but later stories may be connected with this region. There is knowledge of the fact that Magyars did come to the Irish sulfur caves and their surrounding religious communities seeking spiritual enlightenment during the days of early monasticism which quite possibly began in the ancient pagan days. Their connection with the British isles continued through the centuries. It is by no accident that the birth of the Magna Carta and the Magyar Golden bull was written within a few years. Oxford’s first student was a Magyar. According to the records here his name was Nicola de Hungaria. His education was provided for between 1193-96 by Richard the Lionhearted who was the brother in law of Hungary’s queen Margaret. (V.16:18)

The Scots, who originated themselves from the Scythians call their kingdom in Argyll Dalriada. Prince Árgyélus’ memory has been preserved in early and later literature alike and his figure takes us back to the time of the Fairies. Dalriada’s famous hero Colum was famous not only his literacy but his mighty voice which carried for miles. With this voice he could call people to battle easily. Considering that his life centered around the church of St. Finnian and the Finnian name carries pagan memories, Colum’s role must have been connected with ancient memories and may even have been the name giver of Dalriada which has a Magyar meaning of “battlesong”.

The legend of the birth of Loch-Ness talks in a very detailed manner of the topography of the land prior to the birth of this lake. When, due to certain happenings the ground waters were given free way and the lake ensued the people called out: “Ta loch nis ann!” (there is a lake now), thus explaining the lake’s present name. This legend contains two important aspects: One, the people remembered that long time ago there was no lake. At the time when this legend originated the people did not know that at the end of the 20th century American scientists looking for “Nessie” found three stone circles similar to that of Stonehenge on the lake’s bottom. which These stone circles must have been built by men prior to the sinking of this land. According to science the separation of the North American continent and Europe gave birth to this lake. The word loch is related to the Magyar lok, lék, luk words, meaning a “hole”. Similar ancient legends report a knowledge of the inland seas of the Great Plains and Pannonia in Hungary.

In Fingal and Ossian’s legend the word Finn means a blond, fair haired person. Its Magyar equivalent is fény (light). He was renown for his otherworldly knowledge and also could change his figure into dog or stag depending on the angle of how he wears his cap. These shifting of figures and his name connect him to the Fairy times. The historical Finn died in 230 AD. The same role was assigned in Ireland to Finn, in Scotland to Fingal, in Wales to Arthur. According to legend Finn was born of Nuadu whose name is akin to the Magyar nedű (liquid) which we already discussed.

Gwynn of the Welsh legend is the son of Nudd and consequently it is believed his name must mean white. His son is Oisin meaning “little fawn”. The first syllable of this name is identical with the Magyar “őz”. The linguistic connections are ős, ősz (ancestor, old) words, the legend may contain the Magyar legend of the boy who became a deer. The legend may lead us even further, to our beginnings and the Miracle Stag who was the personification of the starry sky, the Tree of Life and was God’s messenger bringing with him the song of Creation. Oisin was one of the poets who moved to Tir-na-nOg for a long time. As we know it, the Magyar Miracle Stag was the starry sky, and so the “Little Fawn’s” departure to the world of the stars is understandable since symbolically he was the son of the Miracle Stag.























Linguistic affiliation of the Grail legend with the Magyar language.



As we know the Holy Grail is believed to be a round vessel, its custodian at one point was the Fisher King. These aspects have the following linguistic affiliations.



K-R group

kör circle

kerek round

korsó a round vessel

kor aetas

kór chronic disease

király king

korona crown

caer city, akin to kör=circle

Corbenic place name



H-L group

hál to sleep

hal - to sink

hal fish

halász fisher

hal meghal

halál death

hely a place

Heil Celtic divinigy

Heli son of Lud

holló Corvinus



gyűrű

győr vár, város



grail kerek edény

Glastonbury place name





T-R

tur bull

turni to dig up

tér enclosed space

tér to return

tűr to roll something

into a round shape

Turul hunting bird with a

circular flight- pattern

Tor is a round mound







The Grail legend is believed to be of Sarmatian origin. It is a round, royal vessel holding life, and food. The Magyar wordgroup connected with the Holy Grail express this concept. The idea and role of this vessel has a close relationship with the ancient round, gold Magyar Suncap which was a male-female united symbol, thus the symbol of Life. The ability of independent action is part of both the Magyar and the Grail legends. It is said that the the last time Holy Crown appeared independently was when it was realised on the head of Rex Mathias Corvinus. Thus the Holy Crown selected him king. The cognomen of this king is Hollós, or Corvinus and both words belong into the same consonantal group. The Holy Crown is considered a personage in Hungary and has a title of His Majesty. We also have to realize that linguistics “proto” languages, may they be “proto Indo-European”, “proto Greek” or any other “proto” language are all based upon the Magyar language.

The places of the Grail legend are often called caer, like Caer Lud, the city of Lud, which name is akin to the Magyar kör, meaning a circle, an enclosed space. Lud was the son of Heli whose name is also part of the K-R wordgroup.

The Magyar linguistic affiliation of the Fisher King (Halász Király) are numerous and noteworthy. The personification of death is often expressed as a fisher and part of our ancient legend. According to Ipolyi (II:123-124) “the memory of Death as a fisher and his net is a vague but still existing concept” and “talking about the spirit world of the river Sajó as one enters this castle one sees glass bells on the table. The Fairy of this castle explains that the spirit of the people who drowned in the river are kept in these glass bells and when one lifts them up white doves fly up from under the glass bells.” In constantly bleeding person we recognize Life which is constantly dying and resurrecting and is part of the Magyar Mythology. The Holy Grail, the lance, the sword of the legend are all life-symbols with a wide circle of linguistic affiliations.

[We are discussing the Sarmatian-Alan-Karthaginian cultural affinities in context with the excavation in Regöly, Hungary. The cultural identity of the Sarmatian-Iazyg culture we discussed in our 1996 Journal. Ed.]



*

The basis of the Magyar legends and the legend of the British Isles is a memory of an ancient Fairy Age and Golden Age which tells us about eternal life and eternal beauty. Heroes who undertook a journey into the lands among the stars had always an open door for return to this Earth. They did not believe in death. In a Magyar ancient history there is mention of certain “special creations”, men, who are not subject to death. In later legends prince Csaba, son of Atilla and his heroes return on the Milky Way to help their people. The Milky Way since then it is also called the Road of Battle-troops. The same spirit shines through the legends of the British Isles to us in which — as in a magic mirror — we recognize ourselves. Geoffrey Ashe summarizes the Arthur legends with the following words: “The Arthurian legend owes much of its lasting fascination to the perennial dream of a golden age, which comes to its sharpest Arthurian focus in Malory, but it is constant in all the forms which the legend assumes.”



Itt kezdődik a Journal-ból kimaradt, végleges, javított rész: The Age Of Magic

by

Endre K. Grandpierre

(Excerpt)

According to my judgment the greatest catastrophe in the history of mankind happened at the borders of the more or less known history, which encompasses a few thousand years and the few million years of pre-history. We fully know by today the sociological, psychological, spiritual and physical consequences of this catastrophe.

Mankind’s written memories go back about 5.000 to 7.000 years into the past. The pre-historical times which embrace the time of mankind’s first appearance up to the time of the written records would mean more than 3 million years. In this time-frame all knowledge was spread and preserved with the help of words, by oral tradition. These oral traditions were the center of their communal life which were repeated on holidays and ceremonies. Mankind’s history, the treasured memories of mankind’s common past were passed on from one generation to the next through unfathomable millennia. We know that the epic writings of Homer, the Nibelung-Lied or the Kalevala was preserved through oral traditions and written down later. But what kind of traditions were passed on from the endless ages which preceded the written history? The ancient oral traditions have to talk about this time! Every beginning is always decisive and the length of these two ages are the same way proportionate to one another than the height of a person (about 180 cm) and the thickness of his skin (about 2 mm.) What do we know of ourselves?

The known traditions tell us little of mankind’s common past. Sporadically there is mention of a fleeting Golden Age, of an earthly Paradise, a garden of Eden, and of a flood. On the other hand today’s science denies the existence of a Golden Age, or a universal flood. Thus the role of tradition has been devaluated to such an extent that its weight is hardly felt by now even though there is an unsatiable interest in it, and inspite the fact that these questions are still of vital importance to us.

It is in this immense past, in these millions of years, which formed man into man and mankind’s ancestral world-view, thinking and belief-system were formed. It is this age that was dethroned. The changing of this world-age divided the spiritual development of mankind into two, diametrically opposed sections. The age of magical thinking lasted untold millions of years, and it is at the deepest level of man’s spirituality; in this age the forces of the subconscious received expression and reached its fulfillment. The other age was the age of reason and religions based upon mysticism. The newness of this concept is revealed by the fact that even the expression, the concept of the Age of Magic, or the Age of magic thinking is as of yet unknown. What’s more, the content of the word magic has been left unexplained. This is similar to a process by which a barbarian people cannot understand the basic concept of the higher culture it destroyed because they are not capable to grasp the inherent connections of that culture and so it attempts to consciously discredit it. Thusly, the central concept of the magic action received less attention. The word “magic” with this underlying and by now contradictory and abstract concepts are equivalent with sorcery, deceit in our days, which equates with the unified equivalent of false glitter.

In reality, the magic world-view perceives the elemental, dynamic, and cosmic forces in everything. It perceives these forces as capable of independent action according to their internal energies and motivation... The magic world-view does not extricate man from its real connections, but it much rather places man into the world of nature. The magical thinking places all of the elements of creation at an equal footing, as each other’s complementary and active components. Everything that exists is the product of the cosmic forces. [...] The appearance of this ancient thinking presupposes the doubling of the world. The brain is an instrument of visuality which is capable to recreate the outer world in pictures. The ancient thinking perceived the world in pictures. It is the most basic prerequisite of every action, the ability to imagine the things we want to do, the things we need... In other words, every human being possesses the ability to think in pictures. This is also necessary to orient ourselves. Only that life-form is capable of survival who has the necessary talents, whose thinking includes this ability to recreate the world in pictures. And so, if the animals, and the plants are able to think in pictures similar to us, on what grounds do we deny them the immortal soul that religions delegate only to man these days?

[...] This magic belief-system was extremely concrete. Everything was called by its proper name. The abstract is diametrically opposed to this and the abstract had to be juxtaposed with the magic because the abstract is always elusive. According to a proverb “the devil is in the parts.” This is truly so. If we wash away parts of the happenings, truth itself is washed away. Thus the lies gain a greater and greater ground. It is for this reason that the mystical God has no perceivable characteristics. The mystical God flees into a mere and unfathomable and unmeasurable abstraction. The essence of mystification is the fact that it stole something from the absolute and makes the fully abstract universal, it makes it into God. Mysticism serves the supernatural forces in a fully abstract manner to us; its most important facet is the fact that the reason is incapable to follow its tenets with logic and it cannot accept the concept of a fully abstract God. Mysticism is nothing else than the extrication of the cosmic forces from the field of logic and from under the supervision of logic. At the final count mysticism is the figleaf of a destructive force posed against humanity. It is a machination aimed to limit and confuse the thinking of Mankind. This is openly expressed in the works of the holy fathers and the authors of religious philosophy, who declare openly that man has to believe and not think. It is necessary to find a way out of this ever deepening world conflict of our historical times. It is not inconsequential what kind of lives we live and into what kind of life our descendants are born. It is possible that the self-realization of our inherent magical forces will lead mankind to its renewal.

***

Sarmatian-Magyar Connections of the Holy Grail

Susan Tomory

In our 1996 Journals, we studied the Sarmatian presence in England and their influence upon the arts, fashion, mythology of the Islands. They also established horse breeding and cavalry there. Concerning the language of the Sarmatians we also made mention of a Sarmatian grave-good excavated in Hungary that bore a Hungarian runic text. This latter is one evidence that the Sarmatians were a branch of the Hungarian speaking peoples of the time.

In the January and February 1997 edition of the Archeological Journal Scott C. Littleton, who is professor of anthropology at Occidental College in Los Angeles, has written an article entitled Were Sarmatians the source of Arthurian legend? He also makes mention that in 175 AD Marcus Aurelius dispatched 5,500 Iazygs from the Danube region. There is also evidence of Sarmatians in the region. In Professor Littleton’s opinion, it is from their culture that the Arthur legend originated along with the legend of the Holy Grail.

The writer of the article mentions that the first commander of the Sarmatians was Lucius Artorius Castus. According to the inscription on a stelae, he led his troops to Gaul in 184 AD to quench a rebellion. Like the legendary King Arthur, he too led a cavalry into the European arena. “The first Sarmatian leader of the Ribchester contingent probably took on the title artorius, borrowing his commander’s name. A subsequent leader may have been King Arthur, the “Artorius, dux bellorum (war leader)...” writes professor Littleton. King Arthur saved Britain by defeating the Saxons at Badon hill in 510 AD. We did discuss the further implications of this title in our previous Journal. We also discussed the Sarmatian Yazyg affiliations at the same time.

Professor Littleton discusses a relationship between the Sarmatians, Scythians, and the Alans. The entire legend of King Arthur and his court, the Round Table, and the Holy Grail may all have had Sarmatian origins. He identifies Sir Lancelot with a leading personality of the Alans. The legends of the Holy Grail later became embellished with Christian myths that never really found favor in the eyes of the Church. The first written document of the Round Table came from the works of Wace of Jersey entitled Roman de Brut, dated 1155 AD (3, Vol.10:208).

The Sarmatian-Magyar linguistic and geographical links are supported by Herodotos: ”As we cross the Tanais we are not on Skythan soil anymore. In the first district live the Sauromati who reside from the upper corner of the Meotis for a fifteen days long journey toward the North. Their land is bare where no tree grows, no fruit trees or trees grown in the wild.” (Herodotos History, 2.vol. Every Man’s Library 405, 406, London 1949)

The first syllable of the Sauromati is equivalent with the Hungarian word sár meaning the yellow shine of gold, or szár that means bald. Both of these words are an archaic form but still used in poetic or historical texts. One Hungarian historical figure’s name was László Szár, which means: László the Bald. The second syllable of Sauromata is related to the Magyar word megye, which is still in use in the name of Kecskemét, a Hungarian city. The word mata is also related to the Magyar word mező, meaning grassland, which fully describes the land of the Sauromatians. In summary, the Sauromata, Sarmata words mean a shiny (sár) or a barren (szár) land. Considering that Herodotos emphasized that the land of these people was void of all trees, the latter may be more appropriate. The two concepts intertwine: where there are no trees, no shade, the landscape is sunnier, brighter. The Welsh place-name Mesgarmon, which means the meadow of Mes, is identical with the Magyar mező. The English meadow belongs into the same word-group.

The mata word is connected to the Magyar méz (honey) and méh (bee) words. Considering that Greek historians described the Scythians as living on milk and honey, it is evident, that these words belong into the same culture. Greek historians also mention that it is impossible to cross the Carpathian mountains because of the many “bees” (méh). Thus, one realizes that this word-group and culture originated from the Carpathian Valley. This “milk and honey” culture also has some affinities with the culture of the Medes and Mesopotamia.

In the 2. issue of 1996, of the Journal for Hungarian Studies we made mention of a Sarmatian dish as part of the grave goods of a Sarmatian nobleman. The inscription of this dish is written with the Siculo-Magyar runic script called rovás; the text is written in the Magyar language. Considering this text and the Magyar meaning of the name “Sarmatian,” we have to count these peoples among the Magyar nations. The cultural and linguistic data, of the Magyar early history, shed extended light not only to the mythological elements of Western Europe, but also to the ancient and early history of the West. This study will briefly mention the Magyar relationships of the Arthur legends:

1. The legends concerned with Arthur

2. Legends concerning Arthur’s sword. These were written down the first time by Thomas Malory in the 15th century. (3, Vol.4:626) According to professor Littleton these legends are of Sarmatian origin.

3. Legends of the Round Table. The first mention of these is in Wace Jersey’s Roman de Brut, from 1155 AD. (3,Vol.10:208).

4. Legends of the Holy Grail. Its first mention is in Robert de Boron’s work from the year 1200 AD.

According to the Encyclopćdia Britannica, the Holy Grail is a round, wide vessel. The etymology of the word is not known, but it is assumed that it goes back to Celtic origin. There is a long tradition of magic cauldrons, horns of plenty, and vessels that give new life and so on. The Grail’s first written record dates to 1200 AD to Robert de Boron’s work on this subject. This word is sometimes connected with the Old French word graal, which means a large, deep serving vessel.

Its Magyar etymology through the “K-R” word-group and its affiliations gives added explanations not only to this name, but the names of places, historical and mythical figures of the British Islands that were touched by the Grail’s presence. In our further discussions we will follow the data of Geoffrey Ashe’s cited work. We will make a small detour concerning these legends. Since the ancient inhabitants of the British Isles claim Skythan ancestry, we will look into these legends of origins in our quest for the Holy Grail, for only they can point even further back to the place of origins of these people, and their legends, which is within the Carpathian Valley.

*

Diodoros Siculus talks about Palos and Napus who were the descendants of Skythes. He also mentions that all of their descendants used Skythes’ name as their national name. They occupied vast lands from the Tanais (Don) to Thracia and expanded their rule to Egypt and the Nile subduing antiquity’s many famous nations. Finally their rule extended to the Caspian Sea and the Eastern ocean also. These people were numerous, and had many renown kings. The Saka, the Massagetae, and the Arimasp received their names from these kings. Again some others who came from Media settled near the Tanais, who were called Sauromatae. (Diodoros II.45) Diodorus Siculus also talks about the huge territories which the Scythians occupied and this will be important in relationship with the origin saga of the Scottish people. The name of Media is also related to the Magyar mező, méz, and méh (meadow, honey and bee) words. The concept of a land “flowing with milk and honey” as the epitome of plenty must have originated in the homeland of the milk drinking Skythans. Studying the history of the British Isles the Magyar historical and geographical names are frequent obvious.

“This narrative uses a method of originating words concerning the names of Palos and Napus, similar to that of Herodotos in the case of Scythes; according to Siculus the Palos and Napus people got their names from Skythes. The names of the two princes sound very familiar to the Magyar ears. It is easy to recognize in the first one the Palóc nation’s name, in Napus we recognize our word for Sun (Nap). This name is also preserved in the ancient name of Kolozsvár that was Napóca in Erdély (Transylvania). The Saka, Sekel, Sicul or Székely nation belonged to the ancient Scythians. According to Diodoros we also have to place the Massagetae, the Arimasp and the Sarmatians to the Scythian people” says Endre K. Grandpierre, dedicated researcher of Hungarian antiquities.

*

The Regős

Rheged kingdom was the protector of national poetry. The four great poets of the British Isles are connected with Rheged. The Rheged name may be connected with the Magyar regős, who were the poets, sages, historians, preservers of ancient religion through music and song. They had lands allotted to them which they kept even in King István’s time when persecutions of “pagan” memories already began at the hand of the priests of the new religion. The Hungarian town of Regőc preserves their memory. Regőc is located in the ancient district of Sátorhegy where Prince Ferenc Rákóczi spent his childhood with his mother Ilona Zrinyi. Both are the personifications of love of the country.

Taliesin was among the four great poets of Rheged. His name is translated as “Radiant Brow." He preserved the memory of an ancient home among the summer stars. The first syllable of his name (Tal) is connected with the Magyar words for shine (dél, deli), song (dal), and Táltos the ancient Magyar priestly class, who taught people through song. The second syllable of his name (sin) is identical with the Magyar word szem, szen meaning eye. The Magyar meaning of this name is Shiny Eye. Taliesin’s home among the morning stars may also be connected with Arctoúros and the rotation of the sky. As a matter of fact the Shiny Eye may carry the star meaning too. A Magyar tale talks about the Star Eyed Shephard. Arthur’s name belongs into the same word-group (T-R, T-L), and mythology connected with it.

The ancient memories were preserved by the poets of Rheged on the British Isles and the regős in Hungary. Their voices were drowned in blood. The great Hungarian poet, János Arany’s poem, The Bards of Wales mourned both.

*

Arthur

Geoffrey Ashe mentions that the Celts have no mythology in which a god by the name of Arthur can be found.

In Magyar traditions the name Artur leads us to the prehistory of the Magyar peoples. Later cultures of the Turanian peoples, and the Etruscans also preserve these ancient memories. The second syllable of Arthur’s name “tur” means bull, maleness in the Magyar language. This word also describes our beautiful Sun’s daily journey and return. Its symbol was the circling flight of the falcon, called Turul-bird. In this context Arthur’s name means Bull Man, Sun man, whose role is linked inseparably with his return.

Britain’s ancient history begins, as does the Magyar with Fairy traditions which are also an inseparable part of the Arthurian legends. It is interesting to note, that the Mythology of the British Isles preserved a memory, according to which these fairies spoke in the language of the Troyans. As Arthur’s name is connected with the Magyar túr, so is the name of Troy. As long as the name of Arthur cannot be tied to any of the Celtic god names, there is ample proof that this name was once part of Magyar Mythology, celebrated today in a festival of the so called „Turka-járás”, a part of the Winter Solstice celebration. Arthur, or Artur, was once the personification of the Sun just as much as was the Magyar Miklós Toldi. In later Germanic mythologies we find Tor, William Tell with the same role and names. The feminine of this word is “tér," which means a well defined, material space, and also a closed circle as does the related English word: turn. The Etruscan goddess Turan was personification of the round Earth and their country; the later Latin word terra, the English territory was derived from here.

*

Bors, Knight of the Round Table

The Arthurian legends preserved the memory of an Arthurian knight, Bors, a cousin of Lancelot. This latter is believed to be of Alanic origins and this relationship points to Magyar-Alan relationships, also. Dr. Tibor Baráth studied the culture and history of the Alans and I refer the reader to his works. The Bors family’s presence in the Carpathian Basin predates the arrival of the Árpáds. According to Arthurian legends, Bors once traveled across the sea, to an unknown place called Sarras. Later, he continued his search for the Holy Grail. It showed up in Europe for a while, then disappeared again, returning to its ancient home in Asia, or to heaven according to diverse traditions. Bors and Lancelot settled finally at Glastonbury to establish a religious community, which dissolved after the death of Lancelot.

The name of Sarras is again connected with the Magyar word for shine (sár), the Sáros form means “shiny." Near the Bors family’s pre-Árpád ancestral home in Borsod county is the town of Sárospatak. Bors may have traveled to one of the towns in Hungary named Sáros. The history of Borsod county in Hungary leads into great antiquity. Beginning with the Bükk culture, its cultural layers lead in an unbroken line to our days. At Zöldhalompuszta, the grave of a Skythan prince was excavated, and among the many splendid gold artifacts there was the most sacred symbol of the Magyar peoples: the Stag. During the great migrations Germanic people, Kvads and Sarmatians lived also in this region, and after the VI-IX century AD the Avars settled these lands. The early presence of the Sarmatians may place the Arthurian legends to an even earlier date. At the same time this makes Bors’s Sarras a part of this region at Sáros even more plausible. The Bors-Miskóc family had holdings in Borsod up to 1312 AD. Near Miskolc (Borsod county, Hungary) lies Diósgyőr where an ancient, ring shaped castle (Geuru, Győr) stood and the region was continually inhabited up to the 17th century AD. (R.10) This castle may also be connected with the Bors family. The official Hungarian historians of today do not accept the idea of a pre-Árpád Magyar presence in Hungary. Considering the ancient round castle of Borsod, the probable historical time of the Arthurian legend of the 5th century AD, the presence of the Bors family in Europe including Borsod county, cannot be dismissed. The Bors family name is frequent even today in Hungary. The present notions of Hungarian origins have to be reevaluated.

*

Arthur’s sword

One Arthurian legend holds that his sword was embedded in a huge stone. Only a very deserving person, destined to be king, can extract it. This legend was preserved by Sir Thomas Malory in the 15th century AD. (3:Vol.4:626) The sword in the stone may also be connected with the first memories of a new knowledge of how to extract iron from ore. The sword is embedded and has to be extracted in a very literal sense from a stone (ore). The first iron foundries of Europe were in Hámor, Bors county of Hungary. At the much later time of Árpád, in the ninth century, iron was also extracted from the iron ore found free in the meadows and each center of the seven dukes had such foundries as described in detail by Imre Stammler. The ancient Magyar method of changing iron into steel was the following: the swords were stuck blade up into a mound exposing them to lightning. When lightning hit these swords their molecular structure changed and made their material far better than it was before. These swords became known as the “Swords of God” since they were touched by God in the most literal sense: the Magyar expression for lightning is “The Arrow of God” (Isten nyila). The well known story of Atilla’s sword, which became known as God’s Sword (Isten kardja) may have originated in such a method of sword craftsmanship. According to this story, a shepherd boy found a piece of iron sticking out of the meadow. He tried to lift it out, but the sword started to flame and jumped out of the earth. As it cooled down the boy took the sword to Atilla realizing that it was only fit for a king. The episode of the flaming sword brings the lightning stricken swords to mind.

According to the second British version, Arthur’s sword was made by fairies and an arm emerging from the waters handed it to him; the sword’s return at the end of Arthur’s life followed the same pattern. This sword was called Excalibur. British scholarship originates this word from the Latin chalybs, meaning steel. This etymology is believed to be uncertain, which shows that the story, and the names in it have not originated within the English culture sphere, even though it is very much a part of the thought process of the English people. Irish tradition calls the sword Caladbold, and this is the older version of the sword legend. According to Helmut Nickel, curator of arms, armor at the Metropolitan Museum believes that the “latin word for steel, chalybs...comes from a Greek word derived from the name of the Sarmatian Kalybes, a tribe of smiths in the Caucasus.”

The Magyar kar, kard (arm, sword) words are related to the cal syllable, but it is also related to the word hal which means to sink and to die. An arm lifts the sword out of the water and this arm sinks into the waters with the sword is expressed the following way in the Magyar language: “Kar emeli ki a kardot a vízből, s a kar a karddal a vízbe hal.” If we take the Magyar translation of Excalibur and equate the syllable cal with sinking (hal), the bur syllable with castle (vár) we get the meaning of “from the sunken castle”. This translation becomes even more plausible when we take into consideration that the Magyar name of the Holy Grail’s original owner is Halász Király (Fisher King). He lived in a perpetual state of near-death (halál). The linguistic connection of this legend is easily understood based on the Magyar language, where the word “hal” carries a meaning of sinking, death and fish. According to one Magyar legend, a fairy king who lives under the water rescues the souls of the victims of drowning and helps to restore them to life.

In Denmark a great many swords were found buried into a watery grave. According to Magyar symbology the sword and its cover was a symbol of life as the water was too. A great word cluster in the Magyar language relates to this idea. (kar, kard = arm, sword, — hal= fish, sinking, death)

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The Holy Grail

Geoffrey Ashe, the dedicated researcher of the Arthurian legends, believes that the Holy Grail is a summation of the male-female principle and symbols. His marvelous insight is on target.

At the base of Magyar consciousness is the knowledge of the interchangeability of energy and matter. This knowledge was built into their language and is also part of their symbology. The pure gold sun-cap of the ancient Magyar kings, as a cap when worn round side up on one’s head was considered a male symbol, which united heaven and earth into a creating unit. According to Magyar legends only a man, who was chosen by the Holy crown can become king. The last such king was Hollós Mátyás, Matthias Corvinus. Tradition holds that the Holy Crown just appeared on his head thus signaling his kingship. The Hollós and Corvinus cognomens, and the Magyar names of the raven (holló) holding a ring (gyűrű) on the Hollós family crest all belong into the large K-R word-group as does the word grail. Matthias Corvinus Rex’s famous library and his Corvinae may have held great amounts of European early history. Pitifully, they have become scattered by foreign invaders. The presence of ravens is connected with the Arthurian legends, too, and are a still nurtured, living tradition in England.

When the cap is used as a cup, a vessel, hollow side up it becomes a symbol of femininity, since is able to contain, to enfold. Yet, the cap and the cup are both essentially the same. The Magyar language expresses this concept of interchangeability of energy, which is considered the male principle of creation, and matter, which is the female principle through the reciprocity of words. The Magyar bak (buck) is a male, its reciprocal form kupa (cup) is a female symbol along with the word kap (to receive). One also must note that the Magyar and English words are identical both in meaning and form. There are several hundred identical words between the Magyar and English language. This fact is the subject of a separate study. I will touch only upon the few words closely related to this present article.

The memory of the gold Magyar Sun-crown was handed down from ancient traditions. The object and its symbology originated in a time when only Magyars (the original meaning of this word is “human”) lived on this earth in a happy Golden Age. Later historical epochs handed down this symbol to many generations where these still live in their souls, language and traditions. When overpopulation of the Carpathian Basin spilled over to the neighboring lands and new successive societies were formed this symbol still remained important in the mythology of Magyar peoples. Let us take a look at what the Greek authors wrote.

Herodotos mentions, concerning the origin legends of the Scythians, that the first person living on their land was Thargitaos, whose parents were Zeus and Boristhenes. He had three sons, Lipoxais, Arpoxais, and Koloxais. According to Herodotos at the time of these princes a golden plow, a yoke and an ax and a drinking cup fell from the sky, symbols of a settled, agricultural life which originated at the time of mankind’s Golden Age. According to Magyar legends God tought our ancestors this peaceful, agricultural mode of living. The double ax of the Siculs is also a symbol of life.

The cup, as we have already seen symbolizes the Sky and Earth, energy and matter, in summary: it is the symbol of Life. Later on we will see that the Holy Grail also has life- and sustenance-giving properties much like the magic table of the Magyars. But it is only in the Magyar language where life and sustenance can be expressed with the same word: élet.

Herodotos talks about a land beyond where “feathers” fall from the sky in such quantity that it makes access impossible.The “feathers,” “pihe” in the Magyar language denotes both down and snowflakes. The informant of Herodotos must have spoken Magyar according to this remark. If there would be no further proof even this one word could serve as important testimony of the common language and origins of the Magyars, Skythans and Huns.

The second saga of Herodotos tells us that the Scythans wear a cup on their belt as sign of their ancestry. Fabulous examples of these Scythan cups have been brought to light in Hungary. Some of these we show among the illustrations. It is an important circumstance that the name-giver of the Scythans, prince Skythes was the one who won the bow and the cup, and with them the kingdom. His two brothers, Agathyrsos and Gelonos became kings of other lands. The Huns and Székelys (Siculi) descend from this prince Skythes. The Székely’s holy, sacramental vessel (székely áldozópohár) still upholds this ancient heritage. It is also important to note that beginning with Skythes all Skythans wear this holy cup on their belts, which is an important symbol of the equality of all Székelys to this day. Székely constitution upholds that all Székelys are equal and of noble blood. The ideal of equality emerges again in the legends of King Arthur and which ideal is part of a Sarmatian and Skythian heritage. Arnold Ipolyi held the traditions of the Székely holy vessel very important and he followed the fate of the hereditary priestly order of the Rabonbáns up to our days. (9:II. Vol. 296) He also makes mention of other libation vessels: “...at sacrificial ceremonies the cauldrons could not be missed and so certain holy vessels were used at the libation ceremonies. Anonym (one of the first codex writers during the reign of the Árpáds) mentions them in conjunction with blood ceremonies: ’Fusis sanguinibus in unum vas.’ The Székely Holy Cup is mentioned in this context which may be a surviving part of an ancient tradition inherited from the Scythian antiquity as part of a tradition as the Székely Chronicle’s historical segment tells us (9:II, 276-8), as if this cup would have belonged to the well known Skythan Anacharsis; how holy this vessel was to them is shown by the fact that this cup was used in ceremonies performed by the Rabonbáns.” Beautiful examples of such cauldrons were excavated in the Hungary proper and its surrounding areas. Ipolyi also mentions the horns that served as libation vessels, musical instruments and weapons of defense at the same time. The horn of plenty’s additional meaning of light and plenty is discussed in detail by Adorján Magyar.

The Ukkon cup is a holy vessel of the Székelys. It is a wide, flat vessel with a rounded bottom used at ceremonies sealing an agreement. This vessel cannot be put down due to this construction until it has not been fully emptied. Ipolyi brings this word in relationship with the Magyar words ük (ancestor) and ég (sky). A similar vessel is among the ancient artifacts of the Békásmegyer Hungary. An Akkadian vessel of 2.050 BC is also of similar shape. Cups of the Szilágysomlyó and Nagyszentmiklós Hunnic treasures show the continuity of the same symbolism

He also mentions the “zádok” trees which were considered in ancient pagan times a holy tree, God’s tree even in later Christian times. They were grown near the churches. Out of the wood of these trees the ancient holy vessels or cups were made.” (9:I,330)

Dr. Tibor Baráth shows a cup pertaining to the Nagyszentmiklós treasure in Hungary, which is a low, wide mouthed vessel studded with precious stones. Its shape and decoration is the equivalent of the Holy Grail’s appearance as tradition describes it. (7:I,4). Dr. Baráth believes that it was this cup used to poison Atilla. Imre Oláh researcher of runic writings translated the runic script as a blood holding vessel. The different translations necessitate further studies. Considering that today’s historians connect the Grail legend with the arrival of the Alans in the West, these two synchronicities cannot be accidental.

The Sumerians who spoke an agglutinative, non Indo-European language, lived in a matrilinear society. Their holy vessel in the Dumuzi legend held milk. When this cup was broken by the evil spirited Gallas, Dumuzi’s life came to an end too.

Archaic Magyar prayers preserved the memory of an ancient holy vessel. In its Christianized form “three drops of blood of our Lord Christ and three drops of milk of the Virgin Mary were collected in this vessel” (8:247). Researchers of Hungarian history point out that the content of these holy vessels is a mirror of the society which holds them in reverence. The cup’s content in a matriarchal society is the milk of a Goddess. In patriarchal societies where life has to be protected through the shedding of blood, especially at times of war — as we have seen in case of the Árpáds’ covenant — the sense of unity is expressed through blood. The cups of the ancient Magyar prayers contain both: milk and blood. I consider this an eloquent sign of their society based upon the equality of the sexes; the crown witness of the existence of this society is the Magyar word for wife, which is “feleség” meaning “my half." When faced with the overwhelming force of an enemy the Magyar women fought next to the men like the famous women of Eger fought against the onslaught of the Turks even in the 16th century AD. Women also kept their maiden names next to their wedded names, like Ilona Zrinyi, Zsuzsanna Lórántffy, mentioning only the two best known historical figures.

The previously mentioned golden Sun-cap, which originated in the fairy times of the Golden Age and was made out of the gold of the Danube at Csallóköz was the original, ancient Magyar Holy Crown. At the time of the last coronation of the last Habsburg it disappeared and a gold fabric has been put in the cup’s place. Was this “disappearance” an act of robbery, or is the saga of the Holy Grail thus continuing?

Society

The cult of the “Stone of Destiny” goes back to Pictish origins. Their coronations used to take place in Scone, near Perth. The person to be crowned was seated on this stone. As the Scythian descendants, the Scots occupied more and more lands. Finally Kenneth MacAlpine claiming Pictish ancestry had himself crowned King of the Picts and Scots. According to Scotish legends a princess Tea brought this stone to Ireland where she married Tamair. Tara’s landscape is adorned with round, flat topped mounds clearly discernible even today. Since the arrival of this stone all kings were crowned there. Prince Fergus, founder of Dalriada brought the stone from Ireland to the Island of Iona, later the above mentioned Kenneth brought it to Scone. Edward I. brought it to Westminster. Queen Elizabeth II. with a magnanimous gesture returned this stone to Scotland.

Linguistic connections of the above are as follows: Considering the round, flat topped mounds of Tara it is reasonable to connect this legend, the place, and its people to the Magyar tár-tér (enclosed space, return), Tera, Turan mother goddesses. These names are also connected with Arthur’s name and legends. The Magyar word “Túr” is part of many, still used place names in Hungary.

The taking of an oath is part of the Magyar coronation ceremony. The word oath is eskű in Magyar which contains the word kő, kű, meaning stone. According to Adorján Magyar some Magyar nations used to take an oath touching a holy stone, usually a meteor-stone, which was considered pure, uncontaminated, coming from above. Such a stone is the Muslim’s famous black stone, called Kaba, or Csaba which names contain the „ka, ke, ko” root of the Magyar word for stone.

The throne which rests on the stone reminds us of the Magyar words szék, székel, and székely (chair, settlement and the Székely nation’s name).

(According to Christianized legends the Stone of Destiny was used by Abraham as a pillow.)

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Places of Worship

In Ireland, near Killarney a mother goddess by the name of Anu or Annan was worshipped. Anu’s name is identical to the Magyar anyu, anya, and anyag (mother and matter) words. It is worthy to note that in Ireland this name has been applied properly to express motherhood. In Mesopotamia which lies at a greater distance from the Carpathian Valley, Anu’s name underwent a radical transition due to the misinterpretation of a mythology and thus became a male deity. The road leading to this misunderstanding is easy to follow and to explain but this would take us far from the goal of the present study. Annwfn’s name seems to bear connections with the Magyar an, anna, anya, anyag (mother, matter, land) and the fény (shine) words. The combined meanings of these give a meaning “the land of shine” to the composite word of Annwfn.

One of the most important place of worship of the British Isles was the monument we call Stonehenge today, a round structure of huge stones. According to native legend, the giants who built it came from Africa. It was believed that these stones have healing properties. Its old name was simply Chorea Gigantum, “round dance of the giants,” or just simply: “the circle.” The blue stones of Stonegenhge came from the vicinity of Carmarthen’s Prescelly Mountains. Geoffrey Ashe brings these structures into connection with the round temples of Hecataeus of Abdera which graced the lands of the Hyperboreans. He places the lands of the Hyperboreans onto an island above Gaul. According to legends the stones of this temple cannot be counted. Adorján Magyar’s work deals with Sanudo’s map of early Europe where the island of Csallóköz, the mythical home of the fairies and the Magyars appears as a huge island, covering almost half of Europe (5:230). He explains this vast overstatement of size with the great importance of the European origin myths, which it symbolized. Stonehenge II and III was built between 2.500 and 2.000 BC. The later priests of this holy place, the Druids were also Hyperboreans according to Greek legends. They also state that Apollo visits this land every 19 years. The fact that the Druids created a 19 year calendar to reconcile the solar and lunar calendars seems to connect them with the Hyperborean legends.

The ancient round temples of the Magyars are well known. The latest such excavation was at Sárospatak, Hungary. The church of Őskű belongs also into this line. Őskű’s name means “ancient stone”; the English word for church (kör kő=circular stone) carries the same meaning as discussed in Dr. Baráth’s works. The Druids of Stonehenge were not only priests, but constituted a priestly caste akin to the Magyar Magi and Táltos. The name of the Druids cannot be explained with Indo-European etymology. A famous priest among them was called Mog Ruith, who, according to legend was dressed in a suit of bull skin, over which he placed a bird costume and he was able to fly. Because of this legend historians attempt to link them with the Siberian or Asiatic shamans with little enthusiasm. Ariesteaus places Hyperborea “the land behind Boreas” into the Altai mountains. Abaris is also said to have come from Hyperborea. Later Greek historians give him a Skythian origin. They also call the upper portion of the Danube Hyperborea (1:129), the ancestral home of the Magyars. The first part of Mog-Ruith’s name is in connection with Magor, the Magyar Sungod; the “Ruith” part is connected with the T-R word-group represented in the Arthur legend.

The Druids worshipped a God by the name of Esus or Jesu. For this reason they welcomed the first Christian priests. The names of Esus or Jesu are of “pagan” origin and are identical of the Jász-Magyar peoples’ Jós, Jász, Jizzu names, who was their god of shine, light, represented by the Sun. Only much later legends connect this land with Joseph of Arimathea, who was supposedly accompanied on one of his trade journeys by the young Jesus. Claudia and Linus mentioned in Paul’s letters in 63 AD may have originally come from this land.

Geoffrey Ashe originates all great religions from the Hyperboreans in the following order:



Hyperboreans

1. the Greek cult of Apollo, out of which arose

2. the Pythagorean school

3. the Druids

4. the wisdom literature of the Vedas

5. . Sumerian wisdom literature

6. Wisdom literature of the lama monasteries of the Altai region.



The only sub-branch of the Pythagorean School outside Greece was in Carthage. This land and people were very much connected with the settling of the British Isles, and the history of the Alans.

Another common tradition of these places are the labyrinths, the meaning of which still eludes us. The recurring septenary maze in Rockey Valley near Tintagel is remarkable for its cross design intertwined with the seven lines of the maze. The cross in Magyar symbology is the symbol of light, the number seven was the holy number of infinity, eternity according to Ipolyi. The Tintagel structure’s Magyar reading is „Keresztúr” (translation: Round Castle, or Mound of the Cross), which is a frequent place-name in Hungary. There is surviving memory that the Druids were able to see the mountains of the moon, which presupposes that they had some sort of telescope. This may be an old memory of a highly developed pre-Druidic culture.

In spiritual matters the Druids busied themselves to bring back the wisdom of the ancients. One of their holy ceremonies was connected with the oak tree and mistletoe. Their priests stood in the fork of the oak tree akin to the ancient Magyar Táltos ceremonies. They believed in immortality. According to Clement of Alexandria Pythagoras learned from them. But Stonehenge was the product of a pre-Druidic culture. The Druids maintained their organization which has two branches today. The Albion Lodge initiated Winston Churchill in 1908.

Manopus is the name of an Irish divinity who is represented with a harp in his hand. His representation is similar to that of Apollo but he was not considered a solar deity. His name is related to the Magyar divinity name “Mén”.

Avebury and Silbury is older than Stonehenge according to modern research. Avebury’s name consists of the following Magyar syllables: év (circle) and vár (bury) giving it a meaning of “round castle”. According to legend Silbury is the resting place of a king named Sil who was buried with golden armor. These names have a close affinity with the following Magyar words: Szil (pronounce Sil) a place name in Hungary, a tree called szil-fa which played part in the ancient religion. Szél-úrfi (Young Master Wind) who was the symbol of energy and for his pollinating powers of fecundity also. The constellations of Sellő (mermaid) and Tündérfő (The Head Of The Fairies) belong into this category, also. It is interesting to note that from these latter two places the fairies arrive always threesome as Sun, Moon, and Star mothers according to Ipolyi’s research. These three mothers may be in the background of the Celtic triune female figures. The watery surrounding of Silbury can easily be connected with the sellő (mermaid) and hableány (girl of the waters) concepts. The legend of the Lady in the Lake may point to such ancient affiliations.

The legend of Cornwall calls the stone circles “Merry Maidens”, and its stones can be counted only by women. These too come to life to dance in a circle like Stonehenge’s stones, thus preserving the ritual round dances of the ancients, which survive in many cultures even today. Ancient tradition remembers a time when the ancestors were able to fly.

Hengist was the lord of Kent and his name is explained as “horse”. Both the name of the person, and the place is in connection with the Hun nation name and the word kanca (mare). The horse is important in the symbology of the British Isles. Most of these horses are white, like the Uffington horse. There was one horse at Tysoe which was red. King Alfred is also connected with the legends of the white horse; the king’s name is explained as “Elf-rede” which points to the ancient times of the Fairies. He was brave and his laws stopped the bloodshed so popular in those days. In Magyar legends the white horse was part of the lunar, and the red horse of the solar symbology. The black horse indicated the dawn. One of the last legends of the white horse is connected with Atilla. Mythology of the British Isles honored a horse goddess by the name of Epona. Her cult was also adopted by the Romans, who honored her as Regina. Epona’s name echoes the name of the Pannons, an aboriginal culture of Pannonia, their mother goddess Panna and the names of the sun and light (nap and fény)

Athelstan, Alfred’s son lived in Northumbria and ruled Britain between 925-940 A.D.. A great many stories are attached to his figure. One of these stories makes mention that he accidentally burned the cakes of a poor man in the fire. This reminds me of the “cakes baked in ashes” which is an ever-present motif of Magyar stories. Athelstan’s name is related to the Etel, Atil names.

Cerne is the place of worship of a divinity named Helith, Helis or Heil. The Giant of Cerne holds a huge club in his right hand and his phallic importance is obvious in this handiwork of ancient artists. The name of the place, the name of the divinity, the club he is holding are connected with the Magyar kör (circle) and kel (arise, i.e. the rising sun), kalló (club) one of the names of the Sungod, Kallós, whose name was preserved in the names of Kolozs, Kolozsvár, place and city names in Erdély (Transylvania). Both the name and the representation is identical with Hercules of classical mythology. In classical traditions the linguistic connection between Hercules and his club does not exist, but which is strong in both the Magyar and the British mythology.

The most authentic of the Lays, lines of sanctuaries is the one connected with Saint Michael. In another paper I discussed the connections of the “pagan” St. Michael, (who was called Mikelu, Makal and similar names) and Magor, Makar sungod names of the Magyars. The idea of the lays seems similar also to the Inka line of sanctuaries laid out in a sun-ray pattern with a center at Cuzko which shows the antiquity and universality of this thought.

The Temple of the Stars are ancient roads around Somerset’s Glastonbury which form the twelve figures of the Zodiac. Its discoverer, Katharine Maltwood, believes them to be the work of Sumerians. Because of their huge size and great antiquity her theory is questioned. Never having been in this region, I am quietly proposing the consideration of the following. These lines may represent frequently traveled roads. In ancient times nighttime wanderers followed a “map of the sky”. They knew exactly which star points them into the right direction to reach from A to B. As they followed these roads of heaven, they brought down the heavens to earth quite literally. Each locale in Hungary had a representative star. Above Hollókő, the home of King Matthias Corvinus there are two stars visible. King Matthias and his beloved changed after their death into these stars.

Celtic tradition holds that the name of Brennius, who was the lord of the northern part of the Isle, came from a god called Bran. This name means raven. Linguistically the name Bran and the word raven are one another’s reciprocal form. This is one example that the Magyar law of reciprocity of words is also present in the English language. The Magyar word for crow, rook (varjú) belongs into the same word-group. Bran was the lord of the druidic Beltain, their spring festival. A divinity called Belinus or Belenos was known in Northern Italy and Southern Gaul, and both of these are identical with the sungod Bál, Béla of the Palóc people.

Welsh legends know of a Beli-Mawr (Beli the Great), or Beli, the son of Manogan in whom they honor the ancestor of their people. The many geographical names containing the “-billing” affix are connected with the name of Belinus on the British Islands. The Welsh name, their progenitor’s name Beli, the North Italian Belinos or Belenos deities all lead to Bál, Béla Sungod of the Palóc nation. This name is also in direct relationship with the name of Palos Scythian prince mentioned by Diodorus Siculus. This name has no known etymology in the Germanic languages.

There is a belief in the mythology of the British Isles according to which male children are able to change into a stag, boar or wolf according to their will then turn back again into human form. This belief system is in connection with the Magyar Miracle Stag (Csodaszarvas) concept and the mythology of the boys who turned into a deer. I will return later to this legend when discussing the name of Oisin, later. A variation of this ancient belief system is still celebrated among some of the American Indians as a testament of mankind’s once unified belief system and culture.

The Welsh legend’s Gwynn was the son of Nudd. It is believed his name must mean white. His son’s name is Oisin meaning “little fawn”. The first syllable of this name is identical with the Magyar “őz” with the same meaning. It has linguistic connections with the ős, ősz (ancestor, old) words. The legend leads us even further to our beginnings and the legend of the Magyar Miracle Stag. He was the personification of the starry sky, the Tree of Life, and was God’s messenger bringing with him the song of Creation. Oisin was one of the poets who moved to Tir-na-nOg for extended periods of time. As the Magyar Miracle Stag was the starry sky, and so the “little fawn’s” departure to the world of the stars is understandable since symbolically Oisin was the son of the Miracle Stag. Both spread their songs of creation into the consciousness of Man.

Llyr’s son Manawydan, or Lir’s son Mannan is the name of an Irish Sea-god. In Magyar the lé, lőre (liquid, turbulent liquid) is connected with god Lir. Mannan reiterates the name of Mén (stallion) who frequently represented the Moon. To link the names of the Moon and the waters is scientifically correct, since the moon exerts a lot of influence upon the waters, especially the sea.

The Welsh name for the island of Man is Manaw. The Irish names Mana, Manu are connected with the Magyar Mén (stallion). This frequently mentioned Mén deity name has an enormous linguistic base in the Magyar language. Its linguistic discussion is again beyond the scope of this paper. (Some relationships are as follows: manó=man, manyó=old woman, menyecske=young woman, mony=creative engergy, menny=heaven, Mén=one of the names of God, monno=arch. one)

Arthur’s Queen Guinevere occasionally appears in three figures and for this reason she is believed to be the Triune female goddess of the Welsh mythology. Earlier we brought the Magyar parallel for this phenomena as she may represent the Sun, Moon, and Star-mothers of the Magyar mythology. She may also represent the three phases of moon depending on the contents of the legend.

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Historical and Geographic Names

Albactanus, king of Scotland was killed in a battle with the Huns 25 years after the arrival of the Trojans to the British Isles around 1070 B.C. (1:78, 18:157) Later they were expelled from the southern part of the isle by Locrinus, and their leader by the name of Humber drowned in a river during the battle. This river is called Humber ever since. Ashe tentatively assigns British etymology to this name translating it as “good river”. Humber’s name is affiliated with the name of the Hun nation. In the patriarchal society of the Huns the river was always a symbol of masculinity and procreation: the Magyar words for to pour and semen (ont, ondó) are closely related thus preserving this concept up to this day. To give the Hun hero Humber’s name to the river seems logical. Ashe believes that the mention of the Huns at this age is incorrect and the result of a later historian’s error since Atilla’s Huns arrived centuries later in the European arena. The Huns were present as part of the Magyar nations since times immemorial in the Carpathian Valley and have left many traces all over Western Europe from the earliest times on. The word home (hon), homo are a part of the Hun vocabulary. The full exploration of this line belongs to the future.

Another story tells us about Locrinus’ love for the German girl Estrildis. She was his lover for seven years and bore him a little girl named Habren. Once in Locrinus’ absence his wife had both mother and child killed by throwing them into a river. As an afterthought she named the river after the little girl, Habren. This name became in the Latin language territory Sabrina, in the British Severn. The etymology of either name is unknown and cannot be explained based on Indogermanic etymology. The love affair which lasted seven years takes us back into the ancient times when legends were born. Geoffrey Ashe states the same and that according to ancient legends, we are faced here with the guardian spirits of the waters. The Magyar word hab (water) and hableány (lit.: water-maidens) are part of the language and mythology. The later names of Sabrina and Severn are based on the Magyar word water (víz) and to seep away (visz). Considering that the water names of the British Isles are pre-British and many of them are identical with the pre-Árpád water names of Hungary (Hab, Habúr), we have to recognize the presence of the ancient Magyar peoples in both places. The western European link of the Magyar culture has been totally neglected by the foreign dominated historians of Hungary who still try to maintain the saga of Asian origins of the Hungarians. This act prevented the Western European nations to know their own history fully.

Molmutin’s son Belinus was the ruling king, his brother Brennius ruled over the Northern lands. Belinus’ name is identical with the name of the Palóc sungod Béla, which is still a frequent name in Hungary. Originally, it meant “white light” as recited in one of the ancient ballad’s “béla gyöngy”, meaning “white pearl”. Caswallan, the son of Beli was able to become invisible with the help of his cloak which, when he was wearing it showed only his sword. This legend originated in the ancient times of the fairies. Brennius’ name belongs to the B-R word-group and is related to Baranya and Baratya the Earth mother and Sun of the Avars. County Baranya of Hungary is named after her.

Tascianus ruled the two last decades BC. On his coins we find his name as Tas which was the name of one of these seven dukes. His other name was Tenuantius, the father of Cunobelinus who was also called Cymbeline. He was raised in Caesar’s court. The meaning of his name is explained as “The dog of Belinus” or “The faithful follower of God”. On his coins he is portrayed as a round headed, mustached gentleman with large, open eyes so often seen in Scythian representations. The Bel name in the transliteration of his name has been taken as “God”. The first syllable “cuno” is in connection with the Magyar kún, kan (cuneus, male principle) and would translate into “The Son of Bel” or “The Son of the Sun”. The Magyar komondor, a large, white guard dog of Hungarian breed belongs into the same word-group.

Arviragus was defeated by the Romans at Hampton. He married the daughter of Claudius. Later he established Glouchester. His name brings us closer to the cultic vocabulary of the Avars (virág = flower, ar = a male), who were the horticulturists of their time. His name is connected with Virago, the name of an ancient Celtic queen.

Athelney is the name of the wetlands around Somerset’s Glastonbury. Athel following the analogy of Etel, Itil river and water names means water, but it is also connected with Atilla’s Magyar name, which is Etele. It is also interesting to note the “atheling” title of the British nobility. The Old and Middle English variation of this title is the masculine ćtheling and the feminine ćthelu. Considering the fact that the legends of the British Isles talk about Huns, way before the arrival of Atilla, these names and titles take us back to ancient times, thus preserving an ancient Hun title. Atilla’s Etele name probably meant a royal prince also, which was the expected title of the son of Bendeguz. In Anonymus’ Gesta Hungarorum he is mentioned as Athile (Anon. 1 and 5). The later doubling of the letter “t” in Atilla’s name rendering it Attila conformed to the accent of the German historians and writers. His name may also have meant that he descended from the line of the Royal Scythians. At the time of Álmos, Emese’s (his mother) dream is connected with the Atil-Etil-Itil related legends. She dreamt that from her womb a huge river ensued which engulfed the land and out of this a mighty nation will be born. Ipolyi sums up the traditions connected with the Etele name as follows: “...the Atel, Etel name is identical with with the name of the river Etel in Etelköz which flowed in that Magyar territory. This, also, can be observed in the case of another ancient progenitor’s name which was Tana and the river Don, or Tanais is identical with his. This also reminds us of the legendary descendancy of heroes from deities on an elemental level. We also find in the later saga of the hero Álmos, and also in the Scythian legends which talk about Targitaus, the ancestor of the Skythans as a descendant of Zeus and the nymph of the river Borysthenes (Herodot 4,5).” Returning to Tana’s name “...Tana, the ancient father of our (i.e. Magyar) chronicles may well be the first Skythan ruler with the same Tana name... In our language tanya means a settled mode of living, a permanent base, and as we have seen it may mean a “seat”, settlement meaning the ’descensus’ of the earlier generation.” (9: vol.I:203)

Iona was the name of an island which was the holy land and burial ground of the Pikts, Scots and the inhabitants of Northumbria. Later it became the northern center of Christianity. Iona is another name of our Jász people. This name is also connected with mourning (gyász).

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The Early Presence Of Magyar Dialects.

Avalon is a Paradisical fairy land. Her inhabitants are girls. Their fairy queen is Morgan the daughter of Ygerna and Morgause. She is possibly the same person as the Welsh Modron who is believed to be the goddess of waters. The Ygerna name is related to the Magyar Ég (sky) and the Yggdrasil tree which reaches the sky of the Scandinavian myth. Avalon’s name reminds us of the Palóc Mother Earth Vilona. Her symbol was the forked trunk of a tree. Béla Sungod arose in this frame symbolizing the unity of energy and matter, which is Life itself. The Magyar villő (light) and villám (lightning) belong to the words of the same mythology.The English words valley, well belong into the same cultic vocabulary, meaning a hole a depression, along with the Palóc word of villa meaning a fork. The words life, love are also a part of the Palóc culture and language. Avalon’s name translates into “the land of light”. Belinus’ name is identical to the Palóc Béla Sungod-name. The name Béla is also a frequently used name in Hungary. Its original meaning was „white light.”

Morgan’s other home at Ile de Sein brings into focus the aforementioned connection with the Magyar Mother of Life Ilona; the Sein part of the name is identical with the Magyar word sajó (flowing). This word in fact has become the name of several rivers in Europe, beginning with Hungary. This word also denotes shine, where the English and Magyar words are identical. In summary, the name of Avalon can be connected with the concept of a place of shine, as the Magyar home of Ilona, the island in Csallóköz means the same.

Ogygia, the land of “short nights” beyond the ocean means the abode of the Sun, the sky (Ég). The “ia” ending is the abbreviation of jó, jav (a good, a property) and survived to denote a place of belonging. Óg in Magyar also means an opening at the highest point of a dome, such as the highest point of the sky, through which light can come.

The Irish mythology calls Avalon Tir-na-nOg, meaning the land of the young. Another name is Mag-Mon with unexplained etymology. This latter reminds us of the names of Magor and Mén God names. Mona is the name of Anglesey, an island country of northwest Wales which carries Mén’s name as does the name of the Island of Man.

The early mythology of the British Isles remind us of the Elysium of the Greeks, which is Kronos’ abode that was believed to be beyond the western seas. Linguistically Kronos’ name belongs to the K-R word-group connected with kör=circle, kor=aetas, kerül=to circle, and eternity (örök). Earlier we have pointed out the similarities of the Kronos and Arthur legends. In Greek the word “makar” means happiness and Magor, Makar God of the Magyar mythology is the Magyar proverb’s Happy God who helps the plans of the poor. Considering that the island’s name is Mag-Mon, we are faced again with remnants of the ancient Magyar mythology.

The Cornish descent from the giant Gogmagog (sic!) and the princess Albina’s union with demons who consequently gave birth giants is also part of the Scythian-Magyar origin stories. Ipolyi believes the origin legend of Góg and Magóg (9:I:203-204) is an authentic pre-Christian Magyar tradition. He refers to the Hungarian historian Anonymus who talks about this ancient tradition which has become somewhat clouded in the course of centuries. This legend preserved a knowledge Skythans and the surrounding peoples along with this mythology.

Tristan and Isolda’s stories originated in the Pictish legend of Drust. Isolda’s name was Essylt, Iseult, Isolt Yseut according to tradition. There is mention of a Tristan stone in Cornwall near Castle Dore. A Latin inscription states the following: “Drustanus lies here the son of Cunomorus.” The latter name is spelled Kynovawr. The “cuno” syllable brings the Hun, Kun group to mind, the vawr syllable the round castles of the Avar, or Várkun people.

Land’s End is the name of a territory near the ocean and beyond it lies the sunken Lyonesse. Land’s End is frequently mentioned in our legends. The ancient stories clearly indicate a knowledge of the roundness of the Earth. Stories about the “end of the lands” may be connected with this region, and are of later origin. There is knowledge of the fact that Magyars did come to the Irish sulfur caves and their surrounding religious communities seeking spiritual enlightenment during the days of early monasticism. These journeys quite possibly began in the ancient pagan days. The earliest written record of such visits dates to the 14th century; these documents were deposited in the court library of Austria and in Melk. (17:146) Magyar connection with the British Isles continued through the centuries. It is by no accident that the birth of the Magna Carta and the Magyar Golden bull were written within a few years. Oxford’s first student was a Magyar. According to the records here his name was Nicola de Hungaria. His education was provided for between 1193-96 by Richard the Lionhearted who was the brother in law of Hungary’s queen Margaret. (16:18)

The Scots, who originated themselves from the Scythians call their kingdom in Argyll Dalriada. Prince Árgyélus’ memory has been preserved in early and later literature alike and his figure takes us back to the time of the Fairies. Dalriada’s famous hero Colum was famous not only for his literacy but his mighty voice which carried for miles. With this voice he could call people to battle easily. Considering that his life centered around the church of St. Finnian and the Finnian name carries pagan memories, Colum’s role must have been connected with ancient memories and may even have been the name giver of Dalriada which has a Magyar meaning of “battlesong”.

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This present paper is not even the beginning fraction of the linguistic and cultural analogies between the people of the British Isles and the Magyar peoples. Due to the very conscious neglect and tactics of concealment of the Hungarian Academy of Science (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia) the world is fully unaware of the language, mythology and other cultural aspects of the Magyar nation. The cultural “black hole” thus created a confusion of history which even the most dedicated historians cannot overcome. It is for this reason that they are forced to look to the East, or Far East for cultural analogies. A good example is the case of druidic research. Even though the Magyar culture and language of the Carpathian Basin could have provided scholars with a lot fuller understanding, historians were forced to look toward the “shamans” of the East. István Bóna referred to the impossible situation by which the Hun artifacts and materials of excavations have never been used in the reconstruction of a true and comprehensive picture of that culture. He also stated that history of the Huns is still written by their former enemies. The same holds true a hundredfold in case of the history of the Magyars, whose history leads us to the dawn of history in the Carpathian Basin. Excavations in Hungary were mostly restricted to the pampering of Roman ruins. The scant archaeological materials not ruined on purpose or by neglect (and sometimes these are the same) yield a new knowledge of the early history of Europe. We also are forced to realize that the many different names, like the Huns, Alans, Sarmatians, Jazigs, Pannons, Ionians are but different dialects of the same Magyar tongue as are today’s Jász, Palóc and Székely (Sicul) people.









Linguistic Unity Of The Arthur Legend’s Key Aspects

In The Magyar Language.

(Susan Tomory)

K-R



MAGYAR ENGLISH

kör circle

kerek round

korsó a round vessel

kor aetas

kór chronic disease

király king

korona crown



kerít to enclose

kerítés fence

kert garden

caer Welsh: city, an enclosed territory

Corbenic name of a city



kar arm

karol to embrace

kard sword

H-L variations

hál to sleep

hal to sink

hal (vizi állat) fish

halász fisher

hal to die

halál death

hely a place

Heil kelta istenség Heil, a Celtic divinity

Heli Heli, son of Lud

holló (Corvinus) raven

GY-R variations

gyűrű ring

győr city

gyűr to twist, to wind, as in the case of the round earthworks, castles

görög round

grál Grail, a round, vessel

Glastonbury name of a place

T-R

tur bull

turni to dig

tér enclosed space

tér to return

tűrni to wind

Turul , bird of pray with circular

flight pattern. Magyar symbol of the Sun

túr to dig

Thorburn name of a castle

Let us observe the closely bound word-clusters within the Magyar language in connection with the places, names of participants, and the meaning of mythological concepts of the Arthurian legends. The same linguistic unity is not present in the English language.

[For further details see Tomory’s English-Magyar Word Origins.Ed.]

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References

1. Geoffrey Ashe, Mythology of the British Isles, Trafalgar Square Publishing, North Pomfret, Vermont

2. Grandpierre, K. Endre Aranykincsek Hulltak a Hargitára, (Gold treasures fell upon the Hargita) Népszava Publ. Budapest, 1990

3. Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol. 4, 5, 10

4. Herodotos History, 2 vol. Every Man’s Library 405, 406 London, 1949

5. Magyar, Adorján Az Ősműveltség, Budapest, 1955

6. C. Scott Littleton Were the Sarmatians the source of Arthurian legend? Archaeology, January/February 1997

7. Dr. Baráth, Tibor A Magyar Népek Őstörténete (The History of the Magyar Peoples) Publ. Zoltán Somogyi 1968

8. Erdélyi, Zsuzsanna Hegyet hágék, lőtőt lépék, (A collcetion of archaic Magyar prayers) Magvető Könyvkiadó Budapest 1976

9. Ipolyi, Arnold Magyar Mythologia, (Magyar Mythology) Ferenc Zajti publ. Third edition, Budapest, 1929

10. Papp, Antal Utikönyvek. Magyarország, (Hungarian Travel books) Seventh edition. Panoráma Publ. Budapest.

11. Archćologiai Értesítő, 1966. I. szám, 93. kötet, Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest

12. Tomory, Zsuzsa Magyar English Word Origins,Manuscript, 1995

13. Tomory, Zsuzsa Kezdeteink, (Our Beginnings), Manuscript 1995

14. Mészáros, Gyula A Regölyi Korai Népvándorláskori Fejedelmi Sír, (Translation of the title: Regöly, the royal grave of the early great migrations.) Archćologiai Értesítő, 1970. 1. szám, Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest

15. Bóna, István A hunok és nagykirályaik, (Translation of the title: The Huns and their great kings) Corvina Budapest, 1993

16. The Hungarian Genius, First edition in Budapest 1944, second edition by Turán Printing in Garfield N.J.

17. Fehér M., Jenő Középkori magyar inkvizició. (Translation of the title: The inquisition of Hungary in the Middle Ages.) Editorial Transsylvania, 1956

18. L.A. Waddell The Phoenician Origin of Britons, Scots and Anglo-Saxons, The Christian Book Club of America, Hawthorne, CA.90250

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The Grave of an Alan Prince in Regöly Hungary

From The Early Epoch Of The Great Migrations

by Gyula Mészáros

Excerpt

During the summer of 1967 in Tolna county’s township of Regöly, at the north-western part of a hill, called “Pénzesdomb” (lit.: “Money-hill”) at the junction of the Kapos and Koppány rivers during sand-mining operations a very richly appointed female grave was found by the workers of a local cooperative at a depth of 150-160 centimeters. [...] The find is preserved at the Balogh Ádám Museum in Szekszárd (Hungary).

[...] The Regöly find’s burial may be dated to the first quarter of the 5th century AD. based upon the objects in the grave, the analysis of the entire content of the goods and their comparison with related finds. The water pitchers with hollow handles have their parallel in the Tiszalök-Rázompuszta and the Wien-Leopoldau find and they point to the fifth century also as does the Lébény pitcher’s decoration which can be considered as related. The late Roman glass cup may be dated to the last third of the fourth and the first quarter of the fifth century, although it cannot be considered a good chronological base.

It is difficult to make a decision concerning the find’s ethnicity. The fibulae, buckles, bracelets are not reliable in establishing ethnicity. The ware of the Southern Russian workshops may be present in Germanic and Alan graves, but the compartmental technique of the gold jewelry appears in the finds which are believed to be of Hunnic origins; we refer here first of all to the Szeged-Nagyszéksós royal grave’s fine goldwork in the Hungarian collection. [...]

Rostovtzteff calls the Untersiebenbrunn and Airian finds of the related types Sarmatian (Alan) and he leans toward this opinion concerning the Carthaginian find. The golden sequences weigh heavily in his deductions. Concerning the Carthaginian find Alföldi does not exclude the Alan origins either. Mitscha-Märcheim believes the Untersiebenbrunn graves belonged to the Goths or Heruls. Salin and France Lanord established two hypotheses concerning the establishment of the ethnicity of the Airan find. According to the first Sarmatian (Alan) invasion of 407 who arrived in France one of the graves belonged to the wife of a Sarmatian nobleman, the latter believes that the objects arrived through commerce from the Pontic regions to Normandy. Although their opinion is careful they still find the first hypothesis the one that can be better validated and supported with historical facts. Concerning these material Kuznyecov and Pudovin Soviet researchers support the Alan origin also.

Concerning the Regöly-Pénzesdomb find we also place the Alan ethnicity of the female’s remnants to the forefront through establishing the South Russian origin of the majority of the gravegoods — emphasizing especially the gold dress decorations — and keeping in mind the connections with the related finds and the time of the burial. Narrowing the subject further we raise the possibility that the gold bedecked female belonged to the upper class of that Alan group, which was given permission by Stilicho to settle in Valeria, after the Eastern-Goth — Alan — Hun group was dispersed in 399 and which was originally settled there in 379 AD. One can still validate the presence of the Gens Alanorum in Valeria at the end of first quarter of the fifth century.

The center of the Valeria Province was the center of the present Tolna county. [Italics by the Ed.]

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References

Gyula Mészáros A Regölyi Korai Népvándorláskori Fejedelmi Sír, Archaeologiai Értesítő, 1970. 1. szám, Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest

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The Magyar Origin Of The Western European

River Names



“Sió is the name of a rivulet in Hungary which empties lake Balaton’s waters; the name itself is an ancient form, meaning “river” (folyó). In Italian we find the word scia which means the foaming, white track left by ships on the water. It is clear that the word “sí” (pron. shee) is also connected with the words siklik, sima and siet (to glide, smooth and hurry) and the Italian scivola, which means to glide. [...]

This holds also true in the reciprocal form of “sí” which is” isz” (pron. is); the verb “iszkol” (pron. iskol) means the act of hurrying (sietés) and in dialects the word “iszánkol”means also gliding. Undoubtedly the Hungarian werb for drinking (iszik, pron. isik) was derived from the basic sounds of isz. This verb’s infinitive today is inni, which form already lost the “s” sound; its original form was iszni (pron. isni).

It is very conspicuous that so many river names contain the isz sound:

Iser a river in Czechoslovakia

Isere a tributary of the river Rhone

Isar a tributary of the river Duna

Isle a river in France

Iszli a river in Marokko

Isel a river in Prussia

Yssel several rivers, rivulets in the Netherlands

Ischl at the lake St. Wolfgang in Austria

Isel a river in Tirol

Isz a tributary of the river Káma in Russia

Iza a tributary of the river Tisza in Hungary

Iszma a river on the land of the Zürjens in Russia

Isztmenosz a river in Greece

Izim or Izel, a tributary of the river Irtis in Asia

Iszker a tributary of the river Duna in Bulgaria

Isonzo a river in Italy

Iszter or Istros, the old names of the Duna (Danube)

Isenbach a river in Austria

Isena the old name of today’s Eis in Austria.

The “I” sound in the Magyar language expressed coldness. Its use in connection with waters is correct since the water, by its very nature is one of the coldest materials on earth.

It is well known in the fields of ethnography and linguistics that the names of the rivers prove very long lived and steady in a given region; therefore the above river names are one proof of many that Eurasia’s and North Africa’s ancient population were the Magyar peoples.” (V.5:215-216)

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The Magyar word for liquid is nedű, its reciprocal gives the following river names (V.5:94):

Duna a river in Hungary (Danube)

Don a river in England

Don a river in Russia



Temes a river in Erdély (Transylvania)

Thames a river in England

Tamar a river in England

Tana river in East Africa

Tanais old name of the Volga

Szamos a river in Erdély (Transylvania)

The range of these river names covers the territories which were inhabited by the Magyar peoples.

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