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Anfang
Sunday, November 23rd, 2008, 09:21 AM
The First Spanish kingdom was founded by Germans.


After the arab destruction of the Visigothic kingdom, Germans kept the Arabs out and started the Reconquista.

Name: Pelayo King of ASTURIAS Visigoth,
Given Name: Pelayo King of

Birth: Abt 644 in Asturias, Spain


Father: Favila Duke of CANTABRIA b: Cir 614 in Cantabria, Espana
Suggested Next Step:
Pelayo King of Asturias Goth



Married to Gaudiosa b: Abt 648 in Asturias, Spain

Intersting name for such a "Christian" family..
Gaudiosa gau-diosa "gau Goddess"

Children
Hermesinda Princess of ASTURIAS b: Abt 664 in Asturias, Spain

Son Favila King of asturias



Within years of the Islamic conquest, the conquerors were being aggressively opposed by three main forces: the Visigothic holdouts in Asturias, the holdouts in Navarre and the Pyrenees, and the Franks of Aquitaine. It is with the former that the Christian Reconquista of Iberia begins.

Pelayo refused to accept Islamic overlordship of his homeland. He escaped capture at Guadalete, where he may have been a member of the Visigoth King Rodrigo's bodyguard, and returned to his native Asturias in the northern part of Spain. He soon became the leader of a rebellion against Munuza, the Moorish governor of the area.

He was captured in 717 and imprisoned by the Moors, but soon escaped and returned to Asturias, where he defeated Munuza and established the Kingdom of Asturias in 718, with its capital at Cangas. In accordance with Visigothic custom, he was elected as the his nation's first king by a vote of his countrymen.

For a few years after that, Pelayo's "kingdom" was more illusory than actual, as he was facing forces much stronger than his own. It wasn't until 722 that his kingdom was secured, when a powerful Muslim force sent to conquer Asturias once and for all was defeated by Pelayo at the Battle of Covadonga. Today, this is regarded as the first Christian victory of the Reconquista. The Muslims, ungracious in their defeat, described Pelayo and his men as "thirty wild donkeys" in their chronicles. But it didn't matter; Pelayo had won independence for his country.

During that period (late eighth and early ninth century), the Franks under their Carolingian rulers took up the cause of reconquest along the Mediterranean littoral. Though the campaigns of Charlemagne himself often failed (as at Roncesvalles), due to lack of cooperation from the Basques, in 797, his son, Louis the Pious, captured Barcelona the greatest (and then capital) city of the new Marca Hispanica which would evolve into Catalonia, but at the time served as the first bulwark against anything like the invasion of 737 occurring again.

Psychonaut
Sunday, November 23rd, 2008, 11:11 PM
Most interesting stuff. My wife's grandfather grew up in Avilés, Asturias and was definitely a Faelid. We're trying to get one of the males from that line to do a DNA test, as we both have suspicions that they'll fall outside of the R1b1b2 Iberian norm.

Anfang
Sunday, November 23rd, 2008, 11:27 PM
Most interesting stuff. My wife's grandfather grew up in Avilés, Asturias and was definitely a Faelid. We're trying to get one of the males from that line to do a DNA test, as we both have suspicions that they'll fall outside of the R1b1b2 Iberian norm.

That would be very interesting, No awesome! The area to concentrate on, I believe, is the area *outside* of the Visigoth kingdom and North, this is where the Suevi were.

I have just done a little research on the name "Gaudiosa" Pelayos' queen, and the Spanish Catholics try to claim her as some Christer saint, and that he, pelayo was rewarded with kingdom because he spared some guy he was going to chop in half when he saw a picture of the madona . Yech..

As I said in my last post Gau is a german word meaning administrative area or "Shire" (like in Bedfordshire" and diosa of course means Goddess. Not very Catholic, or Roman.

Oswiu
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 12:40 AM
I have just done a little research on the name "Gaudiosa" Pelayos' queen,...
As I said in my last post Gau is a german word meaning administrative area or "Shire" (like in Bedfordshire" and diosa of course means Goddess. Not very Catholic, or Roman.
Such amateur etymologising is truly embarrassing! Please, restrain yourself! Why on Earth would an early mediaeval Suebian in the north of Spain be given a name with the first element being from modern Standard German, and the second being a Modern Spanish word (and is it really even? I don't speak Spanish)?!?!

Is Gau the same in the modern Swabian dialect? Was the Swabian of the migrants to northwestern Hispania identical to the modern form, despite the centuries that separate them?

If these Heathens were particularly devout, and wished to give a name acknowledging their dedication to a local goddess, why would they do so in a bastardisation of two languages? Local nonGermanics wouldn't understand it. If they did it purely for their own people, why use an alien word for the most significant element? None of this theory stands to scrutiny. Introducing kooky goddess notions here is quite ahistorical.

I'm no expert, but I don't see two elements in Gaudiosa. I see one root with an ending that makes it look like an adjective. Gloriosa and Dolorosa look similar.

And there is a very high likelihood that the name has been corrupted in transmission anyway.

Anlef
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 12:56 AM
Sorry Anfang,

The word/name Gaudiosa is Latin for 'full of joy, joyous'. It is from the stem of gaudium 'joy, feast' and the suffix -osus, -osa 'full of'.

Be careful not to declare kinship between words solely on the basis of similarity in sound!

Oswiu
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 01:02 AM
Sorry Anfang,

The word/name Gaudiosa is Latin for 'full of joy, joyous'. It is from the stem of gaudium 'joy, feast' and the suffix -osus, -osa 'full of'.

Be careful not to declare kinship between words solely on the basis of similarity in sound!

Ah yes! Gaudete Christus est natus ex Mariae virgine gaudete! The 'Steeleye Span' song. Silly me, but pleasant vindication, nonetheless.

(I realise now also that we should be talking about Goths, too, not Suebi, but the same applies.)

Anfang
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 01:11 AM
Sorry Anfang,

The word/name Gaudiosa is Latin for 'full of joy, joyous'. It is from the stem of gaudium 'joy, feast' and the suffix -osus, -osa 'full of'.

Be careful not to declare kinship between words solely on the basis of similarity in sound!

You are probably correct here.
or maybe not=
Come to think of it now in Spanish it would be Gaudosa then , or Gaudiumosa ,not Gaudiosa. It is a little hard to explain, but "iosa" is only used when there is an "i" to continue with as in "Religiosa" . So the latin interpretation is tenuous. It could be, that the Germanic parents were presented with gaudosa (Which is an Ugly sounding Girls name) and decided to alter it like they altered other names (Like Rodrigo). So I may be on the right track after all.
Repeat in spanish iosa is only used if there is already an i before "osa"
otherwise it is "Dudosa" "Hermosa" "carinosa"


Such amateur etymologising is truly embarrassing! Please, restrain yourself! Why on Earth would an early mediaeval Suebian in the north of Spain be given a name with the first element being from modern Standard German, and the second being a Modern Spanish word (and is it really even? I don't speak Spanish)?!?!

Is Gau the same in the modern Swabian dialect? Was the Swabian of the migrants to northwestern Hispania identical to the modern form, despite the centuries that separate them?

If these Heathens were particularly devout, and wished to give a name acknowledging their dedication to a local goddess, why would they do so in a bastardisation of two languages? Local nonGermanics wouldn't understand it. If they did it purely for their own people, why use an alien word for the most significant element? None of this theory stands to scrutiny. Introducing kooky goddess notions here is quite ahistorical.

I'm no expert, but I don't see two elements in Gaudiosa. I see one root with an ending that makes it look like an adjective. Gloriosa and Dolorosa look similar.

And there is a very high likelihood that the name has been corrupted in transmission anyway.


You are not completely vindicated as you did not know that the word Gau
is a very very ancient Germanic Word.
Anlef did not correct that. I am glad that he is familiar with latin however.

Diosa is Spanish both ancient and modern.
In Romanized spain Deus became Dios (And the 'OS' might itself be Germanic!) and Dea (Goddess) became Diosa.

The altering of Germanic names especially male names happened in Spain for reasons that I do not know, but these Germanic first names were very strong in Spain until the 20th century, where they begun to be used less.
they are still carried by a lot of older people, and some are still used.
Here is a short list:

Rodrigo (last visigoth King of Spain, stilll used today)

Eriberto eribert
adalberto adalbert
rolando roland (frankisch)
alfonso alfonso
adolfo adolf
Old female Spanish names

Irma irma
Gisela gisela

There are many more, that was just a sample, but you will notice that the male names were altered to have "o" at the end, and the female names had 'a" at the end.

"Originally Posted by Anlef
Sorry Anfang,

The word/name Gaudiosa is Latin for 'full of joy, joyous'. It is from the stem of gaudium 'joy, feast' and the suffix -osus, -osa 'full of'.

Be careful not to declare kinship between words solely on the basis of similarity in sound!

Ah yes! Gaudete Christus est natus ex Mariae virgine gaudete! The 'Steeleye Span' song. Silly me, but pleasant vindication, nonetheless. "

Come to think of it now, in Spanish it would be gaudosa or gaudiumosa then , not Gaudiosa. It is a little hard to explain, but "iosa" is only used when there is an "i" to continue with as in "Religiosa" . So the latin interpretation is tenuous. it could be, that the Germanic parents were presented with gaudosa (Which is an Ugly sounding Girls name) and decided to alter it like they altered other names (Like Rodrigo). So I may be on the right track after all.
repeat in Spanish iosa is only used if there is already an i before "osa"
otherwise it is "Dudosa" "Hermosa" "Carinosa"

It is intersting how someone who does not Know Either Spanish nor German - insults me on my Amateurism and yet gives an opinion on
etymology.


"If these Heathens were particularly devout, and wished to give a name acknowledging their dedication to a local goddess, why would they do so in a bastardisation of two languages? "

They seem to be happy to "bastardise" as Heinrich became "henry"
and Roderick became "Rodrigo" and who said they were devout observers? You do not have to be a devout observer to be supersticious. and gau mean "This area" a Gau is wherever a Gauleiter rules. Where the Gau goes
the protecting diety goes. if you are GERMANS 1000 miles away from the places where you know exactly who the local dieties are, you may just call her "Goddess of this place I control" . Pretty German thinking if you ask me.

Oswiu
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 01:31 AM
You are not completely vindicated as you did not know that the word Gau
is a very very ancient Germanic Word.
Anlef did not correct that. I am glad that e is familiar with latin however.

I do know that in our language that same route ended up as 'ge'.

Suther + *ge > Suthrige (722 AD) > 'Sudrie' (1086) > modern Surrey, the county south of London.

So Gau is a form from this same route that represents its evolution within the High German world, that's all. It took other forms elsewhere, even as in this Old English example at a time contemporary with King Pelayo. High German shouldn't be used to explain other forms of Germanic. It can be used to suggest tentative hypotheses in analogies, yes, but that's all.

Anfang
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 03:19 AM
I do know that in our language that same route ended up as 'ge'.

Suther + *ge > Suthrige (722 AD) > 'Sudrie' (1086) > modern Surrey, the county south of London.




So Gau is a form from this same route that represents its evolution within the High German world, that's all. It took other forms elsewhere, even as in this Old English example at a time contemporary with King Pelayo. High German shouldn't be used to explain other forms of Germanic. It can be used to suggest tentative hypotheses in analogies, yes, but that's all.


Well You are not Suevi Either. Germanic words and sounds come from our deepest parts, and these are sometimes instinctual,

Here How does TACITUS work for you?

"The Suevi of the Gau"

Please start at page XXX and read on, if you wish .

http://books.google.com/books?id=M1c...t#PRA2-PR79,M1

Oswiu
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 03:43 AM
Well You are not Suevi Either.
Remember that Tacitus fellow? Counted Anglii as Suebi. ;) To be fair, it's a debatable point.

Germanic words and sounds come from our deepest parts, and these are sometimes instinctual,
:scratch

http://books.google.com/books?id=M1c...t#PRA2-PR79,M1
The link's dead, I'm afraid.

Anfang
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 04:24 AM
Remember that Tacitus fellow? Counted Anglii as Suebi. ;) To be fair, it's a debatable point.

:scratch

The link's dead, I'm afraid.


I am back with the 30 dancing Suevi. We have axes, shields, spathas, seaxen, klappmesser , Wurst and links ... 2 3 4 links....

Page 30 (XXX) Tacitus Germania

http://books.google.com/books?id=M1cOAAAAQAAJ&pg=RA2-PR80&lpg=RA2-PR80&dq=suevi+gau&source=bl&ots=w2BwZHD-xc&sig=m9gh3IsE7GjwKOd4ImxbchKpv-k&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result


I did not realize how large the Suevi presence was.
This is from Spanish wikipedia, automayically translated, but it has 2 great maps and lots of solid information if one can get through some of the awkward translations.=

http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categor%25C3%25ADa:Suevos_en_Espa%25C3%2 5B1a&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dsuevos%2Ben%2Bespana%26hl%3 Den%26sa%3DG


Suevi burrial site (Photo)

http://www.panoramio.com/photo/14565572


37,000 people in Spain have the last name "Arias" which is asturian-gaelician and Comes from the Suevi Kings.Again translated.

http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://maralogio.soios.com/Arias.php&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=2&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dsuevos%2Bapellido%2Ben%2Bes pana%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG

Anfang
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 10:15 AM
Spaniard finds his Suevi roots


This Gent did his DNA and posted his results. I don't know why his website is in English,but I am Glad it is.

http://pablo.carballada.org/2006/08/the-longest-journey/

Oswiu
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 03:53 PM
Page 30 (XXX) Tacitus Germania
We are still none the wiser to the age of the term in Schwabisch. The older sources referred to there seem to have been in Latin 'loco'.

That book was published in 1851, and while it's fascinating from an antiquarian point of view there's a lot of kooky stuff in it too. He's unduly obsessed with the Slavs, for one, and seems to derive the very word 'Suebi' from them... :chinrub Pinches of salt all round, I believe...

Anfang
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 05:15 PM
We are still none the wiser to the age of the term in Schwabisch. The older sources referred to there seem to have been in Latin 'loco'.

That book was published in 1851, and while it's fascinating from an antiquarian point of view there's a lot of kooky stuff in it too. He's unduly obsessed with the Slavs, for one, and seems to derive the very word 'Suebi' from them... :chinrub Pinches of salt all round, I believe...


What about all the other links???

Oswiu
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 05:20 PM
What about them? They show stuff and say things. Nothing controversial in particular.

Anfang
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 05:45 PM
What about them? They show stuff and say things. Nothing controversial in particular.


Well, to me its fascinating stuff to discover that the Suevi were as important in the history of the Iberian Peninsula.

"They show stuff and say things?" Something says to me that if we were talking about the possibility that say, there was a hint of a large Irish presence in the baltic, you would be all over that. These links are very interesting from a germanic POV.

The influence of the Suevi is not explored for it's uniqueness, and you seem to have no interest, although you would qualified to explore this.

For example, the way in which pelayo was *Chosen* by his peers, was this a Suevi tradition, or a Visigothic one? Were they really converted to Jesusism?

"

(Text is in Spanish)

"Their primitive religion gave great Importance to Nature"(qouted from the text bellow)

I have a feeling a lot of the bibliography has not been translated.
here it is in Spanish.


Últimos reyes suevos. A partir del 469 y hasta el 558 hay una laguna de conocimientos sobre la historia del reino s.; tenemos solamente noticias basadas en textos dudosos o conjeturas, que poco ó nada permiten aventurar. A partir del 559, en los reinados de Teodomiro (559-570) y Miro (570-583), se celebraron los concilios primero y segundo de Braga. Miro llevó a cabo una expedición contra los rucones (quizá sean los autrigones y se trate de un error de transcripción). Esta campaña fue el augurio del ya próximo fin de la dinastía sueva. El reino s. se hundía por la hostilidad de la población galaico-romana y por las luchas dinásticas. Leovigildo (v.) fue quien dio el golpe de gracia al decrépito reino s.; bizantinos y s. no eran peligrosos por sí mismos, pero unidos constituían una seria amenaza para los visigodos. Así lo comprendió Leovigildo, y contra ellos inició una campaña en el 576, aunque por entonces no terminara con los suevos. La ayuda de Miro a Hermenegildo (v.) frente a su padre determina a éste a acabar con el reino suevo. A Miro le suceden Eborico (583-584) y Andeca (584-585). Éste será el último rey s., luego que fuera derrotada por Leovigildo en Oporto y Braga. Entonces Gallecia pasa a ser una provincia goda.

Cultura y creencias. Braga (v.) fue la capital de la monarquía s.; sus reyes, hereditarios, tienen allí su palacio. Gobiernan asistidos por un consejo, mandan el ejército, son la máxima autoridad religiosa y tienen poder para acuñar moneda. Su religión primitiva concedía gran importancia a la observación de fenómenos naturales. Nada podemos decir de su arte y cultura, pues carecieron de ellos. Su economía fue pobre; conservan la moneda romana, que goza de un gran prestigio. Sólo realizan algunas escasas acuñaciones, de las que conservamos una moneda solamente con la inscripción de Requiario. Sus cecas estaban en Braga, Tuy, Emerita (Mérida), Lamego y Visco. Acuñan en oro el sueldo y el triente; en plata, la silicua.


Á. MONTENEGRO DUQUE.
BIBL.: IDACIO, Chronicon, trad. L. 1. GARCfA DEL CORRAL, «Rev. de Ciencias Históricas» IV, Barcelona 1886, 330-363; íD, ed. en FLÓREZ, IV, 1859, 287-427; !D, ed. en T. MOMMSEN, MGH, 1894, 1337; J. DE BICLARA, Chronicon, en FL6REZ, VI, 1859, 382-395 y 430441; P. ÁLVAREZ RUBIANO, La Crónica de Juan Biclarense, «Analecta Sacro Tarraconsia» XVI (1943) 7-44; J. CAMPOS, Juan de Biclara, obispo de Gerona, su vida y su obra, Madrid 1960, 237; M. MACíAs, Historia de los suevos de San Isidoro de Sevilla, «Bol. de la Comisión de Monumentos de Orense» 111 (1909) 301-314; J. L. ROMERO, La historia de los vándalos y suevos de San Isidoro de Sevilla, «Cuadernos de Historia de España» I y 11 (1944) 291297; S. ISIDORO, Historia de regibus gothorum, vandalorum et suevorum, en MGH, 1894, 267-303; íD, Historia de regibus gothorum, wandalorum et suevorum, ed. en FLóREZ, VI, 481-514; C. TORRES, Reintegración de los suevos en la Iglesia católica: San Martín de Braga, «Bol. de la Univ. de Santiago de Compostela» 66 (1958) 11-30; L. BOURC-BEREY, Breves notas hipotéticas sobre instituciones suévicas en Gallecia, «Bracara Augusta» (1968) 204-213; F. BOUZA BREY, Supervivencias antroponímicas, toponomásticas, antropológicas, jurídicas y folklóricas de la Galicia sueva, «Bracara Augusta» (1968) 197-204; A. QUINTANA, Astorga en tiempos de los suevos,«Archivos Leoneses» (1966) 76-139; C. TORRES, Derrota, escisión y ruina del reino suevo (456-468), «Bol. de la Univ. Compostela» 71-72 (1963-64) 35-99; W. REINHART, Los suevos en tiempo de su invasión en España, «Archivo Español de Arqueología» XIX (1946) 131-144; íD, El reino de los suevos y sus monedas, «Archivo Español de Arqueología» (1942) 308-328; íD, Historia general del reino hispánico de los suevos, Madrid 1952; M. TORRES LóPEz, El reino suevo en España, en HE, III, 27-42; M. MACíAs, Aportaciones a la Historia de Galicia, Madrid 1929.

Oswiu
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 06:16 PM
Well, to me its fascinating stuff to discover that the Suevi were as important in the history of the Iberian Peninsula.

"They show stuff and say things?" Something says to me that if we were talking about the possibility that say, there was a hint of a large Irish presence in the baltic, you would be all over that. These links are very interesting from a germanic POV.

The influence of the Suevi is not explored for it's uniqueness, and you seem to have no interest, although you would qualified to explore this.
Sorry, I thought it was common knowledge! :P

For example, the way in which pelayo was *Chosen* by his peers, was this a Suevi tradition, or a Visigothic one? Were they really converted to Jesusism?
I don't see any conflict between Christianity and such a system of succession coexisting. You're doing your wishful thinking again. I bet if you could actually meet Pelayo your eyes would pop out of your head at his devout Catholicism...

(Text is in Spanish)

"Their primitive religion gave great Importance to Nature"(qouted from the text bellow)
All modern journalistic writing about paganism makes such romanticised comments. There's really very little substance to such an assertion.

here it is in Spanish.
...
Cultura y creencias. Braga (v.) fue la capital de la monarquía s.; sus reyes, hereditarios, tienen allí su palacio. Gobiernan asistidos por un consejo, mandan el ejército, son la máxima autoridad religiosa y tienen poder para acuñar moneda. Su religión primitiva concedía gran importancia a la observación de fenómenos naturales. Nada podemos decir de su arte y cultura, pues carecieron de ellos. Su economía fue pobre; conservan la moneda romana, que goza de un gran prestigio. Sólo realizan algunas escasas acuñaciones, de las que conservamos una moneda solamente con la inscripción de Requiario. Sus cecas estaban en Braga, Tuy, Emerita (Mérida), Lamego y Visco. Acuñan en oro el sueldo y el triente; en plata, la silicua.
I can only understand Spanish if I already know what I'm looking for. What does the rest of it all say? We don't normally allow pasting of huge blocks of nonGermanic language, by the way.

Hauke Haien
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 07:45 PM
I can only understand Spanish if I already know what I'm looking for. What does the rest of it all say?

Culture and beliefs. Braga (v.) was the capital of the monarchy; its hereditary kings had their palace there. They governed assisted by council, commanded the army, were the highest religious authority and had the right to mint and issue coins. Their primitive religion placed great emphasis on the observation of natural phenomena. We can say nothing about their art and culture, because they lacked them. Their economy was poor; they retained Roman currency, which enjoyed great prestige. Only some minor mintings were made, of which only a single coin with the inscription of Rechiar is extant. Their mints were in Braga, Tui, Emerita Augusta (Mérida), Lamego and Visco. The sueldo and triente they minted in gold, the silicua in silver (translator's note: I assume those are meant to be proper names of the coins).

Anfang
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 07:50 PM
"Originally Posted by Anfang
Well, to me its fascinating stuff to discover that the Suevi were as important in the history of the Iberian Peninsula.

"They show stuff and say things?" Something says to me that if we were talking about the possibility that say, there was a hint of a large Irish presence in the baltic, you would be all over that. These links are very interesting from a germanic POV.

The influence of the Suevi is not explored for it's uniqueness, and you seem to have no interest, although you would qualified to explore this."-ANFANG

"Sorry, I thought it was common knowledge! " ;)-OSWIU
--------------------------------------------------------

No it isn't. And I't's all part of a druid plot.:|

The Spanish have a lot of stuff in their records, but most of it apparently has not been translated. as the Spanish are not Germanic they dont really care to research much about this."Godos" is good enough for them.
I will look for German sources.

Oswiu
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 08:03 PM
Most of what anyone needs to know about European migrations and the foundations of our modern nations is to be found in Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 230 years or so ago. Anything else is mostly just filling in the details. ;)

Don't mind me, though, keep it coming!

Anfang
Monday, November 24th, 2008, 08:41 PM
Most of what anyone needs to know about European migrations and the foundations of our modern nations is to be found in Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 230 years or so ago. Anything else is mostly just filling in the details. ;)

Don't mind me, though, keep it coming!

I do mind actually. But maybe you are playing some kind of Devils Advocate
to spur me to present more. Otherwise it looks like you are downplaying the contributions of germanics.
Think of this, if it were not for the Germanics, "Christian Catholoic Spain" would not have marched over the New World and basically conquered it in 25 years.
I doubt the Italians would have had the vigour.

The Spanish were all out for glory and "Botin" , booty. That word comes from Germanlic Bytin. The spanish books for example, use that word over and over.Instead of "tesoro" Treasure.